Brief History of Medical Thermo vision
Medical thermo vision has a history of tens of centuries. Doctors of Ancient Greece determined
locations of deep tumors by applying a thin layer of silt on patient’s skin and finding the areas
where the slit dry out faster (V.I. Leonov, 1989). Picture 1, 2.
Picture 1. Hippocrates (approx. 460 – approx. Picture 2. Scientist and doctor Paracelsus
370 B.C.) (1493-1541)
Galilei’s invention of thermoscope served crucial role in formation of thermometry as a separate
science (Picture 3).
Picture 3. Galilei, Galileo (1564–1642) Picture 4. Thermoscope
Galileo Galilei started measuring temperature states of bodies. During his lectures in 1597, he
demonstrated the first thermometer or thermoscope as it was called during that time.
Thermoscope constituted from glass pipe dilated on top, which was placed in a vessel with a
liquid (Picture 4). Pipe’s heating or cooling caused a change in liquid column’s height. The
device (combination of thermometer and barometer) recorded only change of temperature; it
could measure neither temperature nor pressure. Quantitative description of thermal (infra-red)
radiation was made by D. Maxwell (19th century). Picture 5.
Picture 5. British physicist James Klerk (Klark) Maxwell (1831-1879)
The next fundamental stage of research in radio thermal diapason is connected with the name
of one of the greatest soviet scientists, it was Vsevolod Sergeevich Troitsky. Picture 6.
Picture 6. Troitsky Vsevolod Sergeevich (1913-1996)
His life path is so interesting that it is worth telling it in more detail. Troitsky’s scientific effort is
tied with Nizhniy Novgorod (Gorky) State University named after N.I. Lobachevsky. In 1941
Troitsky graduated from University’s Physical and Mathematical Department. During Great
Patriotic War he had been working on Lenin’s plant. After the end of the war he entered post
graduate study at the same university and became the head of scientific research section at
Gorky Physics and Technology Institute of Gorky State University from 1948 to 1956. Picture 7.
Picture 7. Gorky Physics and Technology Institute
During the same period (1953-1960) he became in charge of Radio-Technological section of
Radio and Physics Department of Gorky State University. In his Ph. D. thesis (in 1950 it was the
first thesis on radio astronomy in the country!), Troitsky laid the basis for radio thermometry and
its applications in applied and fundamental sciences. In 1954, he published a paper in
Astronomic magazine, the paper devoted to the theory of the Moon’s radio emission. Objectives
and possibilities of radio and astronomic research of the Moon were formulated in that
fundamental work (Picture 8, 9).
Picture 8. The Moon Picture 9. Radiometry of the Moon
A year later, an article with the results of observations of phase course of the Moon’s radio
emission was published. Over the next ten years equipment and antennas for observations of
the Moon’s radio emission had been developing. The data from systematic observations was
summarized by 1963. That allowed to determine physical properties of the Moon’s crust at the
depth of up to ~50 meters. All those studies had been conducted with significant lead over
similar studies abroad.
Professor Troitsky supervised researches of physical properties of Moon’s crust. They can be
divided by two stages:
1. Defining thermal and physical characteristics of its upper level, which thickness was up to
~10 meters, during observations of lunar cycles and eclipses. The data from observations led to
rejection of “powder” model of lunar crust and proved high bearing capacity of lunar soil.
Observations also revealed heterogeneity at the very upper part of soil (in the layer with
thickness of ~1 cm).
2. Measurements of constant constituents of radio and ion temperature of the Moon have
brought the scientists to the discovery of heat flux from interiors of the Moon. The last result was
registered in USSR in 1962 as a discovery (authors V. S. Troitsky and V. D. Krotikov). All results
of researches made by Troitsky group were proved later by the data from space expeditions
(Picture 10, 11).
Picture 10. Sputnik-1 Picture 11. Sky lab SOJUZ-APPOLON
Moreover, data on the strength of lunar soil was used in USSR for designing of spacecrafts and
Moon research vehicle “Lunokhod”. Picture 12.
