Meaning is Use & Family Resemblance

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					Syllabus Clarification
1. Posting Lectures.
   -- Only my voice will be posted.
   -- During the lecture, please hold Q’s until we get to a
   question slide
1. Exams
   -- I’ll give you the exam questions in advance.
   -- You will schedule a time to meet with me
   -- You will show that you know the answers. You can
   use your notes.
   -- If you are poor on something, you can try it again.



                        Questions or comments?
1. Attendance.
   -- missing 1 week of class results in a terrible penalty
   -- but you can alleviate the penalty by scheduling a
   one-on-one session with me.
       • Watch the internet lectures
       • Take notes on it
       • Meet with me one-on-one to discuss it.
         Performance at the meeting determines if there is
         a penalty.
   All of you get 1 of these.
   Only a serious health emergency could get you a 2nd,
   with documentation.



                           Questions or comments?
Reading
1. Malcolm – Von Wright’s Introduction




                               Question:
                            What did you find
                          remarkable about Von
                              Wright’s intro
2. Monk – First 3 chapters

          Question:
     What is going on in
        Chapter 1

                      Question:
                What is going on in
                   Chapter 2

                                  Question:
                             What is going on in
                                Chapter 3
Inspiration
Wittgenstein’s Writings




                                Question:
                          Anyone find anything of
                                interest?
Discussing the Problems
1. Cheating Husband. Imagine that Tiger Woods is married,
but cheats repeatedly with numerous women. Imagine the
same for Bill Clinton. Imagine that the way the two husbands
cheat is often by going to a bar, called Fat City. The bartender
there, Jake, knows all of the happenings of the club. One day,
when Jake is working, a girl approaches him. And the girl says,
“What's the best bachelor around here I can find, hun?” Jake
replies, Tiger comes in at 8, and Clinton will be here at 9. An
English professor, sitting in next stool, overhears and says:
“They aren't 'bachelors.'” Question: Who is right? In this
situation, are Tiger Woods and Bill Clinton 'bachelors?'



                                            Question:
                                      What would you say
                                       about problem #1
2. Chairs. Imagine that two people are in a room. One is
standing; the other is seated. The one says, “Bring me a chair.”
The other then looks around, but finds nothing present other
than a stool, and responds, “I can’t – there are no chairs in the
room.” Imagine a dispute then ensues about whether the stool
qualifies as a “chair.” One person takes the position that it
does, and the other takes the position that it does not. Who is
right?




                                            Question:
                                       What would you say
                                        about problem #2
3. Dolphins. Suppose a teenage boy sees a dolphin for the
first time in person, on a boat. As the fin comes out of the
water, the porpoise jumps in the air, extremely close to the kid.
He gets a great look at it. And he says, “what an interesting
fish.” The boat captain interjects, “it's a mammal.” Who is
right?




                                            Question:
                                       What would you say
                                        about problem #3
4. Dogs. One day, when walking with his daughter, the
following animals appear. The daughter says, “Daddy, look at
the dogs.” He says back to her, “those ones on the left aren't
'dogs;' they're little ratty things. The ones on the right are the
'real dogs.'” The daughter persists that the father is wrong.
Who is right?




                                             Question:
                                       What would you say
                                        about problem #4
 Meaning-Is-Use
(Brief Introduction)
Always be mindful of this:

                                      Fall 1930 - death
1918 -- 1928        1929 – May 1930




                                       Eggshell quote
 Picture-Theory of Meaning

Early in Wittgenstein’s career, he
adopted the picture theory of meaning.
  Simile

       Auto accident trial. Lawyer used
       toy cars, dolls and other replicas
       to show what happened.

       The toys stand in the same
       spatial relationship to one
       another that they did in reality,
       and therefore act as to picture
       reality.

       Tractatus
 Picture-Theory of Meaning

Significance for problem set

 These terms:

   • Bachelor
   • Fish- Mammal
   • Chair   Picture something
   • Dog        in reality when put
                together to form a
                proposition
 Meaning is Use

Later Wittgenstein abandons the picture-
theory of meaning
  Simile
       Soccer. People kicking a ball
       around with the point of getting it
       into the net
       The ball is language. When it         Note the grammar
       goes into the net, you have           of “point”
       “gotten it” – gotten the POINT.
 Meaning is Use

Later Wittgenstein abandons the picture-
theory of meaning

Language game
 We are all involved in a cultural activity
 (game) when we communicate.

