Chapter Four_ Section Four by huanghengdong


									    Unit Two:
Colonial Settlement
    Chapter Four:
The Colonies Grow

      Section Four:
 The French and Indian
      Guide to Reading
• Main Idea                    • Section Theme
  – England and France           – Victory or loss in war
    fought for control of          often depended on the
    North America. The             actions of a single
    French and Indian War          leader.
    resulted from this         • Key Terms
                                 – alliance
• Read to Learn                  – speculator
  – how British fortunes
    improved after William
    Pitt took over direction
    of the war.
  – how Chief Pontiac united
    his people to fight for
    their land.
    Did You Know?
• After Pontiac, chief of the
  Ottawa village,
  experienced several key
  defeats in his rebellion
  against the English, he
  signed a peace treaty and
  was eventually pardoned
  for his crimes.
The British Take Action
• Early in the war, the French
  appeared to be winning control of
  the American land.
  – They had built forts throughout the
    Great Lakes region and the Ohio
    River valley.
  – They had strong alliances with the
    Native Americans.
    • This allowed them to control land from
      the St. Lawrence River in Canada south
      to New Orleans.
  – The British colonists had little help
The British Take Action
• In 1754 Great Britain sent
  General Edward Braddock to
  be commander in chief of
  British forces in America
  and drive the French out.
 –He was unsuccessful in the
  battle at Fort Duquesne,
  suffered nearly 1,000
  casualties, and was killed
The British Take Action
• This defeat spurred
  Britain to declare war on
 –The Seven Years’ War
  began in 1756.
   •French, British, and Spanish
    forces clashed in North
    America, Europe, Cuba, the
    West Indies, India, and the
The British Take Action
• During the early years, the British were
  not successful. After William Pitt, prime
  minister of Britain, came to power,
  things changed.
  – Britain paid for war supplies, which
    ultimately put them into debt.
  – Pitt sent British troops to conquer French
    Canada. In 1758 the British recaptured the
    fort at Louisbourg.
  – New Englanders, led by British officers,
    captured Fort Frontenac.
  – British troops forced the French to
    abandon Fort Duquesne, which was
 Discussion Question
• What abilities did William
  Pitt bring to the post of
  prime minister?
• Why did Pitt want to capture
  French Canada as well as
  gain a path to the western
The Fall of New France
• The continued British victories led to
  the downfall of the French as a power
  in North America.
  – In 1759 the British captured several
    French islands in the West Indies
  – The British defeated the French in India
  – The British destroyed a French fleet in
  – The British surprised and defeated the
    French army at the Battle of Quebec.
    • Quebec was the capital of New France and a
      place that was thought to be impossible to
The Fall of New France
• The Treaty of Paris of 1763
  ended the war.
 – In the treaty,
   • France kept some of its islands in
     the West Indies but gave Canada
     and most of its lands east of the
     Mississippi River to Great Britain
   • Great Britain gained Florida from
   • Spain received lands west of the
     Mississippi River (the Louisiana
The Fall of New France
•North America was
 now divided between
 Britain and Spain
 with the Mississippi
 River as the
 Discussion Question
• What lands did Spain
  receive under the Treaty of
• Why was the Battle of
  Quebec such a great victory
  for the British?
Trouble on the Frontier
• The British victory left the
  Native Americans without
  their ally and main trading
 –The British raised prices of
  goods, did not pay the Native
  Americans for their land, and
  began new settlements in
  western Pennsylvania.
Trouble on the Frontier
• Pontiac was a chief of an
  Ottawa village near Detroit.
 –He put together an alliance of
  Native American peoples in
   • In the spring, they attacked the
     British fort at Detroit, captured
     other British outposts in the
     Great Lakes region, and led a
     series of raids called Pontiac’s
Trouble on the Frontier
•The war ended in
 August 1765
 when Pontiac
 heard that the
 French signed
Trouble on the Frontier
• To prevent more fighting and
  westward expansion, Britain
  established the Proclamation of
  – The king declared the Appalachian
    Mountains as the temporary boundary
    for the colonies.
    • This created more conflicts between
      Britain and the colonies, especially to
      those people who owned or invested in
      land west of the mountains.
 Discussion Question
• Why were many colonists
  angered by the
  Proclamation of 1763?
• What could Britain have
  done differently so as not to
  anger the colonists with the
  Proclamation of 1763?
Section 4 Assessment
1. Name the three nations that were
   involved in the Seven Years’ War.
2. How did Pontiac plan to defend
   Native Americans from British
   settlers? Was his plan
3. What did the British hope to gain
   by issuing the Proclamation of
 Graphic Organizer
 What actions do you think General
Braddock could have taken to increase
 his army’s chances of defeating the
   French? Organize your answer.

         Other Strategies
 Journal Assignment
• Use the terms alliance and
  speculator in a short
  paragraph to explain their
 there will be
 a quiz at the
beginning of our
  next class!

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