Picture 12. Lunokhod” (yabico.ya.ru)
USA had a similar program for research of lunar soil. It was called SURVEYOR, the project was
headed by Prof. Dzhaffe. Prof. Dzhaffe visited Nizhniy Novgorod for examination of Troitsky’s
works. After the visit, Troitsky was invited to the USA to give a course of lectures related to the
New and fully original were measurements of the spectrum of constant constituents of radio and
ion temperature of the Moon. These measurements were based on the comparison of Moon’s
radio emission with emissions of referencing “black bodied” limbs that had corner sizes of the
Moon and were situated in the wave zone of radio-telescope’s antenna. The method was called
“method of artificial Moon”. Later on, this method was used for highly precise measurements of
the effective temperature of Galaxy’s distributed radio emission (Picture 13, 14).
Picture 13. Our Galaxy Picture 14. NGC 1097 – spiral Galaxy with an
(www.strangeplanet.ru) eye form. Infrared telescope. NASA/JPL-
Caltech picture (nasa.gov)
In 1969 V. S. Troitsky has started a new direction of radio astronomic researches; observations
of space radio emission on large radio telescopes have begun. For the first time in history the
corner size of the source of Lady in the Chair A on decametric (short) waves was measured.
Practical applications of this direction were also determined. They included measurements of
Earth’s speed of rotation and determination of its polar motions, studying flows in the Earth’s
soil, tectonic and seismic manifestations and the like.
Picture 15. Distribution of temperature fields over mean oceanic range.
At last, Troitsky poses fundamentally new objective, which was not directly connected with radio
astronomy. The new objective was a research of thermal radio emission of human body with a
purpose of early diagnostics of diseases.
Picture 16. Rhinitis, Picture 17. Trophic ulcer of Picture 18. Hemangioma of
disturbances in cerebral the middle part of the right outer surface of the left knee
circulation. shank. Cold area of areactive joint.
ulcer without regions of
perifocal inflammation is
Radiometers are used in radio-astronomy (radio telescopes) as well as in radio-thermometry.
That connection prompted some journalists to announce that “radio-astronomers have switched
the antennas from stars to people”.
In reality, radio-astronomers had to make a lot of efforts to make special antennas for
measurements of thermal radiation from the surface of human body.
Under the management of V.S. Troitsky a new scientific department was organized.
Department’s aim was radio-thermometry of a human body. Scientists used radiometers of
decimetric diapason for non invasive measurements of body tissues on the depth of 3 to 5 cm
(including cerebral temperature).
Picture 19. Experimental radio thermometers Picture 20. Serially produced radio
RT-10, RT-25, and RT-17 thremometer RT-17
New device was so successful, that it allowed to determine temperature of internal organs with
accuracy up to 0,1-0,2 °С. The devices were exhibited at All-Russian Exhibition Center and
received medals of high value. Success of the method was due to good calibration of
radiometers, as well as to adequate modeling of monitored object (two layer model of tissues).
These researches of V.S.Troitsky have ended with appearance of serially produced medical
devices and manufacturing applications.
New monograph “Radio thermometry in complex diagnostics and estimation of treatment
effectiveness of mammary gland tumors” by Terentiev I.G., Komov D.V., Ozhereliev A.S.,
Orinovsky M.B. has appeared in 1996. The monograph has described the technology of non
invasive diagnostics of mammary gland tumor with the use of microwave radio thermometer RT-
17, which was created in Nizhniy Novgorod.
In 1994, a group of scientists and engineers of All-Russian Scientific and Research Institute of
Radio-techniques have organized “RES” (Radio Electronic Systems) Company. The main
course of the company was development of radio-electronic systems and devices in diapason of
extra high frequencies (Company’s director was Vesnin Sergey Georgievich, candidate of
technical science). Computerized radio thermometer RTM-01-RES represented the next age of
devices of Russian School of Microwave Radio Thermometry. It was developed and approved
for use in medical practice in Russian Federation in 1998.
The main difference of RTM-01-RES from its predecessors was the wide usage of computerized
technologies for visualization of measurement results. Utilization of personal computers
increased clearness of obtained results and simplified diagnostics procedure.
Picture 21. Radio thermometer RTM-01-RES
Today, RTM-01-RES is the only medical radio thermometer in the world that is produced
serially. Simplified version RTM-02-RES has obtained FDA 510k certification in the USA. RTM-
01-RES received EC Certificate in Slovakia and TGA Certificate in Australia.
The method of radio thermometry for breast cancer diagnostics is approved for use in medical
practice in Slovakia. More than 100 medical establishments use RTM-01-RES in Russia. More
than 150 works on applications of radio thermometry in different areas of medicine have been
published. Several patents have been obtained for the device.
