Chapter 7, Section 4
Presidential Advisors and
• Thousands of employees and advisors
help the President!
I. Executive Office of the President (225)
A. Employees of the Executive Office of the
President (EOP) help by preparing reports,
helping write bills, and checking the work of
(Created by FDR-1939)
( 2000 employees with a budget of $100,000,000)
B. The White House Staff work directly with the
president. About 10 to 12 are president’s
closest advisors. The most powerful = chief of
Rahm Emanuel Erskine Bowles
C. The White House Staff screens the flow of
information and people to the president.
***As a result, this group has a lot of power!***
D. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
prepares the federal budget and monitors
***The federal budget lays out the
administration’s plans and goals for the
E. The National Security Council helps the
president coordinate the military and
foreign policy. It includes the vice
president, secretaries of state and
defense, NSC supervises the CIA.
F. George W. Bush created the office of
homeland security to deal with terrorist
activities. It includes members of the
cabinet, FBI, and the border patrol.
G. Members of the Council of Economic
Advisers (CEA) advise the president
about complex economic matters, such
as employment, taxes, inflation, and
A. The cabinet- a group of advisors that
includes the heads of the 15 top-level
***The head of the Department of Justice
is called the Attorney general. The
other department heads are called
B. Cabinet members advise the president on
issues related to their departments.
***The president decides when the cabinet
meets and how much to rely on their
advice.*** President Obama’s Cabinet
III. The Vice President and the First Lady
A. Most presidents have delegated little
authority to their vice presidents, though
this is changing somewhat.
***Modern vice presidents have served on
special advisory boards. They often
visit foreign countries as
Vice President website
B. The Constitution does
not mention the
Many First Ladies,
though, have served
the country in useful
***Today First Ladies
have an office and
staff in the White
House.*** Michelle Obama
IV. The Federal Bureaucracy
***Executive Branch is President
shaped like a pyramid.
Directly below the
president are the Cabinet
cabinet secretaries and
their departments. At
the next level are
A. Federal Bureaucracy- the agencies and
employees of the executive branch. The
workers are called bureaucrats, or civil
B. Independent agencies- The executive
branch includes hundreds of independent
agencies. The 3 main types are:
1. Executive agencies
2. Regulatory commissions
3. Government corporations
C. Executive Agencies deal with certain
1) National Aeronautics & Space Administration
2)Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Insures savings of depositors up to $100,000
3) Small Business Administration (SBA)
Provides loans for small businesses
D. Government corporations- are like
private businesses, except the
government owns and runs them.
***Like business, they charge for their services,
but are not supposed to make profit.
Amtrak US Postal Service Tenn. Valley Authority
E. Regulatory Commissions do not have to
report to the president like other agencies.
Only Congress can remove them through
***Regulatory commissions protect the
public by making/enforcing rules for
FDA FCC SEC
F. Political Appointees- people whom the
president has chosen because they have
the ability or were supporters of the
Spoils System: Previously, government jobs
were given to workers as a reward for loyal
The assassination of
President Garfield led
to reform and the
creation of the Civil
G. Around 90 percent of national government
workers are civil service workers.
Unlike appointees, they usually have a
Federal workers have good benefits and
most make it a career.
H. The civil service system- hires
government workers on the basis of
openness and skill.
***Civil service system is based on merit,
only hire new workers who have
passed series of tests.***
I. Merit System- Government officials hire
people based on performance standards.
1. What is a government corporation? Give
an example of one!
2. Over time, has the vice president gained
or lost power?
3. New cabinet department created by
President George W. Bush after 9/11?
4. What does the White House Staff do?
5. What are regulatory commissions?