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					                                                                                          World Information Service on Energy

                   NUCLEAR MONITOR
                                                                                                              founded in 1978

                    A Publication of World Information Service on Energy (WISE) and the Nuclear Information
                         & Resource Service (NIRS), incorporating the former WISE News Communique

#618--North American Edition                                                                                           November 12, 2004

It might seem obvious that building nuclear reactors in an earthquake zone is a ridiculous idea but
here in shaky Japan, there are 52 of them (soon to be 53). Niigata Prefecture was hit during the
recent spate of tremblers and while buildings came down and the lights went out in Kashiwazaki
City, the local nuclear power plant (NPP) continued operation.
(618.5648) CNIC - Kashiwazaki-              industry thought up a very clever           most powerful earthquake possible,
Kariwa NPP stood out like a                 scheme to help people understand that       people swallowed it.
lighthouse in a sea of darkness, a          the nuclear reactors they proposed to
beacon of hope proving that man is          build would not fall over. This scheme
master of the elements, that                had three basic aspects. The first was
technology can conquer nature once          to claim that scientists knew where             Anti-nuclear protestor,
again. Not that any of the electricity      earthquakes would and would not                  Sébastien Briat killed
was used in Kashiwazaki itself, no,         occur. The second was to claim that           The WISE/NIRS Nuclear Monitor
that precious commodity was sent off        these same scientists could predict           wishes to offer its sincerest
                                                                                          condolences to the family and
to the capital (1),                         how powerful the strongest earthquake
                                                                                          friends of 21-year-old French activist,
                                            would be in a given place. The third          Sébastien Briat, who was killed while
Tokyo. At this stage, there is no clear     aspect of this scheme was to play on          protesting against a rail transport of
picture of what impact the quakes may       people’s belief (common at the time,          radioactive waste near Avignon in
have had on the NPP but there are           though few subscribe to it these days)        eastern France on 7 November.
reports of a few hundred liters of          in technology.
coolant overflowing from spent fuel                                                       Protestors had chained themselves
storage pools. Of course, if this did       Ever since Homo sapiens first strode          to the railway track in an attempt to
happen, the authorities would surely        out of Africa with just a club and a few      disrupt the transportation of 12
                                                                                          Castor caskets of highly radioactive
have us believe that not a drop would       stone tools to hand, we have been
                                                                                          waste on its way back to Germany
have been released into the                 consumed with “progress”. Our                 after being reprocessed at the La
environment.                                manifest destiny was to conquer nature        Hague facility in Normandy, northern
                                            and technology was the means by               France.
It must have been difficult in the early    which we would fulfill that destiny.
days of Japan’s nuclearisation to           Such was the popular belief at the            Although this form of protest is well
convince a skeptical public about the       time, so when these visionaries told          established and has been practiced
safety of nuclear energy. The               people that the nuclear power plants          by anti-nuclear protestors for many
“visionaries” in the government and in      they would build could withstand the          years, on this occasion, what should
                                                                                          have been a symbolic action, ended
                                                                                          in a tragic loss of life.
 IN THIS ISSUE:                                                                           Briat, a student, was buried on
                                                                                          Wednesday, 10 November in Bar-le-
                                                                                          Duc, Lorraine with vigils held in his
 Earthquake zone: Japan escapes from nuclear disaster                          1
                                                                                          honor at French railway stations.
 Weaker radiation standards; U.S. perspectives                                 4
                                                                                          Condolences can be sent to the
 EBRD: time to change your energy policy                                       6          family care of Réseau Sortir du
                                                                                          Nucléaire, 9 rue Dumenge, F-69317
 Argentina: will Atucha II survive the truth?                                  7          Lyon Cedex 04, by fax to +33 4
                                                                                          72077004 or by email to rezo@club-
 In brief                                                                      9
            STRONG QUAKE SHUTS DOWN NUCLEAR                                               For the record, the measuring device
                                                                                          on the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa-5 reactor
                REACTOR IN CENTRAL JAPAN.                                                 recorded 54 gals at bedrock.
 Another strong earthquake has struck        on 4 November. The reactor re-
                                                                                          Measurements were recorded in the
 the region of central Japan already hit     mained shut for several hours after
                                                                                          order of 1,700 gals on the surface near
 by a tremor in October, shutting            the tremor. Five other reactors at the
                                                                                          the epicenter, but the Kashiwazaki-
 down a nuclear reactor. The quake           plant continued operations. The
                                                                                          Kariwa NPP is about 30 kilometers
 measuring 5.2 on the Richter scale          mayor of Kashiwazaki asked TEPCO
                                                                                          away from there. Also the shaking is
 took place 20 kilometres (12 miles)         to enhance safety controls at its
                                                                                          generally less at bedrock level. Power
 underground in Niigata prefecture,          Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear plant
                                                                                          companies make much of this,
 around 200 kilometres (125 miles)           and complained that no one was at
                                                                                          pointing out that the foundations of
 northwest of Tokyo. A 6.8 magnitude         the other end of a telephone line
                                                                                          their power plants rest on the bedrock.
 quake hit the area on 23 October and        linking the Kashiwazaki municipal
 was followed by hundreds of after-          government with the plant when the
                                                                                          Almost all of Japan’s NPPs are in, or
 shocks. TEPCO said the number 7             quake shook the prefecture.
                                                                                          very close to areas which are officially
 reactor at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa           Channel News Asia, 4 November
                                                                                          designated as requiring specific
 nuclear power plant automatically           2004; Japan Today, 4 November 2004;
                                                                                          monitoring for earthquakes (a high
 shut down as it was hit by the quake        Kyodo News, 4 November 2004
                                                                                          chance of an earthquake of magnitude
“Earthquake-resistant” design                in Class ‘A’ that are deemed to be           7 or greater.). Also one should not
regulations                                  especially important. These buildings        forget nuclear facilities other than
NPP buildings and equipment are              and equipment must be able to                NPPs: for example, the complex at
categorized, on the basis of the poten-      withstand what is called the ‘design-        Rokkasho, including, or soon to
tial damage from a release of radiation      basis upper limit earthquake’.               include uranium enrichment, spent
into the environment, into four levels                                                    fuel storage, reprocessing and MOX
of importance. Until July 1981 there         You could be forgiven for wondering          fuel fabrication.
were only three classes: Class ‘A’ being     what the difference is between the
most important; Class ‘B’ for buildings      ‘strongest earthquake’ and the ‘upper        But Rokkasho was very conveniently
and equipment with less safety               limit earthquake’ but basically the          excluded from the list of areas
significance than Class ‘A’; and Class       ‘upper limit earthquake’ is envisaged        requiring special earthquake
‘C’ for buildings and equipment with         as being even bigger than the ‘stron-        monitoring. It was on the original
the same safety significance as general      gest earthquake’. That would have to         draft list, but at the time it was
industrial facilities.                       make it a real whopper one might             thought to be too remote and
                                             think, but not necessarily. In cases         irrelevant, even though the risk of an
Class ‘A’ buildings and equipment            where no active fault has been disco-        earthquake was no less than other
must be able to withstand the                vered in the vicinity, it is considered to   areas. Well it has become more
strongest predicted earthquake, known        be a magnitude 6.5 earthquake directly       relevant since it was chosen to become
as the ‘design-basis strongest               beneath the NPP’s active fault.              the center of the nuclear fuel cycle.
earthquake’. The magnitude of this
earthquake is assessed on the basis of       Astute readers might have noticed that       Building and equipment classification
past earthquakes and the likely effect       reactors built before July 1981 were         As one might expect, the reactor
of active faults. A higher classification,   not designed to cope with the ‘upper         containment vessel and the spent fuel
Class ‘As’, was introduced in July 1981      limit earthquake’. Fortunately, the new      pit are in Class ‘As’. Surprisingly
and includes buildings and equipment         rules specifically state that it is not      though, the turbine and the turbine
                                             necessary to redesign the old reactors.      building of Pressurized Water Reac-
 WISE Amsterdam/NIRS                                                                      tors, made famous by the recent
                                             Actually, in several cases the original
 ISSN: 1570-4629                                                                          Mihama-3 accident, are in Class ‘C’.
                                             calculations for both ‘strongest
                                             earthquake’ and ‘upper limit                 The Nuclear Safety and Industrial
 Reproduction of this material is
 encouraged. Please give credit when         earthquake’ were found to be too low         Agency has admitted that the seconda-
 reprinting.                                 and subsequent reactors were built to        ry system (i.e. the turbine side) really
                                             more stringent design standards. But         should be taken seriously in future, so
 Editorial team: Tinu Otoki (WISE            none is designed to withstand an             it will be interesting to see whether
 Amsterdam), Michael Mariotte (NIRS).        earthquake of the scale of the one that      the impending revision of the current
 With contributions from CNIC, Dr.           hit Kobe in 1995. The most severe            earthquake guidelines reflects this new
 Raul Montenegro, Citizens’ Network of                                                    awareness. There are no indications
                                             earthquake considered is for
 Kashiwazaki-Kariwa, Antony Froggatt,                                                     that it will though. It is more likely
 CEE Bankwatch Network and WISE              Hamaoka-3, 4&5, built directly above a
                                             major plate boundary (2). These are          that Mihama-3 will be kept strictly
                                             designed to withstand an earthquake          separate from the issue of earthquakes.
 The next issue (619) will be mailed         of 600 gals (3) at bedrock level. The        If included, authorities might also be
 out on 3 December 2004.                     Kobe earthquake was 833 gals.                forced to address the problem of aging