Meaning is merely success in the
activity

The meaning of language is its
successful USE in the language culture

Language is a behavior
 Meaning is Use

Later Wittgenstein abandons the picture-
theory of meaning

Free Markets
 Language is a free market
Trades in the market have the value
that they do. You have no control over
that.

There is no statist criterion for meaning
(majority says). (Authorities say).
 Meaning is Use

Significance for problem set:

 These terms:

   • Bachelor
   • Fish- Mammal
   • Chair   Mean whatever
   • Dog        they do when they
                SUCCESSFULLY
                communicate
3. Dolphins. Suppose a teenage boy sees a dolphin for the
first time in person, on a boat. As the fin comes out of the
water, the porpoise jumps in the air, extremely close to the kid.
He gets a great look at it. And he says, “what an interesting
fish.” The boat captain interjects, “it's a mammal.” Who is
right?
The boy’s point is not to say anything about science. He
doesn’t doubt that the fishy looking thing breathes air or
nurses its young or has warm blood, etc.

All he is saying is that, among the other things in the sea that
look “fishy,” this one, in comparison to those, looks
interesting

Comparison-contrast statement

Boat captain is missing the point. Playing the language game
poorly. Traffic accident in the language game
1. Cheating Husband. Imagine that Tiger Woods is married, but cheats
repeatedly with numerous women. Imagine the same for Bill Clinton.
Imagine that the way the two husbands cheat is often by going to a bar,
called Fat City. The bartender there, Jake, knows all of the happenings of
the club. One day, when Jake is working, a girl approaches him. And the girl
says, “What's the best bachelor around here I can find, hun?” Jake replies,
Tiger comes in at 8, and Clinton will be here at 9. An English professor,
sitting in next stool, overhears and says: “They aren't 'bachelors.'”
Question: Who is right? In this situation, are Tiger Woods and Bill Clinton
'bachelors?'

If “bachelor” can be successfully used in the language game
to refer to a husband who behaves as a stereotypical
“bachelor” might, then this sense of bachelor has worth in the
language market-place

Meaning is out of your control

If it has legs, it has legs
Questions before I
 move forward?
Bachelor and Legos
   Bachelor?


School-boy sense

Bachelor is an unmarried male
-- Verbatim in The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition (Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000 -- updated in 2009) and
in Collins English Dictionary, Complete and Unabridged 6th Edition (HarperCollins Publishers 2003).


                                                                                                      technical sense




            Problem: Sometimes the technical sense isn’t helpful
                                           Question:
                                       Is the Pope a
                                         bachelor?”



Can’t get work done in the language game
 Bachelor?


Non-technical sense seems to WORK

Imagine someone saying
   • “he’s a bachelor of sorts.” (kind of like one)
   • “He’s a de-facto bachelor”
   • ‘He’s not technically a bachelor, but … [he is bachelor
     like?]
      communicative

                                 Question:
                       What does “bachelor” mean in
                             these contexts?
Blue legos are missing
One red lego missing
 Bachelor?


Grammar of Bachelor

    Eligibility (prospect)

     For What Purpose?

     Sex       Love,           First               Subsequent
               Courtship       Marriage            Marriage

1. How to get eligible? (degree of eligibility)


  Just         Right brain     Re-orient             Change
  say yes      chemistry       life                  sexual
                               (Leave priesthood?)   orientation?
                               (Leave marriage?)
Imagine a heterosexual female sees an unmarried gay male in
a bar. The male is Rock Hudson. The female doesn’t know the
person is gay. She asks the bartender, “is he a bachelor?”




                               Question:
                      What should the answer be?
Imagine a heterosexual female sees an unmarried gay male in
a bar. The male is Rock Hudson. The female doesn’t know the
person is gay. She asks the bartender, “is he a bachelor?”