Picture 22. Thermogram received with RTM-01-RES. Intraductal form of cancer. Significant
increase of temperature (1-1,5 °С) in the nipple area and significant (1°С) thermo asymmetry in
one of the points are observed.
Picture 23. Thermogram received with RTM-01-RES. Increase of temperature in the most part
of the affected mammary gland by 1-1,5 °С is characteristic feature of hidropical infiltrative form
So, the period from the end of 50s to the beginning of 60s of the 20th century can be considered
as the time of formation of infra red (IR) radio thermography as a diagnostic test. During that
time, many clinics purchased thermographs and started using them.
Picture 24. Rainbow Thermograph Picture 25. The first thermograph.
Picture 26. Image received on thermographs of the first generation. Thermogram of the back
side of the thorax. 60 year old patient. Increase of temperature in interscapular region and area
to the right can be seen. Diagnosis: central cancer of upper lobe of right lamb
Picture 27. Irtis 2000 Thermograph Picture 28. TB-04KST Thermograph
Picture 29. Left-sided paralysis of the facial nerve.
Thermogram was received on TB-04KST thermograph.
Thermographs are widely used in many industrial areas. Analysis of thermal processes in IR-
diapason (thermal fields, heat losses, and the like) allows to receive various information about
condition of objects and processes in nature, power engineering, metallurgy, construction, and
Picture 30. Thermal images of technical objects (www.gkh-topograph.narod.ru).
Picture 31. Thermogram of a tall building (www.technoac.ru).
From biophysical point of view, the situation is the following. The maximum of radiation of living
tissues, which temperature is about 37 °С, is situated close to wave length of 10 mkm, in other
words, in invisible area of the spectrum. Therefore, information in IR diapason received with the
use of thermographs significantly exceeds diagnostic amount of information received in optical
diapason. Optical diapason is a very narrow part of the whole spectrum of electro magnetic
waves. Through the eyesight we receive a very limited part of information about surrounding
environment. The greater part of the world is closed to our eyes. About 70% of the spectrum of
electromagnetic radiation coming from a human being falls to the zone of IR radiation.
Diagnostic meaning of IR radiation to medicine can be hardly overestimated. Practically
speaking, thermograph can “see” much more than a human eye.
Picture 32. Distribution of radiation intensity for different frequencies.
For temperatures that are characteristic for bio objects the maximum of radiation is situated in
the frequency range of 1013 GHz, which corresponds to the wave length of 10 micron or infra
red rays. The intensity of thermal radiation from the body surface depends on the activity of
vascular reactions, general and local metabolism, anatomic features of body parts, and other
factors. In other words, IR radiation of different areas of human body is directly related to their
blood filling, that is, the level and nature of hemo circulation, which is closely related to
functional condition of corresponding organs and tissues. So, with the help of IR thermography,
you can get a summary estimation of microcirculation and metabolic processes of examined
areas of the body. Therefore, any pathologic process that involves vascular system will be
reflected in thermograms. Thermographic picture of any body area depends on blood inflow and
outflow. In other words, it depends on functional condition of veins and arteries as well as on
condition of connecting them arterioles, capillaries, and venules. Pathologic processes with
inflammatory reactions, disturbances in blood circulation and metabolism will cause the change
of normal picture of temperature distribution along the body surface. That is reflected in a form
of temperature asymmetry. Pathologic thermo asymmetry is determined by zones with
increased or decreased thermal radiation on thermograms. The value of temperature change in
case of pathology is usually more than 0.5°С and can go up to 2-3 °С and more.
Picture 33. Right sided frontitis. Soft Picture 34. Arthritis of the right shoulder joint.
hyperthermia in the projection of the right Inhomogeneous hypothermia in the projection
frontal sinus. of the right shoulder joint.
Picture 35. Nodular toxic goiter. Picture 36. Haematoma of the inside of the
Inhomogeneous hypothermia in the projection right knee. Hypertermia of affected area can
of nods in lobs of thyroid gland. Moderate be seen in case of “fresh” haematoma. Data
hypothermia of sternum body is the sign of on knee joint injury is not available.
So, thermography is a method of analysis of spatial and temporal distribution of thermal energy
(temperature) in physical objects followed by rendering of thermal images (thermograms).
Thermography in medicine (from Greek “thermē”, which means “warmth” and “graphō”, which
means “to write” or “paint”) is a method of registration of IR radiation from a human body with a
purpose of diagnostics of different diseases.