2     WISE/NIRS Nuclear Monitor 618, 12 November 2004
                                                      25 YEARS AGO
 What happened 25 years ago? We go back to news from our 1979 WISE Bulletin, comparing anti-nuclear news then and now.

 In issue 6 of WISE Bulletin we covered the proposal for a referendum in Denmark: “Denmark will probably put the nuclear
 issue to the test of a population vote. The Danish government is about to present an atomic law to parliament. The law will
 contain the provision that the question surrounding waste disposal and reactor safety has been ‘satisfactorily’ resolved”.
 (WISE Bulletin 6, October 1979)

 In the end, no referendum took place. Five nuclear reactors were planned in 1976 but never materialized. The strength of the
 anti-nuclear movement is believed to be responsible for this. Opinion polls showed that 80% of the public was also opposed.
 (WISE News Communique, 16 October 1998)

 Danish electricity utilities studied the suitability of six salt domes for nuclear waste disposal in 1979-1980. Five salt domes
 appeared to be unsuitable after first test drillings and the sixth dome was dismissed after negative comments from the
 Danish Geological Authority. The Danish parliament decided in 1985 not to build any nuclear power plants. (Kernafval in zee
 of zout? Nee fout! H. Damveld et al, 1994).

 Anti-nuclear groups in Denmark have since been active against nuclear reactors in neighboring Sweden, especially the
 Barsebäck reactor, which is very close to the Danish capital Copenhagen. (WISE/NIRS Nuclear Monitor 617, 22 October 2004)