            He’s a “bachelor,” but not for you

            He is and he isn’t

            Depends upon what you mean

            Only technically


                       You must CONJUGATE language
1. Cheating Husband. Imagine that Tiger Woods is married, but cheats
repeatedly with numerous women. Imagine the same for Bill Clinton.
Imagine that the way the two husbands cheat is often by going to a bar,
called Fat City. The bartender there, Jake, knows all of the happenings of
the club. One day, when Jake is working, a girl approaches him. And the girl
says, “What's the best bachelor around here I can find, hun?” Jake replies,
Tiger comes in at 8, and Clinton will be here at 9. An English professor,
sitting in next stool, overhears and says: “They aren't 'bachelors.'”
Question: Who is right? In this situation, are Tiger Woods and Bill Clinton
'bachelors?'

                                                 Question:
                                             So who is right in
                                               problem #1?
        They both are?
 Bachelor?


History and Context
The term “bachelor” originated in Middle English and became
useful when marriage played a different role in culture. In the
world in which “bachelor” was uttered in the 1600s and
1700s, for example, one didn't have live-ins. And when men
came courting, it was quickly for a hand in marriage. And if a
female didn’t marry, society would think something wrong
with her. The language culture that used the word "bachelor"
under these circumstances, therefore, was different from
ours. It used marriage as a logical barometer for male
eligibility, because marriage was the goal of eligibility. Today,
it no longer is (necessarily).
                                    The language game of
    Assertability Conditions        “bachelor” is different
 Bachelor?


History and Context

 Consider these linguistic innovations

             Serial Marriage

             Sugar Daddy
                               If there is a change in the
             Civil Union       assertability conditions
                               (cultural arrangement), you
             She-male          will have a change in the
             Gigolo            lexicon
                               Words only suit
                               circumstances
Family Resemblance
 Family Resemblance

One of the most important
Wittgensteinian ideas.

   Words are understood in mind as
   a cluster or bundle that has
   “family resemblance”
 Family Resemblance

One of the most important
Wittgensteinian ideas.

  Simile

   Imagine a real family that has
   “family resemblance” (e.g.,
   Kennedys)
  This is the way words
  “refer” (in bundles)


  Words have family
  resemblance


(e.g., each sense of
“bachelor” shared some
family resemblance to the
other senses)
 Family Resemblance

The key to a family resemblance

  Imagine a set of traits,
   {a, b, c, d, e,…. N}

   One word use has {a b d}

      Another has {c, a, d, e}

      Another might have {b, d, e}
66. Consider for example the proceedings that we call “games.” I mean
board-games, card-games, ball-games, Olympic games, and so on. What is
common to them all? – Don’t say: “There must be something common, or
they would not be called ‘games’” – but look and see whether there is
anything common to all. –For if you look at them you will not see something
that is common to all, but similarities, relationships, and a whole series of
them at that. To repeat: don’t think, but look! – Look for example at board-
games, with their multifarious relationships. Now pass to card-games; here
you find many correspondences with the first group, but many common
features drop out, and others appear. When we pass next to ball-games,
much that is common is retained, but much is lost. – Are they all ‘amusing?’
Compare chess with noughts and crosses. Or there is always winning and
losing, or competition between players? Think of patience. In ball games
there is winning and losing; but when a child throws his ball at the wall and
catches it again, this feature has disappeared. Look at the parts played by
skill and luck; and at the difference between skill in chess and skill in tennis.
Think now of games like ring-a-ring-a-roses; here is the element of
amusement, but how many other characteristic features have disappeared!
And we can go through the many, many other groups of games in the same
way; can see how similarities crop up and disappear.
  And the result of this examination is: we see a complicated
network of similarities overlapping and criss-crossing:
sometimes overall similarities, sometimes similarities of detail.

67. I can think of no better expression to characterize these
similarities than “family resemblances;” for the various
resemblances between members of a family: build, features,
colour of eyes, gait, temperament, etc., etc. overlap and criss-
cross in the same way. – And I shall say: ‘games’ form a
family.”