Every area of a human body has typical thermographic image or “normal” temperature pattern.
Change of that image is the sign of pathologic process.
Picture 37. Thermographic image of
cervicothoracic section of a spine. There are Picture 38. Normalization of thermographic
centers of non-homogeneous hyperthermia. picture after СЕМ® therapy.
Picture 39. Thermal signs of immunodeficiency before and
after treatment with CEM®-Tech device.
Thermography is used for diagnostics of a variety of diseases, including tumors, inflammatory
processes, vascular pathology, as well as for differential diagnostics of non-malignant and
malignant neoplasms of some localizations.
The role of thermography is especially important in revelation of nonpalpable tumors, especially,
in situ cancers in areas that are close to skin. Diagnostic value of the method has been
ascertained for different diseases of female pudendum, stomatology, dermatology, vascular
diseases, in particular, diseases of common and internal carotid artery, vessels of lower
extremities, and others.
Picture 40. Lipoma situated on the level of Picture 41. Herpes Zoster. Punctulated
spinous process of L.3 vertebra. Area of hyperthermia in the projection of lesion focus
hypothermia in the projection of lipoma, along the left end of the rib.
diagnosis: lumbar osteohondrosis.
Picture 42. Atherosclerosis of the left temporal Picture 43. Thoracocervical osteohondrosis
artery. Thin sinuous stripe of hypothermia with neurodystrophic syndrome. Paravertebral
passing along atherosclerotic narrowed hypothermia along with neurodystrophic
temporal artery can be observed. syndrome.
There are no contraindications to thermography. Measurements can be done repeatedly. The
important role of thermography is a primary, safe and graphic method. This method allows to
develop a detailed plan of medical checkup with utilization of complex and hi tech methods,
such as MRT, CAT, and others. Today, thermography diagnostics can be done contact less.
Contactless examination can be done as thermoscopy (visualization of thermal field or its part
on thermograph’s screen), thermometry (temperature measurement from body’s surface, using
divided scale and standard radiator), and thermography (registration of thermal field on
electronic and paper carriers in a form of color thermogram). With decrease of temperature of
some body area, quantity of radiation flow changes. Thermograph transforms that change into
electrical signal, which increases and reproduces on a display in a form of color image or
thermogram. Usually, abnormally cold zones are visualized in black and blue colors, abnormally
hot zones appear in red and orange tones, and zones with normal temperature have green and
Picture 44. Thermogram of a face. Picture 45. Thermogram of mammary glands
Picture 46. Thermogram of knee joints. Picture 47. Thermogram of lower extremities.
IR thermography method has the following particular features:
1. Passivity of measurement. The method of measurement does not influence the object of
measurement. Infra red thermometry is non-contact method and it does not influence the
object anyhow. Therefore, the method is passive and aimed for absolutely safe
2. Non specificity. The method analyzes condition of the most universal physiologic
parameter. Temperature is one the most universal displays of physiological functions of
a body, and therefore, possesses the necessary non specificity.
3. Repeatability. The method gives possibly closer results with repeated measurements,
which are done during some period of time. Thermographic examinations can be well
4. Technical simplicity. Diagnostic devices should be accessible for doctors of various
specializations. Method should be comprehensible and easy to use. Thermography is a
simple method of diagnostics. Medical thermographic researches were given the
greatest development at Nizhniy Novgorod School of Thermovision, Russia.
Picture 48. Kremlin of Nizhniy Novgorod.
Picture 49. Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics.
Nizhniy Novgorod school of radio thermography exists for more than 30 years. Establishment as
well as development of the school is directly connected with researches of a group of radio
physics, who worked under supervision of V.S. Troitsky.
Medical School of Thermovision was established by Professor S. N. Kolesov. It is the most
competent school not only in Russia, but also in the world.
Picture 50. Professor Sergey Nikandrovich Kolesov
Hundreds of doctors of thermovision diagnostics were trained in this department of radio
thermometry, which is the only one of its kind in the world. On the base of this department tens
of Ph.D. and Doctoral thesises were upheld, hundreds of articles were published in Russian and
international magazines, and several monographs were issued.
Nizhniy Novgorod scientific school of Prof. V.G. Vogralik and Prof. M.V. Vogralik played
significant role in development of medical thermovision.
