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					            State and Local Government
                             A POLITICAL APPROACH

States
Communities
The task of managing conflict
                                 Managing Conflict
Where to spend money?
   Which street to pave?
How to educate children?
Who or what to tax?
Self interest rule
No single right answer
                                 Dimensions of Life
Personal
   Family
Professional
   Career, work
Civic
   Community life
   Public life
   Volunteering
                                    Professional
Career, work
   Government as employer
   Regulator—Licensing
      Constantly changing requirements
   Protector
      Harassment
      Safety


                                 Role of the States
States are in second place to Feds
   Media attention
   Glamour
   Mundane
Each state is unique
   History
   Image
                            Functions of Government
 Provide services
    Efficiently--$
    Effectively
    Fairly
 Land use planning
 Strengthen economy
    Generate jobs
 Innovate
    Health insurance
                                  Capacity of States
Ability of state and local gov’t to
   Respond effectively to change
   Make decisions efficiently, responsively
   Manage conflict
Constraints
   Fiscal resources
   Willingness to pay
Example:    New Orleans

                                       Major Issues
Economy
Homeland Security or natural disaster
   Infrastructure
Education
       Finances
       Goals
       Role of national gov’t
Health care costs
       All citizens
       Government employees
                                        Examples
Immigration
   On the Mexican border
   Agriculture and low wage jobs
Fires in UP and West
Too hot in Midwest and Southwest
No snow in UP
                                 Growth and Decline
Largest populated states
Fastest growing states
   Sunbelt
Slowest growing or declining states
   Rustbelt
                                     Demographics
Income
Education
   Michigan’s ranking on college completion
Race
Ethnicity
                                    Political Ideology
Issue or policy positions
   Welfare eligibility and benefits
   Health care availability
   Death penalty
   Gun control
   Abortion laws
   Unionization
   Tax policies
   Immigration enforcement
                                         Religion
Variablity
Highs and Lows
                          Development of Local Government
 Site of most political conflicts and issues that affect ordinarily affect our lives
Provide the services that affect us
                                        Services
 Education
   Most costly  -- 35%
      Testing
      Teacher qualifications
      NCLB
      Tuition
 Health and Welfare -- 25%
      Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
      Medicaid
      Food stamps
      Unemployment
                                   Services
Transportation-- 8%
   Highways and roads
     Construction and repair
     Locating highways
     Regulating traffic
Public Safety    -- 9%
   Police
   Fire
   Corrections
                                        Issues
Family leave policies
Welfare reforms
Decriminalizing activities
Criminalizing activities
Gay Marriage
Universal Health Insurance
   Massachusetts and California
                                         Quiz
Word association
                                    Sense of Place
What word or phrase do you associate with Michigan?
What word do you associate with Detroit?
                                    Sense of Place
What word or phrase do you associate with Michigan?
What word do you associate with Detroit?
What word or phrase do you associate with your home town?
                                    Image of State
West Virginia
   Outhouse or mountain
North Dakota or Dakota
   Warmer image
New Hampshire
   Live free or die   or Scenic
Michigan Quarter
                    Some See Big Problem in Wisconsin Drinking

 By DIRK JOHNSON November 16, 2008              EDGERTON, Wis.

 When a 15-year-old comes into Wile-e’s bar looking for a cold beer, the bartender
  is happy to serve it up — as long as a parent is there to give permission. “If
  they’re 15, 16, 17, it’s fine if they want to sit down and have a few beers,” said
  Mr. Whaley, who owns the tavern in this small town in southern Wisconsin.

 While it might raise some eyebrows in most of America, it is legal in Wisconsin.
  Minors can drink alcohol in a bar or restaurant in Wisconsin if they are
  accompanied by a parent or legal guardian who gives consent. While there is no
  state law setting a minimum age, bartenders can use their discretion in deciding
  whom to serve.

 This state, long famous for its breweries, has led the nation in binge drinking in
  every year since the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began its surveys
  more than a decade ago. Binge drinking is defined as five drinks in a sitting for a
  man, four for a woman.
 People in Wisconsin are more likely than anywhere else to drive drunk, according
  to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. The state has among the highest
  incidence of drunken driving deaths in the United States.

 Drunken drivers in Wisconsin are not charged with a felony until they have been
  arrested a fifth time. Wisconsin law prohibits sobriety checks by the police, a
  common practice in other states.
                                      Chapter 2
                                 State Constitutions
 Some state constitutions
    Provide for more rights than US Constitution
    Handle other issues
 Examples:
    Same sex marriage/union
      Vermont’s and Massachusetts's constitutional basis as interpreted by their
        courts
      Michigan’s no benefits amendment
    Right to education
    Search and seizure procedures
    Terms for elected officials
                                      Principles
Limited Government
   Formal structure of government
   Power of government over individual
   Individual liberty protected from gov’t
Fundamental law of state
Written constitutions
                                      Federalism
U.S. Constitution is supreme
Federal law trumps state constitution
   10 Commandments in Alabama judicial center
U.S. treaties are supreme
                                      Problems
Too long
   Too easy to amend
      Protect special interests
   Articles rarely dropped
   Alabama—310,296 words
      US—8,700 words
                                      Problems
Substantive Policy Issues included
   Too detailed
   Off street parking rules for cities
   Length of wrestling matches—California
   Tax issues
Interest Groups
Citizen Movements
                                Amending Constitutions
Easier than U.S. Constitution
   South Carolina 665
   Alabama                 664
   U.S.                     27

                                       Reforms
Shorter, less detailed
More flexibility for government
                                      Essentials
Bill of Rights
   Due process of law to deprive life, liberty, and property
   Equal rights for women and men
   Privacy
   Rights of victims of crimes
   Right to revolution (NH)
   Right to clean air and water (PA)
                                       Privacy
Hiring decisions by a school
   What can they ask?
       Age?
       Married?
       Plan to have children?
       Arrests?
       Convictions?
                                  State Constitutions
Bill of Rights
   Similar to US Constitution
   Florida: Free to be left alone
   Mississippi: Victims speak in court, restitution
   Indiana: Prohibit unnecessary rigor in punishment
   Right to Bear Arms
                                        Privacy
Hiring decisions
   History of smoking cigarettes
   Drinking
   Traffic tickets
   Prescription drug use
   Eating fast food four times a week
                                  State Constitutions
Bill of Rights
Separation of Powers
   Legislature
      Two Houses, except Nebraska
      Intended to be strongest
   Executive   -- Governor
      Intended to be weaker than legislature
   Judiciary
                                 State Constitutions
Bill of Rights
Separation of Powers
Local governmental structures
   Home Rule
Taxation and Finance

                               Changing Constitutions
Proposed
   Legislative proposals
   Popular initiative
   Constitutional Convention
   Revision Commission
Approved
   By voters
                             Representative Government
Not direct democracy
   Founders
   20th Century Populists
      Primaries
      Initiative
      Referendum
      Recall
Indirect
   Vote for representatives
                                Arguments for Direct
Responsive
Accountability
Debate increased
Voter turnout increased
Increase trust and diminishes alienation
   Greater involvement
                               Arguments for Indirect
Protect minority rights
Complex issues require complex solutions
   Modifications and alternatives discussed
Unwise policies reduced
Voters not fully informed
   Confusion created
                                         Trend
More direct democracy
   Not ideological — hot button issues
       Same sex marriage denied
       Medical marijuana allowed
       Tax increases
       Abortion restrictions
       Affirmative action
       School vouchers
       Term limits
                                        Impacts
On elections of candidates
Legislatures shift controversial issues
                                   Informal Changes
Interpretation of Constitution by
   Legislature
   Executive
   Judiciary
       Judicial review