 The well-known Smiling Sun anti-nuclear symbol was designed in Denmark in April 1975, by a member of the Aarhus group
 of OOA, the Danish “Organization for Information on Atomic Energy” (dissolved in 2000). It was a winner from the start, with
 badges, stickers, posters, T-shirts selling faster than anyone could have predicted. A small slice of the income from sale was
 used to serve the movement by helping to finance WISE. OOA was determined not to let the Smiling Sun be kidnapped,
 either by party political groups, or by private business so it was registered as a trade mark in Denmark and many other
 countries. WISE still takes care that the logo is not misused for commercial benefits. Smiling sun badges and stickers are still
 available in several languages via the WISE website,
reactors, which really wouldn’t do. In       ordeal, albeit less awful than that of       ful if many in Tokyo were even aware
as much as Japan’s reactors were             towns nearer the epicenter. Had the          that the power that supplied their
designed to be resistant to earthquakes      epicenter had been underneath the            television sets, came from the region
(dubious enough in itself), those            NPP and a nuclear disaster occurred,         where the disaster was unfolding.
designs only applied to new reactors.        the emergency systems would have
There is very little insight into the        failed totally.                              Notes:
ability of old, poorly maintained reac-                                                   1. The Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power
tors, with pipes below the regulation        People were sleeping outside, in cars,       plant belongs to Tokyo Electric Power
thickness, to withstand earthquakes.         in tents etc to escape collapsed and         Company, although Niigata Prefecture is
                                             collapsing buildings, train services and     supplied by Tohoku Electric Power
The “visionaries” understated the            roads were also in chaos. How would
                                                                                          2. The Hamaoka NPP is right over the
magnitude of the design basis                they have escaped if a major                 boundary of the Philippine and North
earthquakes, were wayward in their           evacuation had been necessary? There         American Plates. In fact, it is sandwiched
classifications, overly optimistic about     are emergency procedures in place in         between four plates – the two just
the durability of the reactors and           regions hosting nuclear facilities,          mentioned, plus the Pacific and Eurasian
maybe even missed a few active faults        inadequate though they may be, but           Plates. Hamaoka-5 is due to commence
and earthquake zones here and there,         the logic of a nuclear evacuation            commercial operations in January 2005.
but in truth, no reactors have fallen        stands in total contradiction with the       3. Gal is a measure of acceleration.
over, no radiation has been released         logic of an earthquake evacuation.           1 gal = 0.01 m/s
into the environment as a result of an
earthquake, so why all the fuss? The         Realizing this, some people appealed         Source and contact: Philip White,
fuss is caused by the lack of any            to Tokyo Electric Power Company              CNIC International Liaison Officer
convincing evidence to demonstrate           (TEPCO) to shut down the reactors            Citizens’ Nuclear Information Center,
that no earthquake-induced nuclear           until things returned to normal. But         1-58-15-3F, Higashi-nakano, Nakano-ku,
catastrophe will occur.                      TEPCO management, due to its unsha-          Tokyo, Japan
                                             kable belief in its own tech-nology, or      Tel: +81-3-5330-9520
Local fears                                  else through sheer bloody-minded-            Fax: +81-3-5330-9530
So finally, what of the people in            ness, kept the reactors operating.           Email:
Kashiwazaki City and Kariwa Village?         Despite this, no news of the situation       Web:
They have suffered through a terrible        was reported in the media. It is doubt-
                                                                             12 November 2004, WISE/NIRS Nuclear Monitor 618 3
                                 TIME TO STOP KASHIWAZAKI-KARIWA NPP
 The Japanese Meteorological Agency        It was reported that whistle blowers        the surrounding area, that damage
 issued warning on possible strong         from within the NPP claimed that            had occurred. In fact, the water
 aftershocks following the earthquake      cracking had occurred in some pipes,        supply was cut and many people had
 on 23 October (1). Despite this and       and that emergency equipment was            to be evacuated in Kariwa Village
 demands from citizens and workers         said to be unreliable. (2) Geological       where a large number of workers
 to stop operating reactors at Kashiwa-    experts stated that apart from the          from the NPP live. Even if the NPP
 zaki-Kariwa NPP while the risk of         danger of strong aftershocks, it was        stopped immediately, the nuclear
 further tremors existed, Tokyo            possible that a separate earthquake         fuel would still retain its heat for a
 Electric Power Company (TEPCO),           could occur near the reactors.              considerable duration. In case of the
 the Japanese government and the                                                       coolant loss, the nuclear fuel would
 local municipalities of Niigata           Citizens’ Network of Kashiwazaki-           melt down, causing a catastrophe.
 Prefecture and Kashiwazaki City           Kariwa discovered that the                  The consequences of such a nuclear
 failed to take any action. Had            government and local municipalities         accident would last for an
 another, much bigger shock occurred,      had no plans in place in case of a          immeasurable time.
 an unprecedented disaster could have      nuclear disaster. This is one reason
 been triggered.                           why the group wants operations at the       (1)
                                           plant’s reactors to stop until the autho-   niigata.html (in Japanese)
 If the tremors had caused any serious     rities announce the cessation of            (2)
 damage at the NPP, it unlikely that       aftershocks.                                mainpage.htm
 the prevention program for the
 nuclear accidents worked as               The question of why any damage              Contact: Citizens’ Network of
 designed, because of the destruction      around Kashiwazaki, and Kariwa was          Kashiwazaki-Kariwa at
 of infrastructure, such as road and       excluded from media reports remains or visit
 railway, over a wide area.                despite reports, from those living in

The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), a private agency comprised of nuclear
advocates, is updating its recommendations for allowable exposures to ionizing radiation.
(618.5649) NIRS - ICRP’s “recommen-        refers to the exemption levels              recommendations is contrary to the
dations” routinely form the basis of       developed by Euratom and others.            U.S. National Research Council 1990
federal and international regulations.     These are the same exempt levels NIRS       BEIR-V Report conclusion that
The draft ICRP 2005 is available for       and four other groups are suing the         regulators should recognize the linear
public comment on its website,             Department of Transport (DOT) and           no-threshold relationship of dose to ICRP       Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)         response all the way down to zero
must be told, before the December          to reject in US transport regulations.      dose.
deadline, what we, who receive the
doses, think!                              ICRP-2005 reverts back to the long-         ICRP recommends allowing radio-
                                           discredited concept of a “safe              active materials estimated to give
Deregulating and Not Regulating            threshold” and adopts a level of one        doses above one mrem (10 uSv)
Nuclear Materials and Practices: the       millirem (mrem, 10 microSieverts uSv        annually to be “exempted” from
old “BRC” ICRP-2005 recommends NO          or 0.01 milliSieverts mSv) per              regulations and subject to less than
regulatory control over anything           year. ICRP concludes that below 1           full regulation. This would give a
radioactive that gives a low dose or       mrem/yr (10 uSv/yr), or below               green light to the use of radioactive
has a low concentration. Both              specified concentrations (ranging from      materials in consumer products. ICRP
manmade and natural radioactive            0.01 to 10 bequerels per gram; 0.27 to      provides no estimate or limit on the
materials and wastes can be “excluded”     270 picoCuries per gram), there should      number of exclusions and exemptions.
from the whole regulatory system if        be no regulatory control or constraint.     There is no verification or
they can be calculated or measured to                                                  enforcement.
be less than the ICRP-2005                 Supposedly low levels of exposure and
recommended levels. They can also be       industry difficulties maintaining           This violates repeated public
“exempted” meaning they are included       control, justifies exclusion from the       opposition to deregulating nuclear
in the system, subject to regulatory       regulatory system, as if not radio-         materials and wastes despite ICRP’s
authority, but not regulated. ICRP 2005    active. This “exclusion” under ICRP’s       claims of intending to involve