-- Philosophical Investigations, Third Edition, p 31-32
Legos
Chair Family
The elements of chair?
“Love Chair”
 Illustration- xx: Chairs with Different Seating/Posture Arrangements?




What about these?
Stephen Pinker
 Pinker’s Theory

Pinker studies cognitive linguistics
(the effect of language on the brain)

   The brain has a “pattern associator”

    The brain TYPES its surroundings

    Mixes and matches things that look
    alike
    The reason why stereotypes exist
    is because of this
First, when the brain is said to “type” something in its
environment, the idea is that it is picturing commonality in its
environment (in the same way that stereotypes or similar
associations are formed). Pinker refers to this as the brain
having a “pattern associator.” It is this feature that allows one to
say that a throne is a chair or pat-a-cake is a “game.”

Pinker argues that this aspect of cognition is functional to
our form of life. It’s the way our species makes efficient
sense of repetition in the environment. It allows us to put the
world into a framework. Otherwise, the world would seem
random or arbitrary in language instead of “bundled.”
Imagine, for example, how a computing form of life is
experienced (being a processor). It occurs in serial,
alphabetical or numerical bundles. If we had to experience
the world this way, we simply could not readily make sense
of our existence.
 Pinker’s Theory

Pinker’s analysis of family resemblance


   (a) fuzzy borders (is a scorpion a bug?);

   (b) stereotype membership
   (grandmothers are old and grey, and
   make good chicken soup)

    (c) exemplar membership (a Robin is
    better example of “bird” than an
    Ostrich)
Sharp Boundaries
 Sharp Boundaries

Both Pinker and Wittgenstein agree that
any family resemblance term can take on
a sharp boundary

   A sharp boundary is something you
   impose for communicative purposes

   It is a test or rule that cuts off
   members of the family

   A bright-line rule.
“mammal:”
   (a) breathes air
                             Series of binary, yes/no questions
   (b) nurses its young
   (c) has warm blood

         Sharp Boundary


“bachelor:”
   (a) male                Use your mind like a
   (b) unmarried           machine and sum the parts.
   (c) adult               If all “yesses” come up,
                           that’s it. You don’t have to
                           think about it. Meaning is
                           just a calculation.

         Technical Sense
 Sharp Boundaries

Both Pinker and Wittgenstein agree that
any family resemblance term can take on
a sharp boundary

   A sharp boundary is something you
   impose for communicative purposes

   My simile: putting up a volleyball
   net in the field.

   Some people use the field with the
   net, some don’t

   If you are playing volleyball, you
   use the net; otherwise, you take it
   down
3. Dolphins. Suppose a teenage boy sees a dolphin for the
first time in person, on a boat. As the fin comes out of the
water, the porpoise jumps in the air, extremely close to the kid.
He gets a great look at it. And he says, “what an interesting
fish.” The boat captain interjects, “it's a mammal.” Who is
right?
The boy and the captain are talking past themselves
One is using the brain’s “pattern associator” – saying that the
dolphin looks fishy …

The other is imposing a rule (sharp boundary)

One is trying to play volleyball; the other is trying to use the field
for playing tag (no nets).
Other examples
                  This can be an either/or.
“Pregnant:”
                  Either you are or you are not

                  It can be a resemblance:
                  You are a little bit pregnant
                        People meaningfully say this



 The sharp-boundary (technical) sense
 of “pregnant” still shares family
 resemblance with the other senses
4. Dogs. One day, when walking with his daughter, the
following animals appear. The daughter says, “Daddy, look at
the dogs.” He says back to her, “those ones on the left aren't
'dogs;' they're little ratty things. The ones on the right are the
'real dogs.'” The daughter persists that the father is wrong.
Who is right?




                                             Question:
                                      What’s going on here?
4. Dogs. One day, when walking with his daughter, the
following animals appear. The daughter says, “Daddy, look at
the dogs.” He says back to her, “those ones on the left aren't
'dogs;' they're little ratty things. The ones on the right are the
'real dogs.'” The daughter persists that the father is wrong.
Who is right?