Picture 51. Professor Vadim Gabrielevich Vogralik (1911-1997)
Vadim Gabrielevich Vogralik is a professor of Nizhniy Novgorod Medical Institute.
During the times of Cultural Revolution, together with a group of soviet specialists, he
supervised health condition of Chinese communist elite, which refrained from treatment from
Chinese doctors. Prof. Vogralik mastered traditional Eastern medicine during his stay. After
returning from CPR, on the base of Hospital Therapy Department he organized courses of
eastern medicine education for soviet and international doctors. He significantly contributed to
scientific substantiation of acupuncture.
Mikhail Vladimirovich Vogralik is a professor of Nizhniy Novgorod Medical Institute. He is the
continuator of his father’s deed. He is the author of many scientific and research works and
inventions in the area of eastern medicine.
With the help of thermography, the presence of several functional conditions of biological active
points (acupuncture points) was proved. It was one of essential scientific reasons for joining
western and eastern medicine into one (integrative) medicine.
Picture 52. Hyperthermia of points E.36 and Picture 53. Well defined immunodeficiency in
E.37 on the outer surface of a shank. case of mammary gland cancer in the
projection of points of front and middle canal.
Picture 54. Intestine’s dysbacteriosis.
Hypothermia in the projection of points of
In 1986, monograph of V.G. Vogralik, M.V. Vogralik, and M.V. Golovanova was published (New
method of diagnostics of diseases. Gorkiy. 1986. page 93). International association of authors
of scientific discoveries has confirmed establishment of scientific discovery in areas of
acupuncture points of human being. The discovery was confirmed basing on examination of
application for discovery №А-130 from January 20, 1999 (№ ОТ – 11530 from March 17, 1987).
Authors of the discovery were Mikhail Vadimovich Vogralik, Vadim Gabrielevich Vogralik, and
Margarita Vladimirovna Golovanova.
Picture 55. Certificate of discovery.
JSC “CEM-Technology” and LLC “Union of Western and Eastern medicine” together with
Biomedical laboratory of Lobchevsky Nizhniy Novgorod State University have been conducting
successful research and developments in the area of IR thermometry from the beginning of
1990s. Research and development are conducted with the help of private investments as well
as with government support (Development of the new model of infra red thermograph, software,
and methods of thermo vision diagnostics for some diseases, 2004, Development of methods
for thermo diagnostics and monitoring disturbances in cerebral circulation, 2009, Development
of IR-thermometer with flesh memory, USB port, and software, 2009, Development of methods
and algorithms for image formation and processing in thermo diagnostics, 2010). They are also
supported by Ministry of Industry and Innovations of Nizhniy Novgorod region (Development of
methods for thermo diagnostics and monitoring disturbances in cerebral circulation, 2009).
Several generations of medical thermographs were serially produced.
Successful developments of medical radio thermometers are held in Nizhny Novgorod State
University in the Department of Radio Electronics of Radio Physics Faculty, Department chief is
IR radiometer was created for non contact temperature taking from body’s surface. IR
radiometer can also be used for technical purposes, as for searching and measuring thermal
heterogeneities (detecting points of heat leakage in electricity supply network, determination of
fire hazardous areas, measuring temperature in areas that are difficult to access, and other
Consequently, during the last several decades, strong scientific school has been formed in
Nizhniy Novgorod. This school has been recognized not only in Russia, but in the whole world.
Today, medical thermography is universally accepted method of diagnostics of many diseases.
Thermography detects diseases at the very early stage.
Picture 56. Histological conclusion: epidermoid Picture 57. Pereareolar cancer of the left
cancer. The area of hyperthermia in scapula gland. Asymmetrical thermographic picture of
region in the projection of tumor is clear and mammary glands with heated left gland.
Picture 58. Carcinoma in the upper part of
mammary gland. (www.proactivewellness.
Another important feature of thermography is the opportunity to monitor treatment procedures in
the real time mode.
Picture 59. Thermogram of the neck area Picture 60. Thermogram right after punctated
before and after massage. massage of the neck area.
However, considering the fact that during the last 20 years hundreds of thermographs and
thousands of “Helper” devices (Picture 62) were sold and hundreds of doctors were educated,
thermography has not become popular. The situation with diagnostics of cancer and other
dangerous diseases still has not improved, and its even became worse in Russia.