4    WISE/NIRS Nuclear Monitor 618, 12 November 2004
“stakeholders.” ICRP perpetuates the         protection” for Reference Man               individual, ergo, NOT the most
incorrect assumption that we will            (“Standard Man”) “without unduly            vulnerable. ICRP regards exceeding
accept “trivial” risks from release of       limiting the beneficial actions giving      this dose constraint as a “failure,” but
previously regulated man-made                rise to radiation exposure.” This           suggests no enforcement. Tier 2,
nuclear material.                            amounts to inadequate protection for        optimization of protection, purports to
We call on ICRP to require that all          most of us, and only then if it does not    minimize doses without impeding the
man-made (“artificial”) radioactivity        interfere with nuclear industry profit.     progress of the nuclear industry. We
be regulated at all levels…not “exclu-                                                   call on ICRP to combine and limit the
ded” or “exempted” from controls.            Environmental and Non-Human                 doses from all classes, and to adopt a
                                             Species                                     goal of protection regardless of
Ignoring Radiation Studies Indicating        The ICRP has formed a new committee         industry costs.
Increased Risks from Low Doses               (#5) regarding radiological protection
ICRP ignores studies on radiation            of non-human species. It is deriving a      Conclusions for Commenting to ICRP
damage such as the Bystander Effect          set of “Reference Animals and Plants”       and national officials
(cells in the area but not directly hit by   (e.g., worms, bees, rats, ducks, crabs,     To reiterate some of the bolded
radiation show injury) and Genomic           salmonid and flat fish, brown seaweed,      suggested comments above, NIRS urges
Instability, claiming that they do not       pine tress, and grasses). These will be     ICRP to:
know enough to reflect its risk              inadequate like “standard man” has
estimates. The CERRIE Committee and          been. ICRP wants to develop                 (a) Discourage and prohibit
its Dissenters charge that ICRP’s risk       dosimetric models and environmental         deregulation of nuclear materials and
levels underestimate risks by 10 to          geometries for various species, in          activities. Reject the notions exclusion
several hundred fold. (More in future        order to assess background dose rates,      and exemption for manmade
Monitor on these.)                           and effects on early mortality,             radioactive materials, and practices
We call on ICRP to incorporate               morbidity, reproduction, and DNA            (artificial sources of exposure). Reject
increased risks identified by other          damage, yet we see them repeating the       use of a threshold to deregulate
scientists and panels in its radiation       same mistaken assumptions simply            nuclear materials.
risk estimates and to adopt the              because they are easy or familiar. NIRS
precautionary principle of preventing        nominated two knowledgeable PhDs            (b) Reject any increases in allowable
potentially harmful exposures.               to Committee #5 but ICRP has                doses to workers or public; instead,
                                             completely ignored the nominations          lower the permissible doses,
Underestimating Alpha Internal Risks         after publicly announcing that they         recognizing that for some individuals,
and other risks                              would welcome varying perspectives.         these doses may STILL not be
In updating exposure standards, ICRP         Call on ICRP to accept Dr. Judith           protective enough. This is to take into
chose to retain a relative biological        Johnsrud and Dr. Dennis Nelson to           account research findings on low-level
effectiveness or quality factor (RBE) of     ICRP Committee #5 to reflect some           radiation impacts.
only 20 for alpha particles despite          balance in expertise and perspective.
estimates by some researchers that                                                       (c) Replace Reference Man or Most
they do hundreds of times more biolo-        Segmented Doses Ignore Total Dose a         Exposed Individual with the most
gical damage than gamma and X-rays.          person could receive                        sensitive members of potentially
We call on ICRP to incorporate the           ICRP bases its new dose limits on a
increased risks from alpha particles         two-tier system of protection. In 1990,
and other internal emitters.                 ICRP identified three classes of                   TERMINOLOGY
                                             exposure: public, worker, and medical.              EXPLAINED
Reduce Worker Exposure                       The ICRP does not limit additive doses        “Sievert” and “millisievert” (mSv)
Although the US (which allows                when a person is a member of two or           are international units of radiation
workers 5 rems or 50 mSv/year) has           more classes. This means one can be           dose equivalent measurement. U.S.
not even adopted ICRP 60 (1990)’s            exposed on the job plus as a medical          regulators still use the terms, “rem”
more protective worker exposure              patient but the doses would not be            and “millirem.” One sievert equals
limits (2 rems or 20 mSv per year),          added together to protect for both            100 rem. One mSv equals 100
we join the European safe energy             classes of exposure.                          mrem. One millirem equals 10
advocates and UK National                                                                  microsieverts or 0.01 mSv.
Radiological Protection Board in their       Tier 1 recommends a dose constraint,
calls for even more protective worker        the dose from a single radiation source       Doses above 400-500 rem (4-5
dose limits.                                 (like a nuclear reactor) to an                Sievert) are usually lethal to 50% of
                                             individual member of one of the               an exposed population, but health
Replace “Standard Man” with the              classes, and a dose limit is the sum of       effects, including cancer, are caused
Protection of the Most Vulnerable            all the doses to an individual in one of      at much lower doses. Every dose, no
ICRP claims that its primary aim is to       the classes. The ICRP says it set this        matter how low, increases health
provide “appropriate radiation               level to protect the most exposed             risks.

                                                                             12 November 2004, WISE/NIRS Nuclear Monitor 618 5
exposed populations in regulations          (e) Support the NIRS’ nominations to         protection be increased not reduced.
and supporting calculations.                ICRP’s new Committee #5 on non-
                                            human and environmental exposures,           This article was the first in a series by
(d) Expand consideration of radiation       Drs. Judith H Johnsrud and Dennis            NIRS on radiation standards
impacts to include all deleterious          Nelson from the US.
effects, not just fatal cancers and gross                                                Contact: Cindy Folkers at
genetic effects for the first two genera-   Comment to ICRP by 5 December 2004  and Diane D’Arrigo at
tions. Incorporate increased radiation      AND contact NRC, EPA, DOE, DOT,     at NIRS or Dr. Judith
risks from the studies of the bystander     physicians, and state and local              H. Johnsrud at
effect and genomic instability.             radiation regulators to insist that          Tel: +1 202-328-0002 or +1 814-237-3900.