   Stereotype          If I tell you that stools are not chairs,
                       or that living-room beanbags are not
   Dog prejudice       chairs, this doesn’t seem like a chair
                       prejudice
4. Dogs. One day, when walking with his daughter, the
following animals appear. The daughter says, “Daddy, look at
the dogs.” He says back to her, “those ones on the left aren't
'dogs;' they're little ratty things. The ones on the right are the
'real dogs.'” The daughter persists that the father is wrong.
Who is right?




   Stereotype          But in other contexts, the same exact
                       kind of maneuver will create ethical
   Dog prejudice       problems
4. Dogs. One day, when walking with his daughter, the
following animals appear. The daughter says, “Daddy, look at
the dogs.” He says back to her, “those ones on the left aren't
'dogs;' they're little ratty things. The ones on the right are the
'real dogs.'” The daughter persists that the father is wrong.
Who is right?




                       The father is only allowing exemplars
   Stereotype          into the family. Exemplar-centric idea
                       of “dog.”
   Dog prejudice
4. Dogs. One day, when walking with his daughter, the
following animals appear. The daughter says, “Daddy, look at
the dogs.” He says back to her, “those ones on the left aren't
'dogs;' they're little ratty things. The ones on the right are the
'real dogs.'” The daughter persists that the father is wrong.
Who is right?




                       The father is only allowing exemplars
   Stereotype          into the family. Exemplar-centric idea
                       of “dog.”
   Dog prejudice
                             Question:
    Anything wrong with this from the standpoint of language?
4. Dogs. One day, when walking with his daughter, the
following animals appear. The daughter says, “Daddy, look at
the dogs.” He says back to her, “those ones on the left aren't
'dogs;' they're little ratty things. The ones on the right are the
'real dogs.'” The daughter persists that the father is wrong.
Who is right?




So long as the father isn’t making a scientific assertion, all
he’s really said is “these are my favorite types of dogs, and I
won’t call the others by that name. I’ll use my own naming
system.”
Nothing wrong from the          Exemplar-centric sense
standpoint of language
Other examples
“Now that’s a cigar!”   Exemplar-centric sense

“Now there goes a real man”
Lay v. Professional
      Senses
 Lay-Professional

Another way to navigate a family resemblance is to use
expert or lay grammar.

                             Suppose you walk into a
                             chair store and ask for a
                             chair when you mean a
                             stool.

                           A chair professional might
                           speak differently about
                           chairs than a lay person
The issue boils down to this: does the person requesting a chair
want the other to fetch something that associates with the chair
family (inclusion logic), or something that differentiates from
within it, like an item of inventory. The logic of each is different.
One asks the person to associate things into a family – you
might get a living-room bean bag to sit on -- but the other asks
the person fetch the correct chair entourage. Fetching the
correct entourage, of course, requires that one have certain
proficiency in the chair industry. It requires the lexicon of a chair
professional. It requires that one speak in a way that catalogues,
parses and differentiates members of the chair family in a way
an expert might.
2. Chairs. Imagine that two people are in a room. One is
standing; the other is seated. The one says, “Bring me a chair.”
The other then looks around, but finds nothing present other
than a stool, and responds, “I can’t – there are no chairs in the
room.” Imagine a dispute then ensues about whether the stool
qualifies as a “chair.” One person takes the position that it
does, and the other takes the position that it does not. Who is
right?




                                            Question:
                                     What is the issue here?
2. Chairs. Imagine that two people are in a room. One is
standing; the other is seated. The one says, “Bring me a chair.”
The other then looks around, but finds nothing present other
than a stool, and responds, “I can’t – there are no chairs in the
room.” Imagine a dispute then ensues about whether the stool
qualifies as a “chair.” One person takes the position that it
does, and the other takes the position that it does not. Who is
right?