                                 Chapter 3   Federalism
Dividing governmental powers between a central government (national) and sub-
  national units
Options
    Strong sub-units     -- Confederation
   Unitary
                                         Issues
Water
Closing military bases
                                    Why Federalism?
Local power reduces threat of tyranny
   Ability to live your lives
   Dispersed power
       Education
   More participation with proximity to people
       Leadership ladder begins at local level
   Decentralization reduces bureaucratic rigidity
       Speeding law(s)
                                    Why Federalism?
Ensure policy responsiveness to citizens
   Ability to vote with your feet
   Competition among communities
Reduces conflict
                                       Problems
Confusion on who is responsible
   Infrastructure
   Finger pointing – Katrina response
   Future disasters?
                                       Problems
Avoid hard issues
   Slavery
   Racial segregation
   Voting rights
   NIMBY and national priorities
                           Structure of Federal System
 Nation created by the Constitution
    Supremacy of the national government
    States cannot secede
 Delegated powers
    Military
    Economy
    Create a court system
    Laws that are necessary and proper
      Implied powers
      Elastic clause
                           Structure of Federal System
Powers reserved to the states
   Elections
   Ratify amendments
Concurrent powers
   National Guard
Example
   Crime
                           Structure of Federal System
 Powers denied to
   National Government
   State Governments
   Both National and State governments
                           Structure of Federal System
 National government obligation to states
   Territorial integrity
   Republican
   Equal Senate representation
   National security
   Domestic security
                            Constitutional Amendments
 Amendment     approval depends on states
ERA
   7 years
   Rescind previous vote
Pay raise for Congress
   203 years
                                      Landmarks
Marbury v. Madison                1803
McCulloch v. Maryland             1819
Civil War                         1861
NLRB v. Jones & Laughlin 1937
Brown v. Board of Ed              1954
                                      Money
Basis of Washington’s power
Continuing expansion of government’s reach
   Necessary and proper clause
   Interstate commerce
   General Welfare
Income tax
                                 Grants in Aid
Transfer of monies
   From National to State or Local governments
Strings attached
Issue areas
Categorical
Block
Grantsmanship
                             Who does the better job?
It depends
                               Variations Over Time
Dual Federalism                   1987 - 1913
   Layer cake
   Separated areas of functions
Cooperative Federalism            1913 - 1964
   No distinction in functions
   Sharing areas of responsibility
   Marble cake
                               Variations Over Time
Centralized Federalism   1964 - 1980
   All problems are national problems
   Great Society
New Federalism                    1981 – 1985
   Reduce federal role in domestic issues
   More Block Grants
                                 Variations Over Time
Supreme Court enters
   Representational Federalism     1985 – 1996
      Elected members of Congress protect states
   Restraints on Interstate Commerce Powers
      Lopez Case
          Guns in School

                           Unfunded Mandates and Bribery
Required but not paid for
No Child Left Behind
Drinking age
                               Participation and Elections
   Is it desirable to increase voter turnout?
   Why?
   Civic responsibility
   Fundamental element of citizenship

   Some people are just dumb

                            Participation and Elections
   Applied to student government elections
                              Nature of Participation
Recent trend since 2004
   More Latinos voting
   More African-Americans voting
   More under 24’s voting
                                Nature of Participation
Forms
   Voting
   Talking about politics
   Contact an elected official
   Wear a button, bumper sticker, sign
   Contribute money
   Join a campaign
   Run for office
                                Informed and Involved
Attend meetings
Join civic groups
Read papers, listen to news
Think
                                     Rational Voting
Reward matches effort
   What do you get out of it?
   Will your vote make a difference?
   Does it make a difference who wins?
Intrinsic value of participation
    Sense of civic duty
    Patriotism
   Belief in democracy
                                    Rational Nonvoting
Registration
   College students in Michigan
Voting alternatives
   Not knowing absentee voting system
   Polling hours and places
   Computer voting from home
No competition
   Sense that things are fine
                                    Rational Nonvoting

 No hot races
    Candidates not interesting
    Issues unimportant
 No personal contact with candidates
 Personal, social, cultural factors
 Psychological disconnect
    Anger with politics
    Florida 2000

                                    Rational Nonvoting
Media coverage
   Lack of
   Horse race approach, gotcha coverage
   Predictions
Negative campaigns
Too many ads, phone calls
Lack of high school civics courses
                                      Demographics
 How to win:
    Women
    Over 45
    White
    Employed
    College grad
 Democrats
    Achieve over 70% of Hispanic
    Achieve over 90% of African American
    Over 57% of women

                                 Party Strengths
Get out the vote
  Republicans
       Men
       White
       Weekly church attendees
   Democrats
       Achieve over 70% of Hispanic
       Achieve over 90% of African American
       Over 57% of women
                                     Reforms
Vote early and absentee voting
Better voting equipment
   Fool proof, error free
Money in the state election systems
Education programs
                                     Right to Vote
End property ownership requirements
No race requirement
Women allowed to vote
White only primary disallowed
                                     Right to Vote
18 year old voters
   26th Amendment
Voter registration discrimination
   Literacy test -- 1964 Civil Rights Act
   Poll tax – 24th Amendment
   Federal Registrars– 1965 Civil Rights Act
               States Prepare for Tests of Changes to Voting System

By IAN URBINA                                                           February 5,
  2008
 After California ordered a switch to paper ballots from touch-screen voting
  machines for Tuesday’s primary, election officials in the sprawling, 7,200-square-
  mile Riverside County had to decide the best way to pick up the ballots so they
  could be centrally counted on time: helicopter or truck?
 They chose land rather than air, because the last time the helicopter had been
  grounded by fog. Then they encountered another problem: 60,000 absentee
  ballots had begun to fall apart at the fold lines.
 Several states are expecting a higher than usual turnout, which could increase
  bottlenecks in precincts with too few voting machines. The growing popularity of
  absentee voting is also contributing to possible delays because the ballots take
  more time to process and often arrive at the last minute.
 Voting experts have raised concerns about at least five states using paperless
  touch-screen machines, which could make recounts impossible in close races or
  cases of computer failure. And the rush by states to move up their caucus and
  primary dates has shortened the amount of time voting officials have to hire &
  train poll workers.

 In California, which has the highest number of delegates, election officials in at
  least 20 counties without paper-trail machines were told by the state in August to
  switch back to paper ballots. But those ballots will have to be counted at a central
  location using the same scanners that normally count the absentee votes, because
  the counties were not able to acquire enough machines to perform tallies at
  individual polling places.
 About half of California voters are expected to vote by mail, and many of them,
  voting officials say, have waited until the last moment to send their ballots. These
  ballots take longer to process.

 Thirty-four states now make it easier to vote early or absentee, dropping a
  requirement that such voters explain themselves. Georgia adopted no-excuse
  absentee voting in 2005 &, like Arizona & Calif, has seen a recent increase in the
  number of absentee voters.
 All polling places in NJ, Delaware and Georgia, as well as most in Tenn and some
  in Arkansas, will use paperless touch-screen machines. These states were rated
  “high risk” for voting problems. Meaningful recounts in close races are impossible
  without a paper trail.
 Amid growing concerns about the potential for tampering or malfunctions, election
  directors in Ohio, Florida, California and Colorado have decided, usually after
  intensive state reviews, to shift away from paperless touch-screen machines.

 New Jersey intended to have already made the shift by ordering voting officials to
  retrofit the state’s 10,000 electronic-voting machines with paper. When prototype
  printers failed to meet standards established by the state, the attorney general
  requested, and the Legislature granted, an extension of the deadline.
 Elsewhere, different worries exist. Georgia faces the first statewide test of its new
  voter ID law, and Arizona will holds its first contest for national office under its
  own ID law. In Connecticut, Tuesday’s election will be the first in which the entire
  state is voting on optical-scan machines instead of lever machines, but most
  voting experts say the state is well prepared.
 Many voters in NY State will vote on the same mechanical-lever machines that
  have been in use since the early 1960s. The state, which is the last in the nation
  to comply with a federal election-modernization law, is under court order to buy at
  least one machine for disabled voters for each polling place by the September
  primary, and to replace all of its 20,000 lever voting machines by 2009.

                                  Digital Participation
Dot.gov, E-Gov
   Access to services
   Complaints registered
   Surveys
   Observe government inaction
   Access to information
   Chat rooms
   Political campaigns
       Donations
                                       E-Government
What is next?
                                    The Range of Options
                          Active

                  Voice                     Exit

 Constructive                                      Destructive

                   Loyalty                  Neglect

                       Passive
                                      Interest Groups
Seeks to influence specific policies
   Not to control all of government
   Hundreds of groups operate in states
Individuals organize in common
Lobbying
                                     Lobbying Activities
Self interest
   Economic interests
Public interest
   Environmental
Michigan Budget and Taxes
   Who wins?
   Who loses?
                                       Sense of Place
What word or phrase do you associate with Michigan?
                                       Heavy Hitters
Business
Teachers
Utilities
Insurance
Hospital, nursing homes
Lawyers
Local government
                                       Lobbyist Skills
Knowledge of legislative system
Ability to win friends
Knowledge of policy area
Access to decision makers
Reputation – credibility
Access to resources
                                  Who is a Lobbyist?
Former elected officials
Former bureaucrats
Lawyers
Former legislative aides
                                 LSSU and Lobbying
Consultant
Writing campaign
Student government
President
Cocktail party
Golf outing
Committee hearings on campus
                                       Tactics
Testimony
Contacting legislator
   Informing
Draft legislation
Develop legislative strategy
Letter writing campaign
Forming coalitions
Knowing what is happening
                                       Tactics
Campaign assistance
   Money
   Staff
   In kind contributions – polling
Lawsuits
Entertainment
Public relations work
                                What do Lobbyists do?
Inform clients
Advise on strategies
Easier to block legislation