EBRD:                YOUR
In mid October the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) announced that it would
review and merge its Energy and Natural Resources Policies, copies of which can be seen at
(618.5650) Antony Froggatt - The            gas sectors in Russia and Caspian            -Establishing and enforcing clear
EBRD is the only International Finan-       Region while failing to adequately           requirements for projects involving
cial Institution (IFI) to fund nuclear      protect the environment and rights of        extractive industries.
power. Earlier this year, the Bank          the local population.
awarded a US$42 million loan to                                                          -Proving its commitment to sustain-
complement an US$80 million loan            According to the bank’s Environmental        able development by conducting a
from the EU, through the Euratom            Policy “the EBRD may also carry out          Strategic Environmental Assessment of
Loan Facility, for the controversial        Strategic Environmental Assessments          the draft Energy Policy, what should
Khmelnitsky 2 and Rovno 4 (K2R4)            (SEAs) on the likely environmental           obviously include the evaluation of
nuclear reactors in Ukraine.                consequences of proposed sector or           possible alternative scenarios.
                                            country/regional plans or programmes
This was the first time the EBRD have       which have the potential to                  The policy revision will take place in
funded a nuclear power project,             significantly affect the environment”.       three distinct phases.
however, it had previously attempted
to fund the completion of Mochovce in       However, despite numerous proposals          -Comments on the existing policies
Slovakia and the previous version of        from the CEE Bankwatch Network and           should be sent to the EBRD by 15
the K2R4 project in Ukraine.                the recommendation of the Fourth             December to
                                            Ministerial Conference “Environment
Other international and regional            for Europe”, held in Aarhus in June
financial institutions do not fund          1998 (1), to carry out a Strategic           -Regional workshops on the existing
nuclear power. Even the World Bank,         Environmental Assessment, the EBRD           policies will take place in London,
not renowned for its environmental          refused to conduct an SEA of the new         Moscow and Sofia before the end of
awareness, has a policy not to fund         Energy Policy and did not provide any        2004. If you wish to take part in these
nuclear power projects directly;            rationale for such a decision.               hearings or would like more details
similarly the Asian Development Bank                                                     then contact:
has a specific non-nuclear policy.          The EBRD should now reform its
                                            energy policy by:                            -A revised draft is scheduled for
When the EBRD was founded in 1991, it                                                    publication in March 2005, which will
was the first IFI to have in the Bank’s     -Altering its energy policy so that it can   be followed by a 45-day consultation
founding charter a requirement to pro-      no longer lend to nuclear power              period. The Bank’s Board of Directors,
mote in the full range of its activities,   projects.                                    made up of representatives of
environmentally sound and sustain-                                                       European and international
able development. Since then its            -Introducing binding targets for loans       governments, should then adopt this.
energy lending has not lived up to this     for renewable energy and accelerating
requirement.                                programmes to support the                    NGOs and citizens are encouraged to
                                            development of the technology in the         contact the EBRD with comments on
In addition to lending for nuclear          region. This could significantly aid         the existing policies as well as the
power, the Bank has failed to create a      renewable energy in Central and              process of policy consultations and
lending target for renewable energy         Eastern Europe and in particular             request to be kept informed of the
projects and approved loans for the         enable the new EU Member States to           process by emailing
extensive development of the oil and        meet their renewable energy targets.

6    WISE/NIRS Nuclear Monitor 618, 12 November 2004
For more information contact Yury           strategic environmental assessment           with the appropriate participation of
Urbansky at           facilitates the systematic analyses of the   NGOs and citizens.”
CEE Bankwatch Network or visit              environmental impacts of proposed                           policies, plans and programmes and invite    Source: Antony Froggatt
                                            countries and international finance          Tel: +44 20 7923 0412
                                            institutions to introduce and/or carry out
Notes:                                                                                   Email:
                                            strategic environmental assessments
(1) The Ministers agreed that: “…a                                                       Web:

 “If we cannot finish Atucha, we have a problem”, was the message from Jose P. Abrata, president of the
Argentinean Atomic Energy Agency to parliament last June. Such a comment displays a lack of confidence
even among top members of the government. There are many obstacles to the completion of Atucha II:
technological obsolescence, changes among institutional partners, lack of funding, chronic underproduction at
the Arroyito heavy water plant, and delayed national decisions vis-à-vis radioactive waste.
(618.5651) Dr. Raul A. Montenegro -         including loan subsidies and budget          2001 was secured: US$139 million from
The construction of Atucha II began in      for completion the real cost reaches         German loans, and US$45 million from
1981 was facilitated by ENACE               US$4 billion (2001).                         NASA. US$502 million, nearly 72% of
(Empresa Nuclear Argentina de                                                            the total sum remained without
Centrales Electricas Sociedad               Following various bureaucratic               financing. Even the actualized total
Anonima) following the signing of a         measures and declarations (2000-2002),       cost of US$488 million seemed an
1980 contract between CNEA and              CNEA produced a new actualized               expensive figure.
Siemens-KWU.                                budget for Atucha II in 2001 with two
                                            scenarios considered, closure or             There is also a parallel budgetary
The original 1981 cost projected by         completion. Two years later, the             challenge: the Atucha II general debt,
Siemens was US$1,579 million. In 1991-      Federal Energy Secretariat began             of which the consequences are difficult
1992, the cost was estimated at             negotiations in Germany, vis-à-vis re-       to predict. CNEA reports that the debt
US$3,100 million and by early 1994, the     starting work on Atucha II (2003).           is composed as follows: US$100
federal government had halted both                                                       million to Siemens, US$902 million to
the building and the financing of           In 2004, the Planning Ministry adopted       German banks, and US$80 million to
Atucha II. Such paralysis still continues   the issue after the federal declaration      different investors. The result is a
to date.                                    that Atucha II will be completed. Was        grand total of US$1,08 billion.
                                            this decision the result of disturbing
In September 1994, the national             figures? Maybe. After all, just the          Whether Atucha II is finally completed
government created Nucleoelectrica          storage of non-installed equipment           or not, the debt remains. Of course,
Argentina S.A. (NASA) to run the three      alone cost US$5 million per year.            most of this amount has been included
nuclear power plants in Argentina                                                        in the Club of Paris negotiations. This
(Embalse, Atucha I and Atucha II).          Obstacles and more obstacles                 is an association of central banks from
Although 100% state-owned, regulation       The original Atucha II design involve a      industrialized countries (18 OECD
1540/1994 opened the possibility of         PHWR (Pressurized Heavy Water                members plus Russia) created in 1956.
future privatization. In 1997, Siemens      Reactor) of 692 MWe, using natural
dissolved its partnership with CNEA         uranium or slightly enriched uranium         Its main goal is to ensure a permanent
and NASA, and ENACE was disbanded.          as fuel, and heavy water as moderator        flow of funds from Third World
Due to the lack of interest from local      and coolant. Designed before 1981            debtors to industrialized creditors.
and foreign investors, the privatization    (even prior to Chernobyl) parts of the       Nevertheless, the final agreement
of nuclear facilities failed in 1998.       design are now certainly obsolete.           between the federal government of
                                            After 20 years of delays, partners,          Argentina and creditors seems
With NASA funds, some small                 designers and technology have                unpredictable now.
advances were made at Atucha and by         changed and Atucha II has become a
the end of 1999, the reactor’s pressure     mixture of technology and (techno)           Atucha II is closely linked with
vessel was mounted in situ at an            archaeology.                                 another expensive installation, the
estimated cost of US$2,732 million                                                       Arroyito Heavy Water Plant (PIAP). If
(lower than 1990-1991 figures but           One major obstacle has been the lack         Atucha II is not finished, the
higher than Siemens originally              of funding. According to CNEA, 28% of        government cannot maintain Arroyito.
projected). Nevertheless, when              the total cost for finishing Atucha II in    With building costs of US$1,300