Picture 61. Thermograph. Picture 62. Immunodeficiency analyzer
“Helper”. It is a specialized device for early
diagnostics and treatment of secondary
immunodeficiency. The device is based on
thermo diagnostics and IR therapy.
Why it happened? There are minimum two causes.
First of all, quality medical thermographs cost hundreds of thousands of rubles, which is too
expensive for the majority of health facilities, especially in regions. Thermographic examination
is usually conducted only in specialized clinics. Therefore, it is difficult to access by the majority
of population, which means thermography can not significantly influence early diagnostics of
diseases. Thermography from regular thermographs and thermal imagers can not be used
periodically because of certain organizational, financial, and other causes. And periodicity or
regularity is indispensable condition for actually early diagnostics.
Second cause is in the fact that doctors’ society does not fully understand and accept
thermography method as necessary practice. This situation happened because of certain
causes. Doctor that is a specialist only in thermo vision diagnostics can not adequately interpret
meaning of thermogram in all of the cases in different areas of medicine. Local temperature is
important integral, but non specific index. Therefore, only doctor in charge of the patient (doctor
who knows all specific areas of patient’s pathology) can adequately interpret local temperature.
In other words, experienced clinical doctor who has good thermogram can give adequate
consultation to a patient. In difficult cases, for example for complicated surgical pathology, only
surgeon can adequately interpret thermo anomalies. Therefore, the question on how to make
thermographic diagnostics accessible for every doctor and patient and how to put into practice
gigantic potential of medical thermography have been left open for many years.
Technological breakthrough happened several years ago and was connected to creation of infra
red mini sensors, Internet network development, and Skype technology. Technological
possibility of creating inexpensive and effective “mini thermograph” or local IR thermograph (Pic.
63) has emerged. Besides, method of qualified analysis of thermograms and doctor’s
consultations for users located in any part of the world has become possible. Group of
developers from Nizhniy Novgorod under supervision of JSC “CEM-Technology” has developed
local mini thermograph: IR thermograph CEMR-ThermoDiagnostics. Its price is 100 times lower
than regular thermograph’s (from 3000 to 15000 Rub, depending on modification). A specialized
computer program CEMR-Thermography has been developed and registered as an object of
industrial property. The program allows building local thermograms, including in home setting.
All methodic literature and manuals are available. Consultation center consisting from the most
experienced specialists in different descriptions has been created. Distance analysis of
thermograms and consultations are also done on the basis of Internet and Skype technologies.
All this brought IR thermography to completely new level of development.
Picture 63. CEM®-ThermoDiagnostics prophylactic device
Technical characteristics of prophylactic device CEM®-ThermoDiagnostics:
Measurement diapason: from -33 to 110 C
Working diapason: from 0 to 50 C
Storage temperature: from -20 to 65 C
Resolution: 0.2 C
Time of measurement: 1 sec
Automatic switching off: in 15 sec
Windows for program of processing and visualization of thermal fields “CEM®
Picture 64. Thermogram received with thermograph. Hypothermia in sternum area can be
observed. Distinct secondary thymus dependant immunodeficiency.
Picture 65. Thermogram received with CEM®-ThermoDiagnostics prophylactic device. There is
hypothermia in sternum area, which is a thermographic sign of immunodeficiency.
Picture 66. Thermogram received with thermograph. Hypo functional condition of thyroid gland.
Hypothermia in the right lobe and isthmus of thyroid gland can be observed.
Picture 67. Thermogram received with CEM®-ThermoDiagnostics prophylactic device. Hypo
functional condition of thyroid gland. Hypothermia in the right lobe of thyroid gland can be
Picture 68. Program window. Picture 69. Early diagnostics of thermographic
signs of cerebral blood flow insufficiency on
the left side.
Picture 70. Thermodiagnostic signs of cerebral Picture 71. Dynamics of temperature change
blood flow insufficiency before treatment. after successful treatment.
Thermographic signs of thymus dependent immunodeficiency.
Disappearance of thermographic signs of thymus dependent immunodeficiency after treatment
with CEM-TECH device.
Picture 72. Thermographic signs of immunodeficiency.
Picture 73. IR thermograph package.
Picture 74. Call center for technical support of CEM®-ThermoDiagnostics technology.
Teleconsultations from specialists in different areas are available for users.
So, completely new technology on the base of local mini thermography СЕМR-
ТhermoDiagnostics allowed to implement the potential of medical thermography and make it
affordable and accessible to everyone.