                                    The Down Side
Bribery
   Legal
        Informational trips
        Campaign contributions
               Political Action Committees
        Future jobs
        Favors
   Illegal
        Quid pro quo
               Do this, get that
                                       Problems
Good Old West Virginia
   Part time legislators
   Daniel Boone Hotel
   Indictments
Term limits
                                       Remedies
Regulations
   Registration
   Issues being lobbied
   Contacts
   Money spent

                                  External Lobbying
Grassroots activity
Media campaigns
   On a targeted topic
   Creating an image
                                 Comparing States
Level of interest group power
   Michigan
       Complimentary or subordinate to other institutions (Political parties,
         governor)
       MEA
       Unions
       Automotive industry
       Recent history
           Tax reform, Disclosure of MEA data
                                   The Extremes
Protest as participation
   Civil disobedience
   Violence
Balancing
   Gain media attention
   Lose public support
                                    Political Parties
Political Parties
   Find candidates
   Run candidates
       Financial support
       Campaign consultants
   Organize government
                                    New Strategies
Identify voters
   Targeting
   Message tailored to voter
Get out vote
   Media
   Personal
       Phone
       E-Mail

                                       Strategies
Traditional
   Go for the middle, moderate voter
New
   Mobilize the base, strong supporters
Negative works
                                      Party Maps
Republicans
   Business enterprisers--economics
   Social conservatives---religious
Democrats
   Social welfare loyalists—Disadvantaged
   Believers in government—Liberals
   Secular conservatives
                                     In the Middle
Independents
   Upbeats     —    positive and moderate
   Disaffected —    working class, discouraged
   Bystanders —     political dropouts
                                  Political Party Theory
Responsible party model
   Clear, consistent, coherent programs
   Voters vote based on party
   In office, programs implemented
   Next election is vote on program results
   Accountability
                                 Political Party Reality
 Ticket splitting
 Personality based voting
    Image of Granholm or Devos
 Ideology or pragmatism
    Charter schools
    Jobs
    Taxes
 Current situation in state
 Officials not bound by campaign promises
                              Candidate Centered Reality
Less control by party officials
   Primary elections
   Decline in party identification
   Television
   Decline of patronage
                              Continuing Role for Parties
Organize elections
   Find assist candidates
Shorthand for some in voting
   Image of parties
Organize government
   Appoint department heads
   Legislative leaderships
                                   Two Party Politics
 Established by tradition
 Supported by law
 Difficult for third parties to break through
    Populist movements—Jessie Ventura
    Conservative parties—New York
    Green parties—Ralph Nader
    Libertarian Party
    Natural Law Party
    Independents

                                Two Party Competition
State domination changes over time
   Solid South
       From Democrat to Republican
   Conservative, Republican swing
   Independent voters
Divided government
   Each party controls part of government          Michigan
                                        Primaries
Closed
   Only party members vote
   Must be registered by party
Semi-Closed
   Choose which ballot when voting
   Crossover voting
Caucus
                                      Primaries
Open
   One ballot for both parties
       Select which party
       Independents vote
Blanket
   Go back and forth in selecting candidates from each party
   Unconstitutional -- 2000
                                   True Believers
 Activists
    Party organizers
    Ideologues and pragmatists
    Revolving door
       Campaign to government to Party Headquarters
    Expertise
       State law
       Campaign strategies tactics
       Volunteer recruitment and use
                              Party Control in States
2008
   Governors
       28 -- Dem
       22 -- Rep
   State Legislatures
       12    -- Split
       15    -- Rep
       22    -- Dem
        1    -- Non partisan
                                  Party Competition
Turnover in state wide elections
Margins of victory
Divided control of legislature & governors
Keeps changing
                          Party Competition – So What?
 Competitive, contested elections
    Based on
     Urban                ---        Suburban, rural
     Low income ---           Middle income
       Ethnic, racial      ---       White
     Issues
       Education
       Welfare
       Moral
       Taxes and appropriations
       Regulation of business
                               Professional Marketing
Consultants
    Image makers
    Pollsters
    Media buyers
    Public relations
    Web masters
    Focus groups
                          Professional Marketing Techniques
  Computerized mailing
    Mass
    Targeted
 High tech
    Microtargeting
 Polling
    Recognition, image
    Benchmark
    Vulnerability
    Tracking
                          Professional Marketing Techniques
 Integrated Theme Machine
    TV, Radio, Print
Creative events
    Walk across state
    New job every week
Robo and Interactive voice calls
                          Professional Marketing Techniques
Viral marketing on internet
Anger points – hot button issues
72 – hour campaign
Palm Pilot canvassing
                               Elements of Campaigns
Theme
    Stay on message
    Reinforce image
Personality
Grassroots campaigning
    Contact between candidate and voter
   Ask for their vote
                               Elements of Campaigns
Media
   Free
   Paid
   New sources
      Targeted – cable and radio
   Ability to target ads on narrowcasts
                                Campaign Finances
Increasing costs
Major donors
                             Campaign Finance Reforms
Appearance of corruption
Donations = Free speech
Disclosure
   Reveal donors, amounts
Limit amounts donated
Limit spending with public financing
Weakens party power
                         Campaign Finance Reform Loopholes
Bundling
Independent campaigns
No restriction on candidate’s own money
                                 State Legislatures
Michigan
   Delay in budget
   Pay raise
                                 State Legislatures
Formal powers
   Enact laws, statutes
      Wide range of issues
        Abandoned babies
        Evaluating students
        Paying for health care
        Official cooking pot, state fruit
   Consider constitutional amendments
   Approve executive and judicial appointments
               Parents Give Up Youths Under Law Meant for Babies
 October 3, 2008 By ERIK ECKHOLM       Omaha

 The abandonments began when a mother left her 14-year-old son in a police
  station here. By Sept. 23, two more boys and one girl, ages 11 to 14, had been
  abandoned in hospitals.

 The biggest shock to public officials came last week, when a single father walked
  into an hospital and surrendered nine of his 10 children, ages 1 to 17, saying that
  his wife had died and he could no longer cope with the burden of raising them.

 Officials have called the abandonments a misuse of a law that was intended to
  prevent so-called Dumpster babies — the abandonment of newborns by young,
  terrified mothers —instead it has been used to hand off out-of-control teenagers
  or to escape financial and personal despair.

 In July, Nebraska became the last state to enact a safe-haven law. Such laws
  permit mothers to leave an infant at a facility with no fear of prosecution.
 Nationwide, more than 2,000 babies have been turned over since Texas enacted
  the first such law in 1999.
 But Nebraska’s version was far broader than all others, protecting not just infants
  but also children up to age 19. The sponsor of the Nebraska bill said some
  legislators wanted to protect all children from harm.


                   Age limit for Nebraska safe-haven law debated
 Associated Press        November 18, 2008
 Nebraska legislators opened a public hearing Monday on adding an age limit to a
  safe-haven law that has allowed nearly three dozen children -- some close to
  adulthood -- to be abandoned at hospitals.

  Gov. Heineman has proposed allowing parents and guardians to drop off only
  infants no older than 3 days at hospitals without fear of prosecution for
  abandonment. Some legislators want a higher age limit; Sen. Langemeier said
  that it should be 30 days.

  At three days, "you haven't spent all night up with them, you haven't fired of
  them. . . . Everything that goes along with being a new parent hasn't set in yet,"
  Langemeier said after introducing his amendment.

