Oh No Not

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					Oh No, Not PowerPoint!
   By PowerPoint_bot73738
        Table of Contents
• Typos

• Punctuation

• Citation
• Typos = misspelling something, right?

• Wrong! It’s not that simple.
    Error: True Misspelling
• Yeah, sometimes we just flub up and
  misspell something.

• “MRIs Show Adolesent-Adult
  Differences in Reward Anticipation”

• Check the source!
    Solution: True Misspelling
•   Spellcheck: Yes!
•   Grammar Check: No!
•   Proofread: Maybe!
•   Outside Reader: Probably!
      Error: Transposition
• Typing is not simple. It’s easy to mix
  letters up.

• “At the time in which the yearbook was
  supposed to come out, we wree already
  thinking that we would like to publish
  more of our work through the Internet…”
     Solution: Transposition
•   Spellcheck: Maybe!
•   Grammar Check: Maybe!
•   Proofread: Maybe!
•   Outside Reader: Probably!
       Error: Homonymy
• English has too many words that sound

• “Now tell me, gentlemen, if you have
  ever considered it, how much fewer are
  those who have been rewarded by war
  then those who have perished in it?”
       Solution: Homonymy
•   Spellcheck: No!
•   Grammar Check: Yes!
•   Proofread: Maybe!
•   Outside Reader: Probably!
       Error: Unnecessary
• Our brain is faster than our fingers.

• “I will accepted Disquisitions over e-mail
  any time…”
      Solution: Unnecessary
•   Spellcheck: No!
•   Grammar Check: Maybe!
•   Proofread: Maybe!
•   Outside Reader: Probably!
 Error: Missing Morphology
• As I said, our brain is faster than our

• “Mora rolled a ball he thought was foul
  off or behind the plate, but it went fair
  and Sexson got it and stepped on first.”
         Solution: Missing
•   Spellcheck: No!
•   Grammar Check: Maybe!
•   Proofread: Maybe!
•   Outside Reader: Probably!
     Error: Missing Words
• Our brain is way faster than our fingers.

• “He wanted find a use for the wood left
  over after the car was assembled.”
    Solution: Missing Words
•   Spellcheck: No!
•   Grammar Check: Maybe!
•   Proofread: Maybe!
•   Outside Reader: Probably!
      Error: Phonological
• ATTENTION: The English spelling
  system is broken.

• “The way I see it, I have two auctions:
  one, I can stay here; two, I…”
      Solution: Phonological
•   Spellcheck: No!
•   Grammar Check: No!
•   Proofread: Maybe!
•   Outside Reader: Probably!
        Is There a Moral…?
• Professors often demonize typos. But
  are they your fault?

• No!

• Aside from misspelling, every other typo
  has to to do with typing efficiency and
  motor control.
      What’s to Be Done?
• Typos happen to everyone all the time.

• The best we can do is help each other
        Table of Contents
• Typos

• Punctuation

• Citation
     What Is Punctuation?
• ifyoutypeenglishlikethisyourelosingsome

• Writing is an attempt to transcribe
  speech. Letters get the words okay, but
  punctuation tells you the intonation.
          Important Point
• Two types of rules: mandatory and

• “Grammarians” think punctuation is a
  set of mandatory rules. It is not: it’s a
  set of observational rules.
        End Punctuation
• Periods, question marks and
  exclamation points tell you something
  about the global intonation of the

• Think about how a sentence sounds to
  figure out what ending punctuation to
         Three Sentences
• I hate spiders.

• I hate spiders?

• I hate spiders!
 The Controversial Comma
• There is no place where there has to be a
  comma in prose. (Addresses, yes; prose,

• Comma = pause in speech; not the end.

• Common places: before conjunctions,
  surrounding preposition phrases, after
  objects, etc.
•   There is no trick; using these is rather
    difficult. Here are some tips:

1. Two clauses are connected thematically.
2. Two clauses can’t stand on their own as
   separate sentences.
3. Lists whose members are long.

•   Practice!
• That which follows a colon is either a
  list, or something you’ve set up.

• I want you to do three things: first, clean
  your room; second, take out the trash;
  and third, destroy the sun.
       Colons Continued!
• Finally, after a long day of sitting
  through boring lectures and PowerPoint
  presentations, I could do the one thing
  I’d been looking forward to all day:
             The Dash!
• Any time speech is cut off–for any
  reason you can think of–you use a

• Note: Dash = –, — or --. Hyphen = -.
• For something (and by “something”, I
  mean “text”) that you don’t want to be a
  part of the main clause.

• Note: Parentheses alternate: ( [ ( ) ] ).
• Any time you want to kind of…trail off…

• Can be used for effect, e.g., “I wonder if
  Johnson ever considered what would
  happen to his precious stapler if he
  decided to step out of the office for a
  few days…”
             Quote Marks
• First, to quote stuff.

• Second, to indicate that a word is being
  used: He said “like” like twenty times!