                                                                             12 November 2004, WISE/NIRS Nuclear Monitor 618 7
million and maintenance costs of
                                                                  NEVADA SURVEY ON YUCCA
US$4,3 million annually for salaries,
                                            On 5 November, the Nevada State            Democrat John Kerry was outspoken
and US$0,5 million per year in electric
                                            Agency for Nuclear Projects announ-        against the dump’s opening. Former
consumption, PIAP is a large and
                                            ced the results of a survey on Neva-       President Bill Clinton, campaigning in
unsustainable white elephant. CNEA
                                            dans’ views regarding the proposed         Nevada for Kerry just days before, told
president, José Abrata, said that PIAP
                                            dumpsite for high-level radioactive        Nevadans that the presidential election
produces 25 tones of heavy water per
                                            waste targeted at Yucca Mountain.          was in fact a referendum on Yucca
year (10 tones for the INVAP project in
Australia, and 15 tones for Embalse
                                            The survey reported that, if given the
NPP), although the limit for economic
                                            chance to vote on the issue, nearly        Democratic Rep. Shelley Berkley said
profitability is 100 tones per year.
                                            77% would vote against the dump, up        of her leadership in the U.S. House of
During his statement to Parliament
                                            slightly from one year earlier. 73%        Representatives against the Yucca
last June, Abrata said, “there is no
                                            want the state to continue resisting       dump, “It’s becoming increasingly
sense to light up the plant” for 25
                                            the dump, and reject negotiating for       more difficult when the people from
tones “because the minimum is 100
                                            benefits from the federal government       the state of Nevada have just handed a
tones”. Atucha II cannot be separated
                                            in exchange for ending opposition. A       mandate to the very person who has
from PIAP; if Atucha II is not finished,
                                            vast majority also expressed concerns      vowed to turn the state into a nuclear
PIAP must be converted for another
                                            about the risks of transport accidents,    dump.” (1). The silver lining from an
industry. For Argentine society (and
                                            leaks from the dumpsite, as well as        otherwise dark election day in the
maybe the Ministry of Economy as
                                            socioeconomic damage to Nevada’s           “Silver State” for opponents to the
well), Atucha II and PIAP are two
                                            gambling and tourism industries            Yucca dump may be the imminent
closely related money pits.
                                            from the Yucca Mountain Project. A         ascension of Nevada’s U.S. Senator
                                            vast majority of respondents suppor-       Harry Reid to the position of Minority
The question of what to do with the
                                            ted ongoing lawsuits and State denial      Leader in the U.S. Senate. Reid has led
waste provides another obstacle.
                                            of necessary water rights to the dump      the opposition to the Yucca dump in
Argentina’s law 25018 relates to
                                            project. There was also majority           the Senate since 1987. Dump
addressing the problems of radioactive
                                            support for blocking other Depart-         proponents will undoubtedly lobby
waste (1998) and yet CNEA’s activities
                                            ment of Energy (DOE) activities at the     Congress to overturn last July’s U.S.
continue to be expanded both inside
                                            Nevada Test Site (such as “low” level      Court of Appeals ruling that Yucca’s
and outside Argentina without
                                            atomic waste dumping) and having           10,000-year environmental protections
solutions to the numerous radioactive
                                            State police stop high-level radio-        are woefully too short, and Reid’s
hotspots. In Cordoba city, the uranium
                                            active waste trucks bound for Yucca.       leadership position will help in efforts
dioxide plant, Dioxitek S.A., maintains
                                                                                       to derail such efforts. See
36,000 tones of low-level radioactive
                                            Given such survey results, it is all the
waste (uranium tails) in the ground.
                                            more ironic that Nevadans voted on 2       pdf/nv0410survey.pdf for full survey
Such materials have been buried
                                            November by 51% to 48% (414,939 to         results.
without membranes or isolation.
                                            393,372) in favor of returning Repu-       (1) Las Vegas Review Journal, 4
                                            blican George W. Bush to the White         November 2004
A loan from the World Bank for the
                                            House, despite his administration’s
remediation of several uranium mines
                                            wholehearted support for opening           Contact: Kevin Kamps,
in Argentina was never approved, and
                                            the Yucca dump, while his opponent, at NIRS
this program, PRAMU, is now an
empty page at CNEA’s web site              Atucha II is a huge white elephant,         air, water and soil pollution with
( Even the creation of    closely related to other nuclear white      radioisotopes like Cesium 137,
a specific program for isolating           elephants like PIAP and the Nuclear         Strontium 90 and Iodine 131.
deposits of radioactive waste was          Plan of Argentina. If the president of
delayed until 2003.                        CNEA cannot show confidence in the          Our citizens in Argentina must either
                                           completion of Atucha II, then that          decide to close Atucha II at a cost of
How can the completion of Atucha II        signal is quite significant. The only       US$20 million, with zero risks, or to
be justified when key decisions on         way to accelerate the completion of         finish Atucha II at a cost of US$488
radioactive waste have been                Atucha II is to continue to hide the        million, plus PIAP expenses, and face a
permanently delayed? How can the           truth, and CNEA is successful doing         future of unpredictable danger.
ridiculous amount allocated for the        just that.
treatment and isolation of radioactive                                                 Source and contact:
waste in CNEA’s budget be justified?       The challenge now is to disseminate         Dr. Raul A. Montenegro, Biologist.
Who will pay for the decommissioning       the real costs and risks of Atucha II.      President of FUNAM and Professor of
of Atucha II, Atucha I and Embalse?        After 30 years of operation, Atucha II      Evolutionary Biology at the National
There are too many questions and           will produce 8,000 m of low and             University of Cordoba. Alternative
sadly few answers for so serious a         intermediate radioactive waste, 4,500       Nobel Prize 2004.
matter.                                    tones of high radioactive waste, pus        Email:
8    WISE/NIRS Nuclear Monitor 618, 12 November 2004
                                               IN BRIEF
Russian inquiry into rumored nuclear        from country to country. Friends of the     alert former bosses to the danger but
disaster. An accident at Balakovo NPP       Earth Europe called the present report      had received no response. Although
on 4 November caused the shutdown           contemptible and accused the                local police are quoted as saying that
of the reactor between 4-6 November         Commission of shielding nuclear             Grigorov was right to hide the mate-
after a 7cm crack was found in a pipe       utilities from market discipline            rial, he may still face criminal charges.
of the primary water circuit. Although      through an ongoing failure to uphold        Reuters, 4 November 2004; BBC News,
it was not a large accident, rumors of a    rules on fair competition.                  2 November 2004
nuclear explosion and large radiation, 1 November 2004; FOE
release spread quickly across the           Europe press release, 26 October 2004
surrounding region. Residents rushed                                                    Sweden: Greens try to block cable
to buy iodine medicines (taken orally                                                   link to Finland. The Swedish Greens
to prevent radiation damage to body’s       Israel re-arrests Vanunu. After already     have filed a parliamentary motion to
cells) but a few people were poisoned       serving 18 years in prison for blowing      stop a plan to construct a high-voltage
and required hospitalization.               the whistle on Israel’s illicit nuclear     undersea cable from Finland to
Authorities have been quick to blame        program, Mordechai Vanunu was re-           Sweden. According to the Greens,
“Green” activists for provoking             arrested on 11 November for allegedly       Sweden is helping to develop the fifth
hysteria but environmentalists have         passing classified information to           Finish reactor by financing the cable
pointed to the lack of public               unnamed international parties. The          project with US$ 285.7 million. The
information when the accident was           “classified information” was                cable would export electricity from the
first reported leading to widespread        reportedly found during an armed            new reactor to Sweden.
panic. In an open letter to the head of     police raid (with around 30 officers) of    Nucleonics Week, 4 November 2004
the Federal Agency for Atomic Power,        Vanunu’s room at the Saint George
Ecodefense called for independent           Anglican Church where he has been