  Another amendment to Heineman's bill would cap the age at 1 year. Yet another
  would set a limit of 15 years. The governor said Monday that he's flexible on an
  age limit and is willing to work with the Legislature.
                                   State Legislatures
Formal powers
   Approve budgets
   Constituent services
   Oversight of state agencies & programs
                                  State Legislators
7,382 members of state legislatures
Social status – upwardly mobile, middle class
Lawyers, retired, business owner
College educated
Getting younger
Wealthier
Amateurs
                                    State Legislators
 Minorities
    African-Americans
    Hispanics
 Women
    23%
    Style of decision making
 More liberal
 Committed to health, education, welfare, equality
                                 Path to the Legislature
Split
   First political office
   Served on city, county, education boards
Why?
   Civic duty
   Politics gets in the blood
   Lots of fun
Money
                                 Path to the Legislature
Campaign
   Primary
   General
   Competitive or safe district
                                      Incumbency
 90% successful
 Visible in the district among constituents
 Resources of office
    Ability to do favors
    Casework generates gratitude
    Newsletters
    Staff
 Easier to raise money
 Careerism, professionalism
                                   Malapportionment
Unequal representation
   New Jersey in 1962
   Senators represented 49,000 in one district and 924,000 in another district
Inherent unfairness
Legislatures draw the boundaries
Judicial solutions required
                                      Redistricting
Census data
Rules
    Re-drawing boundaries
    One person , one vote
    +/- 2% difference
    Contiguous
    Jurisdictional boundaries intact
                                      Gerrymandering
Political party advantage    -
    No, if it degrades vote of a group
    But, splintering and packing allowed
    Cannot be the only reason
Majority/minority district
    Affirmative racial gerrymandering
Used to protect incumbents
                                  How a Bill Becomes a Law
 An idea
     No smoking in cars with children
     Data
 Support of policy entrepreneurs
     Lobbying
     Coalitions
 Assigned to Committee
     Can assist chances or kill it
      TransportationCommittee or Health Committee
                         How a Bill Becomes a Law
 Subcommittee
    Hearings, testimony
    Vote
 Committee
    Vote
 Floor
    Debate
    Vote

                                  How a Bill Becomes a Law
 Other house
    Same process
    Time consuming
 Conference committee
    Resolve differences
    Who is appointed
 Governor’s Office
    Sign
    Veto
       Complete or item veto
       No action
    Amend
                                         Why this process?
Deliberation
Delay
Not efficient on purpose
Rush at the end of sessions
   Disorderly
   Compromise
   Logrolling, vote trading
                                            Structure
Two houses
   One represents a larger number of constituents than the other
   Slows down process of making laws
Single house
   Nebraska
   More efficient
                                            Structure
Size
   Alaska Senate                   --       20
   Delaware, Nevada                --       21
   New Hampshire House        --           400
Length of sessions
   Michigan                                 --    332 days
   Utah                                     --     45 days
                                            Structure
 Term
    4 years for senates
    2 or 4 years for lower house
 Term limits
    15 states
    From 14 to 24 years
    Lobbyists/bureaucrats increase power
    Permanent inexperience
      Especially in leadership positions
 End career politicians
    Lack of trust
                                    Term Limits

Popular
Every problem has a simple solution—
        But it is generally wrong
                                            Structure
 Pay
   Many states       Per diem
   New Hampshire            $200
   California               $99,000
   Michigan                 $79,000
                      $1000 per month
                             34% increase in 2000
                            Malfunctioning Legislatures
Part time
Low paid
No staffing
 Impact
   Governors have power
   Reform was needed
Term limits???
                                 Professionalization
High salaries
Office budgets
   Travel
   Newsletters
   Actual private office
   Communication software and hardware
Not term limits
Institutional staff
                                  Informal Norms
Limits on new members
   Paying your dues
   Gotta go along to get along
   Changing situation with term limits
Ability to forget yesterday’s vote
   Permanent temporary amnesia
                                  Informal Norms
 Consensus building
   Negotiate positions
   Compromise
   The best is the enemy of the good
                                      Committees
Where the legislative business is done
Standing committees
   Subject matter committees
       Specialization
Appropriations committee = $
Temporary committees
   Conference committees
                                      Leadership
Formal
   Organized by parties
   Appoint committee chairs and members
   Constitutional presiding officer
Informal
   Seniority
   Respect for specialized knowledge
   Friendship
                                     Leadership
Set priorities
Keep process moving
Obstruct process
Maintain institutional power
                                  Informal Norms
Promotion based on
   Seniority
   Talent
   Ambition
   Ability to make friends
Do not bring the legislature into disrepute
                                        Roles
Delegate
   Follow wishes of constituents
   Be responsive to their wishes
Trustee
   Rely on own judgment
Politico
   Pick your votes
                                Votes and Pressure
Constituents
Party
Lobbyists
Governor
Staff
Media Attention
Other Legislators
Ideology
                                    Representative
 Funds for district
    Roads, buildings
 Casework
    Solve problems with bureaucracy
    Education Department criteria for teachers
 Present views of constituents on issues
 New communications technology
    Internet
            E-mail
            Facebook
            You tube
                                      Impact of Parties
In two party competitive situation
   Cohesiveness is greater
   Blocking legislation
   Leaders enforce party line voting
                                    Chapter 7: Governors
Increasingly important
   Four of last five presidents
            Actually running an organization
            Responsible for solving problems
            Governors pushed George W. Bush
    Next vice president
                                    Chapter 7: Governors
 Held accountable and responsible
            Grey Davis of California for energy costs
            Gov. Granholm for economy
            Through elections
                                     Gubernatorial Power
 20   th
            Century movement
    Increase power of governors
 1960’s Trend
    Even greater strengthening of powers
    Fewer statewide elected officials
    Longer terms
 Blending two types of power
    Formal
    Informal
                                     Roles of Governors
Chief Administrators
   Run departments
   Avoid scandal
   Settle conflicts, especially budget
   Decide on priorities
                                     Roles of Governors
Chief Legislator
   Initiator of legislation
            Can set agenda
   Persuader, bargainer        or combative, fighter
            Threat of veto
            Call sessions
                                   Roles of Governors
Party politicos
    Limited
Ceremonial
    Inspiring, public relations managers
    Meeting school children
    Represent state
    Least demanding, most enjoyable
                                   Roles of Governors
Negotiator with states, DC, local gov’t
    Pollution
    Highways funding
    Education
    Water
Opinion leaders
    Appearances before groups
    Media attention
                                   Roles of Governors

                             Contemporary Governors
John Engler
Jennifer Granholm
 George and Jeb Bush
Arnold Schwarzenegger
Dick DeVos
Mitt Romney
                                     Characteristics
Minimum age: 18 to 31
Education: Average of 18 years
Experience as elected official
White males still dominate
More women elected and appointed
    Eight are currently serving
Salaries average $104,000
    Range from $65,000 to $179,000
                                     Characteristics
Characters
    Huey Long
    Populists
       Jesse Ventura
Lawyers
Competitive campaigns
   Leadership qualities
   Personality
                                  Characteristics
Ambitious
   Move to national level
      President
      Vice President
      Cabinet
      Senate
      House of Representatives
      Ambassador
                                  Getting Elected
Access to funds
   2002--$146m in primary & general election in New York
   Michigan
      DeVos       -- $41m
      Granholm    -- $14m
   Cost per vote ranges from $42 in Alaska to $3 in Vermont

                                  Getting Elected
Name recognition, visibility
Incumbency
Party strength
Right issues, conditions
TV image
                                  Getting Elected
Ability to campaign
Political experience
Understanding where the public is
   Developing a message
   Connecting with public mood
   Communicating the message effectively
                                  Formal Powers
Range from strong to weak
   Authority and influence from constitution and law
   Appointments
   Removal powers
      At will or for cause
How many other state wide offices
                                  Formal Powers
Tenure
   Longer time period is stronger
   Term limits
       Virginia allows a single 4 year term
State boards
Prepare budget
                                 Working with Legislature
Working with or leading legislators
   Divided government
       Inside or outside strategy
         Consult
         Give a speech
   Set the agenda of activity
     State of the state
     Initiator of legislation
     Lobbyist for legislation
                              Working with Legislature
Working with or leading legislators
    Inducements
       Appointments
       Pork barrel appropriations
   Threats
       Veto
       Campaign against legislator
                                 Working with Legislature
 Divided Government
   Conflict
   Cooperation
   Avoid appearance of playing politics
Living with gridlock
   Intended as method for limiting government
                                  Governor as Politician
 Good, old fashioned politics
    Who gets
      What
      When
      How much
    Patronage
      Rewarding political support
      Disappointing those not appointed
    Example
      LSSU
           Funds for new building
                               Governor as Politician
Use of media
   Most visible leader in state
   Show of anger or humor
Personal popularity
                               Duties & Responsibilities
Policymaker
   Finding solutions to problems
   Passing laws
   Cooperating with legislature, bureaucrats, interest groups
   Entrepreneurial
   Innovative
                               Duties & Responsibilities
Policymaker
      Budget cuts
      Prison overcrowding
      Abortion rights and restrictions
      Education
      Economic development
      Environmental protection
      Criminal law changes
      Gay rights
                               Duties & Responsibilities
 Administrator
    Make bureaucracy more efficient & effective
      Unemployment benefits in Michigan
    Making government responsive
    Manage workers
    Unionization and civil service protections
    Privatization
    Crisis management
      Prison riot, Natural disasters, Urban riots
                              Duties & Responsibilities
Intergovernmental relations activities
   Seek national government help
      FEMA
      Unfunded mandates
      President Bush to visit Arnold
   Environmental issues
   NGA
      Gaming enterprises