    Two Issues:

     (A) What sense of “chair” is in play – lay sense or a
     professional sense

     (B) What is the goal or purpose of this language game. If
     it is to facilitate courtesy between participants, then the
     slouch might not be playing properly (poor manners)
Polysemy
                                    Table 10.2: Examples of Polysemy

Term    Polysemous Options             Term    Polysemous Options

Gay     Happy or homosexual            Crane   Construction equipment or
                                               bird
Chair   Seating device         or   an Pupil   A student or the eye
        executive
Banks Financial houses or river Present A gift or “being at the event”
      banks
Bays    Horses or bodies of water      Mole    Growth on body or small
                                               burrowing animal



Tire    Fatigue or car wheel           Match   Little stick that ignites or
                                               pairing things together
                                    Table 10.2: Examples of Polysemy

Term    Polysemous Options             Term    Polysemous Options

Gay     Happy or homosexual            Crane   Construction equipment or
                                               bird
Chair   Seating device         or   an Pupil   A student or the eye
        executive
Banks Financial houses or river Present A gift or “being at the event”
      banks
Bays    Horses or bodies of water      Mole    Growth on body or small
                                               burrowing animal



Tire    Fatigue or car wheel           Match   Little stick that ignites or
                                               pairing things together
                                    Table 10.2: Examples of Polysemy

Term    Polysemous Options             Term    Polysemous Options

Gay     Happy or homosexual            Crane   Construction equipment or
                                               bird
Chair   Seating device         or   an Pupil   A student or the eye
        executive
Banks Financial houses or river Present A gift or “being at the event”
      banks
Bays    Horses or bodies of water      Mole    Growth on body or small
                                               burrowing animal



Tire    Fatigue or car wheel           Match   Little stick that ignites or
                                               pairing things together
                                    Table 10.2: Examples of Polysemy

Term    Polysemous Options             Term    Polysemous Options

Gay     Happy or homosexual            Crane   Construction equipment or
                                               bird
Chair   Seating device         or   an Pupil   A student or the eye
        executive
Banks Financial houses or river Present A gift or “being at the event”
      banks
Bays    Horses or bodies of water      Mole    Growth on body or small
                                               burrowing animal



Tire    Fatigue or car wheel           Match   Little stick that ignites or
                                               pairing things together
                                    Table 10.2: Examples of Polysemy

Term    Polysemous Options             Term    Polysemous Options

Gay     Happy or homosexual            Crane   Construction equipment or
                                               bird
Chair   Seating device         or   an Pupil   A student or the eye
        executive
Banks Financial houses or river Present A gift or “being at the event”
      banks
Bays    Horses or bodies of water      Mole    Growth on body or small
                                               burrowing animal



Tire    Fatigue or car wheel           Match   Little stick that ignites or
                                               pairing things together
                                    Table 10.2: Examples of Polysemy

Term    Polysemous Options             Term    Polysemous Options

Gay     Happy or homosexual            Crane   Construction equipment or
                                               bird
Chair   Seating device         or   an Pupil   A student or the eye
        executive
Banks Financial houses or river Present A gift or “being at the event”
      banks
Bays    Horses or bodies of water      Mole    Growth on body or small
                                               burrowing animal



Tire    Fatigue or car wheel           Match   Little stick that ignites or
                                               pairing things together
                                    Table 10.2: Examples of Polysemy

Term    Polysemous Options             Term    Polysemous Options

Gay     Happy or homosexual            Crane   Construction equipment or
                                               bird
Chair   Seating device         or   an Pupil   A student or the eye
        executive
Banks Financial houses or river Present A gift or “being at the event”
      banks
Bays    Horses or bodies of water      Mole    Growth on body or small
                                               burrowing animal



Tire    Fatigue or car wheel           Match   Little stick that ignites or
                                               pairing things together
                                    Table 10.2: Examples of Polysemy

Term    Polysemous Options             Term    Polysemous Options

Gay     Happy or homosexual            Crane   Construction equipment or
                                               bird
Chair   Seating device         or   an Pupil   A student or the eye
        executive
Banks Financial houses or river Present A gift or “being at the event”
      banks
Bays    Horses or bodies of water      Mole    Growth on body or small
                                               burrowing animal



Tire    Fatigue or car wheel           Match   Little stick that ignites or
                                               pairing things together
                                    Table 10.2: Examples of Polysemy