inspections (by environmental groups)       staying since his release from prison.      France to sell third of Areva. The
at Balakovo and other NPPs across           Vanunu is expected to appear in court       French government is to carry out a
Russia and improved communication           on 12 November.                             plan to sell one third of nuclear power
from the industry. In an official           The Guardian, 11 November 2004; US          company, Areva, on the Paris stock
response, the agency said it would be       Campaign to Free Mordechai Vanunu           exchange early next year. The sale is
willing to discuss such cooperation         by email, 11 November 2004                  expected to raise over 3.5 billion Euro
with environmental groups.                                                              (US$4.51 billion) and will increase the
RIA Novosti, 11 November 2004;                                                          amount of publicly traded Areva
Ecodefense by email, 10 November            Japan approves MOX-burning reactor.         shares from 35 to 40%.
2004; AFP, 8 November 2004                  The Ehime prefectural government on         New York Times, 11 November 2004
                                            1 November approved a plutonium-
                                            thermal project by Shikoku Electric
European Commission reports on              Power Co. to burn mixed-oxide (MOX)         Level 2 incident in Sweden. An inci-
decommissioning. On 26 October, the         fuel at the number 3 pressurized-water      dent rated at Level 2 on the INES scale
European Commission released a              reactor in Ikatacho. The town of Ikata      has occurred in Studsvik when
report on decommissioning funding in        has already given the go-ahead and          iridium-192 contaminated a laboratory
EU countries. The report was a              once the formal go-ahead is given by        via the ventilation system. Inspectors
consequence of the “common rules for        the national government, Shikoku            at the Swedish Radiation Protection
the internal market in electricity”,        Electric will buy MOX for the project.      Authority (SSI) have been investigating
adopted in 2003. The European               The Japan Times, 2 November 2004;           since the incident occurred on 20
parliament asked for separate funds,        The Daily Yomiuri, 2 November 2004          September. Workers at the laboratory
managed by independent bodies, but                                                      were said to have escaped serious
the Commission refused to turn this                                                     injury.
into law and instead proposed issuing       Russian scientist surrenders                Platts Nuclear News Flashes, 26
a “recommendation” in 2005 for              plutonium. Russian atomic scientist         October 2004
sufficient resources to be set aside. The   Leonid Grigorov surrendered 8 contai-
present report observes widely varying      ners of arms-grade nuclear material he
methods of funding the dismantling of       had kept in his garage for 8 years to       Norway: study on cancer link. The
NPPs. Some countries opt for                police on 2 November. The former            government of Norway is preparing a
immediate dismantling, which                scientist claimed to have removed the       report on radioactive emissions during
requires huge sums of money while           400 grams of plutonium-238 from a           the 1950s and 1960s from the Kjeller
others choose to delay dismantling,         disused Siberian laboratory for safe-       laboratory in an effort to determine
which postpones the need for adequate       keeping after the lab was looted fol-       whether those who grew up in the area
funds. The management of these funds        lowing the fall of the Soviet Union in      are at higher risk of developing cancer
and transparency also varies widely         1991. The scientist said he had tried to    or other health problems. The report
                                                                            12 November 2004, WISE/NIRS Nuclear Monitor 618 9
              JAPAN IGNORES COMMON SENSE TO                                          industry allegations that Switzerland
                                                                                     was facing a shortage of power unless
                 CONTINUE ROKKASHO SCHEME                                            electricity output could be increased.
 The Atomic Energy Commission              construction at Rokkasho are said to      The comments came ahead of a debate
 (AEC) of Japan has issued a long-term     be over 2 trillion Yen (US$20 billion)    in the cantonal parliament of Bern
 national nuclear policy for Japan         and having made such a huge               about the future of the Mühleberg
 after concluding the first-ever           financial investment, power utilities     power plant near the capital, Bern. The
 assessment of the viability of the        are lobbying hard to ensure there is      Bern energy utility company wants to
 nuclear fuel cycle program.               no reversal of the decision to start      extend the life span of the nuclear plant.
                                           operation at the reprocessing plant in    Neue Zürcher Zeitung, 10 November
 The resulting report declared that        2006. The utilities would seek            2004
 Japan would no longer be able to          compensation from the government
 utilize nuclear power as its main         if plans were halted now.
 power source if the government                                                      Appeal against Hungarian waste to
 abandoned current plans to reprocess      Despite the relatively cheaper cost of    Chelyabinsk. Russian environmental
 irradiated (spent) nuclear fuel at the    burial, the AEC has, according to the     groups and over 5,000 residents of the
 Rokkasho reprocessing facility in         group Citizens’ Nuclear Information       Russian Chelyabinsk region have
 Aomori Prefecture. The report also        Center (CNIC), ‘agreed’ to sticking to    urged the newly appointed Hungarian
 states that the advantages of             the reprocessing option. CNIC             Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsany to
 reprocessing would be negligible if       reports that the process for coming to    halt plans to export spent fuel to
 plans to construct a fast-breeder         agreement basically involved going        Chelyabinsk. The fuel is to be trans-
 reactor were aborted. Fast-breeders       round the table to listen to all          ported to the “Mayak” facility. In
 burn plutonium to generate                opinions then the chairperson             April, a special protocol was signed by
 electricity and produce (breed) even      announced that the decision was           both countries that allows future
 more plutonium.                           made, thus rubberstamping                 contracts for spent fuel handling.
                                           government policy. Excellent process.     “Mayak” is known for its bad environ-
 Japanese media reported that AEC                                                    mental reputation after radioactive
 also estimated the costs of reproces-     The AEC’s report has been presented       waste was dumped into open lakes and
 sing nuclear fuel over a period of 60-    to a subcommittee, which is expected      rivers over the past four decades. In
 years (to 2059) at 42.9 trillion Yen      to make its final conclusion on the       2002, the Russian Supreme Court con-
 (US$445 billion) compared to 30-38.6      waste disposal issue, to be adopted       firmed that a 1998 transport of spent
 trillion Yen (US$311-400 billion) for     by the government, by year end.           fuel was illegal. Russian NGO Ecode-
 burying the waste. The report further                                               fense (WISE Russia) demands that such
 claims that the burial option would       WISE Japan has initiated a sign-on        transports never happen again.
 necessitate the closure of all Japan’s    letter for organizations and              Ecodefense press release, 27 October
 nuclear plants by 2016. However,          individuals who wish to protest           2004
 Japanese media has suggested that         against the operation of the
 this would only be the case if Aomori     reprocessing plant and the
 Prefecture, host to the Rokkasho          upcoming uranium testing. Those           Uranium found in Russian dump.
 plant, were to refuse to take waste       interesting in reading the letter         Security forces in Russia have seized
 from other NPPs (as retaliation) in       should contact Satomi Oba at WISE         two containers of highly radioactive
 the event of the reprocessing             Japan kota-                               uranium-238 found by homeless
 scheme’s cancellation. If this did               people at a waste dump in Central
 occur, other NPPs would reach waste                                                 Russia. A scrap dealer raised the alarm
 storage capacities much quicker,, 2 November 2004; AFX,        when the containers were offered for
 which would thus make continued           22 October 2004; 9          sale as scrap metal. Observers have
 operations impossible. The costs of       October 2004                              been raising the issue of unsecured
                                                                                     nuclear materials from Soviet-era
should be ready by February 2005. The      Swiss Greens slam plans for new           nuclear facilities for some time,
Norwegian NGO Bellona has been             nuclear plants. Anti-nuclear groups       fearing that the materials could be
demanding a study of the emissions         have criticized plans for a new nuclear   used by terrorists.
and noted that about 30 residents from     power station to replace aging plants     The Times, 20 October 2004
the area who have cancer have publicly     in Switzerland. The groups, including
said they believe radioactive emissions    WWF Switzerland, the Swiss Energy
from Kjeller caused their illnesses.       Foundation, the Greens and the Social     Russian nuclear industry’s math
Research reactors at Kjeller were used     Democratic Party, say renewable           problem. According to a new study
for isotope production and another is      energy could produce as much power        obtained by environmental group,
still in operation.                        as is currently generated by the three    Ecodefense, the Russian government’s
Nucleonics Week, 4 November 2004           nuclear reactors and dismissed            plan to import foreign irradiated