                               Duties & Responsibilities
Master of Ceremonies
   Ribbon cutting exercises
   Represent the state
                               Duties & Responsibilities
 Promoting Economic Development           Recruiting
   Cheerleader in chief for the State
                                       Removal
 Recall
    Two successful ones
 Impeachment
    17 impeached, 11 convicted
 Resignation
    Forced or otherwise
 Death
 Election loss
 Term limited
 Decide not to run
                                Other Executive Officers
Attorney General
Lieutenant Governor
   Team election
   Independently elected
Secretary of State
Treasurer
                                Chapter 8 Bureaucracy
Problems and solutions
   Essential public servants
      Daily operations of government
      Developing policies
                              Bureaucratic Approaches
By the book
      Equal treatment for all
      Insensitive, uncaring, bound by rules

Use discretion
      Match the policy to needs of client and situation
      Unfair, preferential treatment
                                      Bureaucracy
Political Target
   Pay and benefits
   Security – hard to fire
      Non-responsive to public
   Monopoly
      Privatize
                                 Bureaucracy Defined
 Rational system of organization
   Chain of command
   Division of labor & Specialized tasks
   Clear lines of responsibility
   Specific organizational goals
   Impersonal treatment of all according to rules
                                     The Numbers
16 million state and local
14% of gov’t workers are national
24% are state
62% are local employees
California 1.5 million
Vermont              .031 million
Cost is $475 billion annually
                                      Expenditures
Education
Welfare
Health and Hospitals
Highways
Corrections
                                         Process
Legislature and Governor make policies, laws
   With input from bureaucrats
Bureaucracy implements policy
   Agency assigned responsibility
   Develops operational regulations
   Describes activities
   Apply resources to achieve goal
      Personnel, budget, office space
                                       Regulations
Formal rules to achieve goals
   Publish drafts
   Public hearings
   Publish final regulations
                                      Adjudication
Administrative decision making about applying rules in specific cases
Judicial process
Use of discretion
                                       Discretion
 Examples:
   No credit for effort in school
   Traffic ticket
   Violence in school
   Zoning variance
                                     Growth in Power
Complexity of problems
Vague laws
   Made explicit by regs
   Expand authority
Citizens want more services, programs
   People do not want to pay more
                                   Fragmentation
Governor not in control of all employees
   Mississippi and Michigan
Reorganization
Change constitution
                            Bureaucracy and Democracy

Making bureaucrats responsive and accountable
   To Whom?
   How?
Controlling the bureaucracy
Freeing bureaucrats from politics
                                      Personnel
 Patronage system
   Political or party affiliation basis of employment
Merit system
   Neutral competence tested
   Classification of jobs
   Pay scales set
   Security from being fired
      1% compared to 10% in business
                                Bureaucratic Cultures
Lifers
   Change is the enemy
   Politicians come and go
   We stay forever
                                Bureaucratic Reform
 Re-inventing government approaches
   Incentive, reward systems
   Performance appraisal systems
   Productivity measures
                                Public Sector Unions
Local gov’t employees             44.0%
State gov’t employees             28.0%
Federal gov’t employees             9.5%



                                Public Sector Unions
 Seniority rule
 Worker – Management conflict
 Collective bargaining
    Wages, benefits, working conditions
 Why?
    Realization of being underpaid
    Dignity and respect valued
    Inadequate grievance procedures
    Lobbying for changes in law
                                  Collective Bargaining
Non market forces
   Tax money allocated
       Tax revolt
   Political forces operate
   Monopolistic essential services
       No alternative available
Contracts and grievances
   Evaluations
                                         Strikes
Health and safety at risk
Widespread inconvenience
Effective in getting attention
Usually illegal
                                      Job Actions
Blue flu
   Sick outs
Work to the book
   Total enforcement
Public’s reaction?
                                   Budgeting Process
Balance revenues and expenditures
   Cannot have a deficit
Strategies, tactics
   Raise revenues, taxes
   Reduce expenditures
       Cut back on services, personnel
                                   Budgeting Process
Operational budget
   Deciding which programs get funded
   Rhetoric to reality
   General Fund
   Dedicated funds
                                   Budgeting Process
Allocations on an annual basis
Pleas, negotiations & compromises
Political rationality at work
   Who gets what
   When
   Where
   How
                                 Budgeting Process
Zero sum game
   For every winner there is a loser
   Cannot spend the same dollar more than once
Process of setting priorities
                                   Budget Cycle
Fiscal year—July 1
Preparation
   Spending requests made by agencies
       Importance of Iron Triangles
       DMB centralizes requests & provides guidance
          Which part of “no” don’t you understand
   Revenues predicted by Treasury
       Past receipts
       Expected economic conditions
                                   Budget Cycle
 Formulation
    Chief Executive develops budget
       Set priorities
    Executive Budget submitted to legislature
       Committees review budget
       Hearings held
       Iron Triangles at work
       End runs discouraged and punished
       Floor debates
       Independent estimates of revenues
                                  Budget Cycle
Adoption
   Result of compromise, negotiation
   Legislation passed and signed
Execution
   Transfer of funds to agencies and subunits
   Funds spent and accounted for
   Mid-year adjustments of revenues and expenditures
                                   Budget Cycle
Executive Audit
   Fiscal audit
   Review and evaluation of program performance, operations, management
       Has agency achieved intended goals in efficient and economic way (within
        budget)
Legislative Oversight
                                       Problems
Vanishing “rainy day fund”
Economic cycles
   Highs and lows
State tied to limited number of industries
   Manufacturing
   Tourism
   Agriculture
                                        Actors
Interest groups
   Lobby and apply pressure
Bureaucratic agencies
   Protect mission and grow
   Defend budget
Executive office of governor
Legislature
                                    Spenders’ Games
Organize constituencies
Go for 10% more than needed
Spend everything
Conceal new programs within old
   Incrementalism
   No new costs
Hold fast
   Every program is absolutely essential
                                 Spenders’ Games
 Offer to cut most popular, essential programs
 Hide programs
 Paralysis through analysis
    We need a study first
 Smoke and mirrors
    Overwhelm with bulk, expertise
    Confuse
                                 Spenders’ Games
 End runs
    To legislature
    Going public
      Media leaks
      Constituents
   Washington Monument strategy
                                 Rational Approach
Identify & prioritize objectives
   What do citizens want from gov’t?
   What are citizens willing to pay?
   Relate the two!
Consider alternative methods to achieve goals
Determine revenues and expenditures comprehensively
                                    Incrementalism
Muddling through
   Uncoordinated decision making
   Not rational
   Feasible, satisficing solutions
Previous year’s budget is starting point
   Reduce level of conflict
Ability to adjust mid-year
                               Types of Budget Formats
 Line item
    Control expenses
    Focus on inputs
    How many computers to buy?
 Management and planning
    How organization achieves priorities
    Rational, comprehensive approach
    Evaluate goal achievement, outputs
    How do computers add to education of kids?
                               Types of Budget Formats
 ZBB
    Start at the base each year
 PPBS
    Systems theory
      Inputs, Conversion process, output, outcome
      Feedback and environment
 Focus on program results
    Measure accomplishments and costs
    MEAP test
    Crime reduction
                            Types of Budget Formats
Capital outlays
   Bonds to actually build the structure
   Once opened, costs become operations
                                     Controversies
Affirmative Action
   Representative bureaucracy
        Responsiveness
        Shared values, culture, gender, religious
   To achieve equal opportunity
        Protected classes
        Preferential hiring practices
   U of M Supreme Court Case
        Some preference, but do not cross a line
                                    Controversies
Sexual Harassment
    Hostile working environment
       Repeated activity
         Sexual joking, teasing
         Displaying pictures
       Supervisory relationship
         Retaliation
       Gender neutral
       Clarence Thomas Case
       Training, policy, procedures
                             Politics and Administration
Making policies with the next election in mind
    Budget cuts
    Responsive to clientele groups’ power
Involved in the implementation of the policies
    Interfering
                                    Public Interest
Difficult to agree on definition
    Facts
    Values
Conflicting interests
    Enforcing regulations
                         Re-Inventing Government Movement
Adopt private enterprise model
    Market competition
    Entrepreneurialism
    Customers deserve efficient, effective services
Methods
    Total Quality Management (TQM)
    Privatization
    E-Government
                                      Judiciary
   Every type of issue can wind up in court
    You can sue over anything
    It doesn’t mean you will win
                                      Judiciary
92 million cases of litigation
99% in state and local courts
1% in Federal Court
Lawyers
    1960            -         285,000
    2005            -       1,100,000
Exceptional cases are on TV
                                       Judiciary
 Courts as appliers, interpreters of the law, state constitution
Courts as policymakers
   Racial desegregation
   Gay marriage
   Church state
   Abortion issues
                                       Judiciary
Politics involved
Style different
   Passive
   Access rules
          Adversaries
          Damages, crime
   Procedures
   Decisions
                                  Types of Litigation