• Like Parentheses: “…‘…“…”…’…”
• For a word break across a line

• Compound words: Don’t tell my brother,
  though, ‘cause he always tells Mom.
  He’s the worst teller-on-er I know!
•   Three main uses:

1. Slang: Wha’cha gonna’ do.
2. Contractions: I couldn’t’ve’d seen her!
3. The hapless English genitive.
        The Hapless English
•   Here they are:
•   X’s Y: the boy’s cake
•   Xs’ Ys: the girls’ cakes
•   Xs’s Y: Cass’s cake
•   Xs’(s) Y: Indiana Jones’(s) cake
•   Xses’ Ys: The Joneses’ cakes
• Italics are used to indicate emphasis
  (usually in speech). In formal writing,
  only use italics for emphasis, not bold or

• Italics can also be used for the title of a
  long work (novel, play, etc.), as
  opposed to underlining.
      Bold? Underlining?
• Bold is not to be used in academic
  prose: Italicize or underline.

• Underline long works, or italicize them.
  Never use underlining for emphasis.
   What about on the web?
• Generally: Only use italics. Bold
  doesn’t show up clearly; underlining is
  reserved for links.
The Most Important Rule of
• Listen to how your sentence sounds!

• Once you know how your sentence is
  supposed to be spoken, just refer to the
  various punctuation marks and write it
  so it sounds that way. That’s all.
        Table of Contents
• Typos

• Punctuation

• Citation
      Rationale 1 (Formal)
• No individual has all the answers.

• We need to refer to stuff.

• Citation: Telling your reader what you
  read; where you got your ideas.
     Rationale 2 (Informal)
• Screenshot or it didn’t happen.

• You write, “Clearly, it’s more
  environmentally sound for Southern
  Californians to get their water from up

• Says who?! You? Who are you?!
         When to Cite Stuff
•   Direct quotes.
•   Terminology.
•   Paraphrases.
•   Ideas.
•   Summaries of any of the above.
•   “For further information…”.
          Direct Quotes
• Use sparingly. We’re reading your
  paper because we want to hear what
  you have to say—not someone else!

• Better add something!
• If it’s a term the author invented, or one
  you don’t agree with (“scare quotes”).

• Example: “Gene Ray claims he has
  ‘SuperNatural’ wisdom.”
• Some go so far as to claim that they are
  the only ones alive who know the truth
           Others’ Ideas
• Some claim that each day on Earth
  actually comprises four days at once,
  rather than a single day (Ray).
• On the other hand, there are sites on
  the internet that claim that the entire
  history of the universe, as presented by
  the education system, is wrong, and
  that only the site’s author possesses the
  real truth (Ray).
• There are those who have been vocal in
  their disapproval of traditional education
  (cf. Ray).
    When to Use a Citation
• Foreground: With a novel or other work,
  it should be clear what you’re talking

• State the author and the text early, refer
  to and quote them often.
     When to Use a Ci2tion
• Background: When you’re making an
  argument, refer to other texts; don’t talk
  about them.

• Quotes and direct references are used
  less often than simple citations after
  paraphrases or summaries.
       Form of a Citation
• What you need: (1) Author name;
  (2) page number.

• No page #? Oh well; leave it out.

• No author? Use editor. No editor? Use
  title. No title? Use something.
        Form of a Citation
• “I love ice cream” (Peterson 23).

• Hawaiian is an Austronesian language

• AAA is an American auto insurance
  provider (www.aaa.com).
       Works Cited: Why?
• A citation without a corresponding
  bibliographic entry is like an internet link
  to a broken page.

• If you cite, it has to refer to a
  bibliographic entry. No exceptions.
• Allow your reader to find the text you

• What you’ll need: Author, title,
  publisher, city of publisher, year
  published. Sometimes: page numbers,
  editor, name of journal, url.
• Refer to the book (Chapter 32 [or 34 in
  the 8th edition]); it tells you how to
  create a works cited page.

• Don’t know how? Ask me. Please.
Your Work May Be Done For
• Articles cite other articles. Go to
  scholar.google.com and see if the
  article you need to cite has been cited.
  If it has, copy and paste.

• Note differences between APA and
  MLA. We use MLA.
        An MLA Citation
Rodriguez, Richard. “Public and Private
 Lannguage.” The Bedford Guide for
 College Writers with Reader, Research
 Manual and Handbook. 7th ed. X.J.
 Kennedy, Dorothy M. Kennedy, Marsha
 F. Muth, and Sylvia A. Holladay.
 Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2005.
• First author/editor on first line: Last,
  First M. All others: First M. Last.
• Check the punctuation.
• Underline or italicize book titles; put
  stories, articles and songs in quotes.
• Don’t indent first line; indent every other
   For an Online Source?
Ray, Gene. “Time Cube.” 2005. 15 Sep.
 2008 <http://www.timecube.com/>.
        Works Cited Page
• Simple: (1) Works Cited (underlined) at
  the top, centered; (2) the works you
  cited in alphabetical order by first word
  of entry (no space between entries).

• That’s it! No numbers; no bullets.
• First, try it, then ask.

• Remember: It’s not a quiz. Do it till it’s

• Save your references so you don’t have
  to write them twice!
         IT’S OVER
• Yay!

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