10   WISE/NIRS Nuclear Monitor 618, 12 November 2004
(spent) nuclear fuel failed to include    nation’s high dependency on oil. A            plant and hide it there. Police have
specific costing for the storage of       government report outlining options           launched an investigation into the
nuclear materials and the utilization     for Portugal’s energy future, which was       incident.
of radioactive waste. The “forgotten”     analyzed by the cabinet, proposed             Reuters, 22 October 2004
amount is nearly US$34 billion, which     using nuclear power and reviving a
when added to the official projected      giant dam project in northern
cost, brings the grand total for the      Portugal. But both options were               Unwanted guest at Indian NPP. The
scheme to over US$44 billion. The         unanimously rejected. The country is          Tarapur nuclear power station and the
report on the economics of nuclear        one of the most oil-dependent                 adjacent Bhabha Atomic Research
waste import asserts that officials       members of the European Union along           Centre (BARC) are playing host to a
failed to include various pertinent       with Spain, Ireland and Greece.               panther that managed to evade traps
costs in the economic assessment.         Agence France-Presse, 22 October 2004         set by officials. The animal has been
Ecodefense accused the government of                                                    seen roaming the number 3 and 4
wasting taxpayer’s money while                                                          reactors. Employees at both facilities
further damaging and endangering the      Romanian smuggled machine gun                 have refused to work the nightshift;
environment and Russia’s economy.         into nuclear plant. Romanian police           afraid they might become the
Ecodefense press release, 22 October      have arrested a man who smuggled a            panther’s next meal…
2004                                      handmade machine gun into the        (Mumbai news), 25
                                          country’s sole nuclear power plant            October 2004
                                          hidden in a bag. The 31-year old man, a
Portugal rejects nuclear power.           locksmith at the 750-megawatt reactor
Portugal’s center-right government        on the river Danube in Cernavoda,
said on 22 October it had ruled out       told investigators that he was offered
using nuclear energy to reduce the        about US$3 to smuggle the bag into the

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                                                                            12 November 2004, WISE/NIRS Nuclear Monitor 618 11
     THE      NUCLEAR           MONIT OR

The Nuclear Information & Resource Service was
founded in 1978 and is based in Washington, DC.
The World Information Service on Energy was set
up the same year and is housed in Amsterdam,
Netherlands. NIRS and WISE Amsterdam joined
forces in 2000, creating a worldwide network of
information and resource centers for citizens and
environmental organizations concerned about
nuclear power, radioactive waste, radiation, and
sustainable energy.

The Nuclear Monitor publishes international infor-
mation in English 20 times a year. A Spanish trans-
lation of this newsletter is available on the WISE
Amsterdam website (
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a Japanese edition is published by WISE Japan (both
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