 Common Law
    Judge made law, previous decisions
 Civil
    Contracts
    Torts
    Property
    Estate
 Criminal
    Felony
    Misdemeanor
 Administrative
    Government agency rules
                                    Types of Laws
US Constitution
State Constitution
Federal statutes
State statutes
City ordinances
                                   Court Systems
 Dual system – Judicial federalism
    Federal
    State
 Forum shopping
    Selecting which court to go to
    Terri Schiavo Case
 Different rights
    Privacy
    Free public education
    Search warrant
                                    Court Systems
Nationalization of the Bill of Rights
   “Congress shall make no law”
   Now also applied to states
   Incorporation of the Bill of Rights
                                   Court Systems
 Dual system – Judicial federalism
    Federal
    State
 Types of Jurisdiction
    General
      Circuit
      Major trials
    Limited or special
      District             Probate
      Juvenile             Small claims
      Family               Judge Judy
                                  Tiers—Not Tears
Trial
   Jury or Bench Trial
   Original jurisdiction
Intermediate appellate
Final court of appeal
   A State Supreme Court
                         Funeral Picketing Law Struck Down
 March 11, 2008       By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS

 TOPEKA, Kan. The Kansas Supreme Court effectively ended a law banning
  picketing at funerals, ruling it was unconstitu- tional for legislators to require a
  court to uphold the law before it could be enforced.
 That ''judicial trigger'' was intended to prevent the Westboro Baptist Church from
  collecting damages from the state after a successful appeal of the law.
 The law responded to the sect's picketing of military funerals; Rev. Fred Phelps
  claims U.S. combat deaths are God's punishment for the nation's tolerance of
  homosexuality.
 Ruling on a law before it can be enforced usurps power from the Legislature,
  Justice Marla J. Luckert wrote in the unanimous ruling. 'Courts do not have
  jurisdiction over purely hypothetical questions associated with nonexistent
  issues,'' she wrote.


 The court did not address the merits of the law, which bars protesters from being
  within 150 feet of a funeral 1 hour before, during or 2 hours after a service. It also
  makes it unlawful to obstruct public streets or sidewalks.
 The law also allows families to sue if they feel protesters defamed the dead. That
  single provision survives after the court's ruling.
 The federal government and 37 states have enacted such laws in response to
  Phelps and his church.
 ''I'm appalled with those who choose to add grief to the families of brave soldiers
  & other fallen Kansans. I look forward to signing a constitutionally sound measure
  as soon as the Legislature gets it to me,'' Gov. Sibileus said.
 Phelps & his church have long campaigned against homosexuality & began
  picketing soldiers' funerals in 2005 & protested at some 330 funerals in 47 states.

                                   Increased Cases
Good or Bad?
Needed or frivolous?
                                   Increased Cases
Product liability
   Children’s toys
   Medicine
   Medical malpractice
Contingency fee system
Deep pockets of third parties
Punitive Damages
   Additional compensation
                                   Increased Cases
Pain and suffering
Joint and several liability
   Collect entire award from single party
                                       Changes
Tort reform
   Clout of tort attorneys
Alternative dispute resolution
   Faster
   Cheaper
   Simpler
Pretrial conferences
                                    Who to Select
Professional competence
Personal qualifications
   Judicial temperament
   Moral courage
   Self discipline
   Sound judgment
Reflect community’s values
                                    How to Select
Partisan popular election
   Accountability
   Longer terms for insulation
   Campaign contributions
Nonpartisan popular elections
   Lower participation
   Campaign contributions

                                     How to Select
Merit plans
   Missouri plan
   Nomination
   Appointment
   Election
Appointment by Governor
                                  Selection Methods
Each method has its own bias
   Politics exists in all methods
   Obligations exist in all methods
   Experiences vary in who is selected
   Race and gender considerations
                                  Removal of Judges
 Impeachment
 Popular recall
 Mandatory retirement age
 Resignation
 Voluntary retirement during term
 Decision not to run
 Judiciary discipline and removal commissions
    Health
    Corruption
 Death
                                Judicial Decision Making
 Plea bargaining
    90% of all cases
    Negotiating out of court
      Number of charges
      Seriousness of charges
      Sentences
    Prosecutor wins conviction
    Defendant gets lesser punishment
    Defendant gives up rights
    Victim’s interests may not be involved
                                      Problems
Difference between factual guilt and legal guilt
   What evidence can be brought into court and heard, considered by jury
Belief it is better to avoid convicting an innocent person
   Process biased in favor of defendant
                                         Juries
6 to 12 members
Unanimous usually
Represent community
   Non governmental
Voir dire questioning
One day
Bench trial has no jury
                                   Appellate Court
No plaintiffs, no defendants, no witnesses
Lawyers present legal arguments
Questioned by a panel of judges
                                      Reforms
Proposed solutions based on problem definition—too many cases
   Too many attorneys
   Settlements too large
   Frivolous lawsuits
   Contingency fee system
                                  Proposed Reforms
Alternative dispute resolution
   Mediation, arbitration
Fines against attorneys, litigants
Tracking system
Capping punitive damage awards in tort cases
                             Strategies Against Crime
Broken Windows
   Minor infractions enforcement
Community Policing
   Visibility
Citizen participation
Computer assisted crime fighting

                                    Prosecution
Key role
   Gatekeeper
   Discretion
Plea bargain
   Number
   Level
   Sentencing
                                     Corrections
Probation
   Creative
Prison
Jail
Parole

                                     Corrections
 Goals
   Rehabilitation
   Punishment, retribution
   Isolation from society
   Deterrence
      Specific or General
      Certain, swift, severe
                                     Sentencing
Strategies
   Career criminal – Three strikes
   Recidivism
   Certain and severe (Longer)
   Mandatory Minimums
   Truth in sentencing
   Reduce variation – min/max range
      Supreme Court decision

                                      Problems
Need to build
Cost
Early release
DNA testing
                                    Death Penalty
 Supreme Court
    Juveniles – 18 years old
    Mentally handicapped – IQ of over 59
 Cruel and/or unusual clause of 8th Amend
    Discrimination
    Lethal injection
 Deterrence
    Specific
    General
                                Death Penalty Numbers
135 countries abolished the death penalty
During 2006 25 countries executed 1,591
91% of executions in
    China       1010             Iran 177
    Pakistan      82             Iraq 65
    Sudan         65                  US       53

                                 Death Penalty Issues
 Mistakes
    Illinois found about 40% on death row to be innocent
    Racial bias
Currently a moratorium
Supreme Court examining lethal injection
                                         Local Gov’t
Where we live our lives
Mutual consent, beliefs
Individual freedom
Participation and involvement
                                         Local Gov’t
 Governments
    Provide services
    Resolve conflicts
        Racial
        Economic
          Property owners vs. Renters
        Residential vs. Business
        Downtown vs. Business Spur
          Local business vs. Chains
        Old vs. New
                             Responses to Dissatisfaction
Vote with your feet
    Leave for a jurisdiction you like
Stay and complain
Stay and try to improve situation
Stay and accept life as it is
             Detroit lost more residents than any other U.S. city last year
   Thursday, March 27, 2008      Paul J. Weber / Associated Press

 Detroit lost the most residents while four Texas metropolitan areas were among
  the biggest population gainers as Americans continued their trend of moving to
  the Sun Belt in 2006 - 2007.
 Detroit lost more than three times as many people as any other metro area -- its
  population declined more than 27,300. Other areas losing more than 5,000 people
  were Pittsburgh, Cleveland, Columbus, Ga., Youngstown, Ohio, and Buffalo, N.Y.
 Dallas-Fort Worth added 162,000 residents, more than any other metro area.
  Atlanta saw the second-largest population jump with 151,000 new residents.
  Phoenix was third with more than 132,000. Of the 50 fastest-growing metro
  areas, 27 in the South and 20 in the West. Two were in the Midwest, and none
  was in the Northeast.
 Experts credit much of the growth in the South to relatively strong local
  economies & housing prices that are among the most affordable in the U.S.
            Detroit lost more residents than any other U.S. city last year
 “People are running away from unaffordable housing, from the economic
  slowdown," said Karl Eschbach, a state demographer. "I would expect Texas to
  stay at the top of a slowing game."
 6% of Americans who moved to other states between July 2006 and July 2007
  came to Texas, which led the nation for the second straight year in that category.
 Home prices continue to be a big factor.
 On a % age basis, the Palm Coast, Fla., area was the fastest-growing in the
  nation. Population there jumped by 7.2 % to more than 536,000. The next areas
  experiencing the biggest surge in growth were St. George, Utah; Raleigh;
  Gainesville, Ga.; and Austin.
 The New Orleans area, recovering from Hurricane Katrina, grew by 4 percent or
  nearly 40,000 people, putting it 16th in terms of raw numbers but eighth for
  percentage growth. During the same survey last year, the population of New
  Orleans dropped by nearly 290,000 people.