Term    Polysemous Options             Term    Polysemous Options

Gay     Happy or homosexual            Crane   Construction equipment or
                                               bird
Chair   Seating device         or   an Pupil   A student or the eye
        executive
Banks Financial houses or river Present A gift or “being at the event”
      banks
Bays    Horses or bodies of water      Mole    Growth on body or small
                                               burrowing animal



Tire    Fatigue or car wheel           Match   Little stick that ignites or
                                               pairing things together
                                    Table 10.2: Examples of Polysemy

Term    Polysemous Options             Term    Polysemous Options

Gay     Happy or homosexual            Crane   Construction equipment or
                                               bird
Chair   Seating device         or   an Pupil   A student or the eye
        executive
Banks Financial houses or river Present A gift or “being at the event”
      banks
Bays    Horses or bodies of water      Mole    Growth on body or small
                                               burrowing animal



Tire    Fatigue or car wheel           Match   Little stick that ignites or
                                               pairing things together
                                    Table 10.2: Examples of Polysemy

Term    Polysemous Options             Term    Polysemous Options

Gay     Happy or homosexual            Crane   Construction equipment or
                                               bird
Chair   Seating device         or   an Pupil   A student or the eye
        executive
Banks Financial houses or river Present A gift or “being at the event”
      banks
Bays    Horses or bodies of water      Mole    Growth on body or small
                                               burrowing animal



Tire    Fatigue or car wheel           Match   Little stick that ignites or
                                               pairing things together
                 Polysemy v. Clusters
Problem             Symptom                 Given Name
          Person asks for a “chair” and     Membership
          receives a throne or a living-     Problem
Type-I
          room beanbag.
                                           Cluster Problem
          Person asks for a “chair” in
          the sense of a seating item
Type-II   and receives a chair of an         Polysemy
          academic department.
                 Polysemy v. Clusters
Problem             Symptom                 Given Name
          Person asks for a “chair” and     Membership
          receives a throne or a living-     Problem
Type-I
          room beanbag.
                                           Cluster Problem
          Person asks for a “chair” in
          the sense of a seating item
Type-II   and receives a chair of an         Polysemy
          academic department.
Navigating a Family
  Resemblance
             Table : Different Kinds of Membership
   Term                                   Sense

Exemplar:      The best example of the ordinary case; the best typical
               case. (E.g., a four-leaf clover of ordinary look and size)


Archetype:     The best specimen. (E.g., a four-leaf clover with no
               imperfections)


Prototype:     The first case. (E.g., the prototype of a car for new line of
               production that will commence in the near future)


Specimen:      Any example.
             Table : Different Kinds of Membership
   Term                                   Sense

Exemplar:      The best example of the ordinary case; the best typical
               case. (E.g., a four-leaf clover of ordinary look and size)


Archetype:     The best specimen. (E.g., a four-leaf clover with no
               imperfections)


Prototype:     The first case. (E.g., the prototype of a car for new line of
               production that will commence in the near future)


Specimen:      Any example.
             Table : Different Kinds of Membership
   Term                                   Sense

Exemplar:      The best example of the ordinary case; the best typical
               case. (E.g., a four-leaf clover of ordinary look and size)


Archetype:     The best specimen. (E.g., a four-leaf clover with no
               imperfections)


Prototype:     The first case. (E.g., the prototype of a car for new line of
               production that will commence in the near future)


Specimen:      Any example.
             Table : Different Kinds of Membership
   Term                                   Sense

Exemplar:      The best example of the ordinary case; the best typical
               case. (E.g., a four-leaf clover of ordinary look and size)


Archetype:     The best specimen. (E.g., a four-leaf clover with no
               imperfections)


Prototype:     The first case. (E.g., the prototype of a car for new line of
               production that will commence in the near future)


Specimen:      Any example.
             Table : Different Kinds of Membership
   Term                                   Sense

Exemplar:      The best example of the ordinary case; the best typical
               case. (E.g., a four-leaf clover of ordinary look and size)


Archetype:     The best specimen. (E.g., a four-leaf clover with no
               imperfections)


Prototype:     The first case. (E.g., the prototype of a car for new line of
               production that will commence in the near future)


Specimen:      Any example.
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