                                   Types of Local Gov’t
 88,000 local governments
 General purpose
    Counties
    Municipalities
    Townships
    Villages
 Single purpose
    Special districts
    School districts
                                      What they do
Zoning decisions
Tax
   Types
   Rates
Accountability
   Elections
   Hire and fire civil servants
                                        Counties
Administrative functions
   Deeds, birth certificates, taxes, elections
   Judicial system
   Police
Expanding powers
   Urban areas
Elected commissioners
Appointed administrator
                                      Dillon’s Rule
Applied to municipalities
    Jurisdictions do not exist without state approval
    States allow jurisdictions certain powers
        Home Rule
        Charters
                                 City Gov’tal Structure
Mayor council
    Strong mayor
        Administer city agencies
        Prepare budget
    Weak mayor
        Council more powerful
        Mayor has ceremonial role
Council-manager
    Separate politics from administration
                                       Elections
Representation
    At large
    District
    Civil Rights issues
Partisan or Non-partisan
Low turnouts
                                       Finances
Property taxes
Sales tax
Income tax
    Commuter tax
User fees
    For services
Tax breaks as incentives
        For economic development
                   Agreement delays casino revenue-sharing payments
   Ryan Bentley     November 20, 2008

    Officials who distribute local revenue-sharing proceeds from the Odawa Casino
    have agreed to hold onto much of the latest payment until a dispute over its
    allocation can be settled.

    Three local educational institutions — Charlevoix-Emmet ISD, North Central
    Michigan College and Public Schools of Petoskey — are legally challenging the
    approach which the Emmet County Local Revenue Sharing Board takes to the
    allocation of casino funds.

    Last month, the schools sought an injunction to put this fall’s revenue-sharing
    distribution on hold until the differences could be resolved. But Cawthorne, an
    attorney representing the educational institutions in their suit against the revenue
    board and Emmet County treasurer’s office, said an agreement the parties
    reached eliminated the need for the injunction.

   A gaming compact between Michigan and Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa
    Indians sets some guidelines for how local revenue-sharing is to be handled. The
    Odawa casino resort must provide 2% of its electronic gaming receipts to the
    community. Payments are made twice yearly, and the latest of these totals more
    than $600,000.

 Because the compact specifically calls for 1/8th of local revenue-sharing dollars to
    be used for public safety needs, the new agreement allows that portion of the
    casino’s latest payout to be distributed by the board without delay

 Because the Odawa casino site is in trust status with the U.S. government,
    property taxes cannot be collected on it. Based on the gaming compact, the
    revenue-sharing board must use part of the casino’s payments to compensate
    schools, the college and other local taxing units for the property taxes they’d
    collect if the gaming site was not in trust status.

    School officials contend that the revenue board’s current allocation approach
    doesn’t provide the taxing units with all of the tax-replacement funds that the
    compact calls for them to receive. As these officials see it, the revenue board
    should be replacing property taxes based on the casino site’s current value,
    including the amenities the tribe has constructed there.

    But under the revenue sharing board’s interpretation of the contract, tax
    replacement payments have been based on the site’s value at the time it was
    placed in trust status. At that time, the site was still vacant and property taxes
    thus would have been considerably lower than with the casino complex in place.

  The revenue board is not affiliated with the tribe. It is made up of representatives
  from Emmet County, Resort Township and Bear Creek Township.
                                     Special Districts
 Types districts
    Transit                  Parking Authority
    Port Authority Public Power
 Taxing authority in some districts
 Why?
    Technical, political, financial reasons
 Why not?
    Removed from public accountability
    Special interests control
                                      School Districts
 Elected Boards
 Reduction in districts
    100,000 in 1940
    13,522 today
 Rise of the administrator
    Expertise vs. Lay control
 Parental power
    Choice
    Vouchers
                                 School Districts
State control
   Curriculum
   Testing -- MEAP
   Equalization
Federal Control
   No Child Left Behind
                                    Planning
Use of land
   Master plan
      Zoning
   “Takings Clause” of 5th Amendment
Annexation
   Adding adjacent territory and population
      Unincorporated areas
                             Comparing Communities
Crime
Health care facilities
Major League sports teams
Education
   Quality of K thru 12
   Higher Ed
Culture
Environment
                             Comparing Communities
 San Jose                 Detroit
 El Paso                          Washington, DC
 Honolulu                 Baltimore
 Austin                           Memphis
 San Diego                Dallas
 NYC                      Columbus
 San Antonio                      Philadelphia
 San Francisco            Nashville
 Portland                 Milwaukee
 Seattle                          Houston
                                Community Power
Who makes policy decisions?
Three theories
   Elite
      Reputational approach
   Pluralist
      Examine decisions
   Regime
      Two types of decisions—high or low visibility issues

                                  Community Power
Non-profits as power players
   Churches
   United Way
   Civic groups
Hyperpluralism
   Multiple competing groups
                                       Mayors
Strong mayor
   Wide ranging responsibilities
      Budget
      Hire and fire
      Veto over council decisions
Weak mayor
   Shares power as member of council
Black mayors
Women mayors
                                    City Managers
Progressive era reform
   Not corrupt politicians
   Professional administrators
Current role
   Policy initiators
   Guide and assist the elected leaders
      Budget preparation
      Hire and fire

                                City Manager Types
Community leader
   Innovator
   Economic development
   Understand the community
Chief executive
   Pragmatist
   Make sure the city operates efficiently
                                City Manager Types
 Administrative innovator
   Technical and internal improvements
   E-government
   Searching for new answers
Administrative caretaker
   Maintain order and routine
   Don’t rock the boat
                                 Local Legislatures
Elected City Councils
   Part time
   At large or District
   Diversity with District
       More women
       More minorities
       Younger
                                 Local Legislatures
Conflicts
   Development issues
   Old downtown vs. Business Spur
   Business versus residential neighborhoods
   Tax rates
   Quality of services
                              State Local Relations
 Dillon’s Rule
    State domination and control
 Tug of war
      Financial dependence on state
      Great discretion
      MEAP tests and curriculum
 Unfunded Mandates
    Coordination
    Uniformity
    Reimbursement required?
    Recycling programs

                                 Urban Expansion
Wal-Mart
Edge Cities
   Shopping malls
   Office buildings
   Housing
Planned cities
   Controlled growth
                                    Urban Sprawl
Car centered lifestyle
Low density
Infrastructure
   Water availability
   Sewer capacity
   Roads
Greenbelts, open space
   Michigan, Ann Arbor
                               Non-Partisan Elections
No party labels used on ballots
Politics still operates
Interest groups still represented
Business groups
Movers and shakers of community
                                Shadow Governments
Home owners associations
   Private enterprise
   Condominiums
   Gated communities
Downtown Development Corp.
   Public-Private partnerships
Regional planning commissions

                                Shadow Governments
150,000 exist
Powers
   Set “fees”, taxes
   Make policies
      Speed limits, policing
      Color of exteriors
      Design of improvements
Efficient
Power and equity issues
                                        Education
 Considered most important issue
 55 million students
    48 million in public schools
 Measure schools
    Inputs
    Outputs
    Outcomes
      Testing Assessment
 What works?
                                    Goals of Education
   Educate
   Integrate people into society
   Prepare for future employment
   Citizenship and patriotism
   Create positive self-image
   Recreation and entertainment
                                   Crisis and Reform
Nation at Risk --1983
Policy to be updated
   Not strictly local
   State
   National concern
       Leave No Child Behind
Testing results and awareness
Perception of situation worsening
                                      Education
Single major problem in education
Single major solution
                                      Education
Characteristics of Best Teacher
                                      Education
Characteristics of Worst Teacher
                            Board moves to fire Wilson
 By MIRIAM MOELLER,      November 18, 2008      MARQUETTE

 The Marquette school board is taking steps to have one of their middle school
  teachers, who was charged with rape, terminated.

 "While employed as a teacher by the school Wilson engaged in conduct of a sexual
  nature with students and former students," said Marquette Superintendent
  Hartwig. "Mr. Wilson has confessed to the conduct. He is incarcerated due to those
  charges.“

 Hartwig said the preliminary hearing and police report gave the school district
  enough evidence to ask Wilson, 49, to resign. Wilson has been charged with 2
  counts of 1st degree criminal sexual conduct stemming from incidents in 1996. He
  has pleaded not guilty; during the preliminary hearing, Prosecutor Wiese said he
  admitted to sexual acts with female students.

 "He would not resign voluntarily," Hartwig said. "Now the board is proceeding with
  charges that are intended to terminate his relationship with the school district."
 At its meeting Monday, the board went into closed session to discuss the next
  move. Afterward they announced the district had approved forwarding the tenure
  charges to the state's tenure commission.
 The commission will decide whether Wilson will get to keep his job.
 A teacher is eligible for tenure after four years of service, according to Hartwig.
 Tenure protects the teacher's job and indicates the position is permanent. Wilson
  was employed with Marquette Area Public Schools for 27 years.
 "No matter what happens criminally, we're asking for termination," said Sharon
  Thum, human resources manager for MAPS.

                                Student Achievement
Poverty
Health facilities
Nutrition needs
   Breakfast, lunch, after school
Special educational needs
Family life
                                         Students
Relevance
Motivation
Lazy
Role of parents
                                         Teachers
Decline in quality
   Options for women
   Salaries
   College TE programs
       Methodology courses vs. Substantive courses
Unionization
Frustration with parents
Discipline, students’ lack of respect
                                         Teachers

   Teacher certification tightened
   Merit pay
   Master teacher programs
                                         Principals
Key players
   If they have authority on budget, personnel
   Decentralize school systems
   Empower principals
   Hold principals accountable
                                         Reforms
 Magnet schools
 Charter schools
 Vouchers
    Parental choice
    Competition among schools for students
       End the monopoly
    Take money from public system
    Create greater discrimination
    Supreme Court aid to individual students and parents

                                    Curriculum Drift
Basics versus non-essentials
   Basic Skills
   Self awareness, self esteem
State or national standards
   Testing
                                   Higher Education
Highest % of HS grads go on
   1900      --       1%
   2002      --      70%
Graduation rate -- 49% in 6 years
Liberal bias?
Traditional curriculum
                                Ideological Agreement
Upward social mobility
Develop human capital for economy
   Skills
   Knowledge
   Attitudes
                               Conservative Problem ID
Failure is individual’s responsibility
   Accept culture of poverty
   Some just not capable of or interested in       learning
   Genetic factors
                                Conservative Remedies
Back to basics
Discipline
Choice
                                  Liberal Problem ID
School system needs improvement
   Open schools
   New approaches
Integrate based on race and income
Reduce inequality of opportunity
Spend more money on schools
                                      Bureaucracy
Increasing percentage of non-teaching personnel
   Administrators
   Computer
Monopolies
   Charter schools
                                          What Works
Organizational
   Decentralize authority
      School based management
      Schools with clear goals that staff agree with
      Schools had more autonomy
      Principals had more authority
          If it is the right principal
      Parents and community contribute
                            Student Achievement Oriented
 How do you know a person is educated?
                                            Issues
Money
   Budget decisions
   Where to cut?
Curriculum
   Sex ed
   Evolution
Equality within state
Testing
                                  Reforms in Education
Philadelphia
   41 schools run by for profit businesses
Schools on military bases
   Integrated
   Performance
   Family involvement
Cross national comparisons
                                      Federal Role
About 10% of budget from Feds
Unfunded mandates
   No Child Left Behind
      Mandated testing
      Adequate Yearly Progress
                                  Gaming Enterprises
2 States--No gaming at all
10 States, 200 Indian Reservations--       Casino gaming
37 States--Lotteries
Regenerate cities--Detroit, Atlantic City, Sault
State law for excluding people from casinos
                                  State Legislatures
 Representation
Apportionment
   One person, one vote
   Geography and Population
   Gerrymandering
   Party based
   Racial
Categorical representation
   Gender
   Religion
                               Budgeting Innovations
Planning Program Budgeting
   Tie expenditure to program goal
   Cost-Benefit Analysis
   Summer Recreation Program
                               Budgeting Innovations
Zero Based Budgeting
   Three performance levels
Performance Budgeting
Re-Engineering Government
   Increase the productivity of staff
   Do more with less
                                     Privatization
Privatizing delivery of public services
   Contracting out the production
   Supervising the service delivery
Cost reduction
   Threat of Privatization
                              Examples of Privatization
Garbage collection
Water meter reading
Fire protection
Jails, prisons
Recreation facilities
Schools
Anything that cannot be privatized?
                              Problems of Privatization
Monopolies
Initial low bidding
Lower salaries, benefits
Non union
Quality comparisons
Creaming clients off
                                   Privatization
Do not use cost efficiency and          productivity as the sole criterion
Retain control of service
Hold company accountable
Do not compromise on original goals
Care in negotiating contract
Allow for evaluation of enforcement
                                   Assessment
Quality of our lives affected
Public safety
   Potholes
   Snow removal
Continued improvements
                                 What is Justice?
                                 Justice System
Achieving Justice
  Yates trial
  Marion Barry
  Hot coffee
  Prisoner rights
  School funding
  Smoking low tar cigarettes
                                  Justice System
Least dangerous branch of government
Least democratic
Protect rights of the non-majority
Protect from government tyranny
Elections and free speech case
                             Public Policy & the Courts
Purpose: Peacefully resolve disputes
Civil—Torts, Contract, Family
   Loss of money only, not freedom
   Preponderance of evidence
Microsoft
Cigarettes

                             Public Policy & the Courts
Criminal
   Felony, Misdemeanor
   Loss of freedom
   Beyond a reasonable doubt
                                     Power of Courts
Judicial review
   Determine what is constitutional
   Religion in school decisions
                                     Power of Courts
Judicial activism
   Judges overturn prior decisions and                         legislative
     actions
Judicial restraint
   Judges accept previous decisions and                        legislative
     actions
Either can be liberal or conservative
                                     Power of Courts
Injunctions
Distributive   vs. Redistributive Policies
   School funding cases
   Product liability
   Medical Malpractice
Administration of public services
   Alabama prisons
   School systems
                                    Court Organization
State and national systems
Trial level courts
   Limited and general jurisdiction
Courts of appeal
   Intermediate and Supreme
                                Politics and the Courts
Selecting judges     17,000
Election
   Partisan                          10
   Non-Partisan               13
   Appointment                 7
   Merit Plan                 20
No great differences based on                            selection method

                                           Judges
Holding judges accountable
Corruption and Unethical Conduct
   Recall, impeachment, prosecution
Inability to continue
Improper behavior
   Judicial Review Commissions
                                        Judges
Differences in decisions based on                    judge’s:
   Religion
   Race
   Party membership
   Gender
                                        Judges
Area of law
   Criminal law
   Workers Compensation
   Landlord—tenant
   Unemployment
                          Influencing Judicial Decisions

Bringing a lawsuit
Amicus Curiae briefs
Media publicity
                                  Fighting Crime
Responding to the Crime Problem
   FBI Uniform Crime Index crimes
   Census Bureau’s Victimization Report
White Collar crime
Organized Crime
                           Causes and Trends of Crime
Demographics
   Size of the 15 to 24 age group
Economics
Cultural changes
Illegal drugs
                                     Role of Juries
Grand
   Indictments
Trial Jury
   12, 10, 9, 6 members
Limit power of gov’t, prosecutor
Represent community’s values
                                Money and Justice
Pardons
Lawyers
Bail
Release on Recognizance
Contingency fee system
                             Plea Bargaining System
90% of all criminal cases
Number of charges
Seriousness of charges
   Felony or misdemeanor
Sentencing
Reduces costs, time
Loss of rights
Victims’ rights
                                Justice and Rights
Use of torture
Bill of Rights
Exclusionary Rule
   Cannot use evidence illegally obtained
   Good Faith Exception
Miranda Warning
Tricked into confessing
                                    Death Penalty
Cruel and unusual punishment
Discrimination
Limits
Aggravating factors
Mitigating factors
Automatic appeal
                                    Nature of Crime
Criminal
Social Factors
Rational
Drugs
                         Ideological Perspectives on Crime
Conservative
   Moral or psychic defect
   Irrational
   Gov’t power to protect society
   Punishmentharsh and certain
   Increase police, more prisons
                         Ideological Perspectives on Crime
Liberal
   Conditions of social injustice
   Economic causes—poverty
   Rational choice—capitalism
   Rehabilitation
   Improve society, reduce oppression
   Crime pays—make it unprofitable

                                   Economic View
Crime is rational choice
   Risk of arrest is very small
   Risk of imprisonment
                                      Corrections
Rehabilitate and return to society
   Recidivism
   Determinate/mandatory sentencing
Deterrence
Isolate from society
Three strikes and you’re in
   Career criminals
Mandatory minimums
                               Assessment of Prisons
From 176,000 to 1,149,000
$25,000 a year
Costs of crime
Recidivism
   Career criminals
Symbolic vs. Real policy changes
Election campaigns
                                        NIMBY
Socio-economic bias
   Power plants on Indian reservations
   Storage of hazardous waste

				
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