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					Notemaking Support Strategies                        10 Tips for Setting a Research Task               Organising Group Talk                  Supporting Listening
                                                     (Based on ‘The Exit Model’)
   Give note-making frames e.g. cause/effect,                                                         Listening Triads - Groups of            Play an extract as a prediction
                                                                                                       three; a talker, a questioner and a      activity - helps to cue pupils
    similarity/difference, spider diagrams,          1. Remind students what they know so far
                                                                                                       recorder who reports back.               in to the task and activate
    pyramid diagrams, tree diagrams                  2. Give a clear aim and outcome for the task                                               prior knowledge
   Model how to take notes in a variety of ways –   3. Ensure pupils know where to go to research     Envoys - after a task, one person       Provide a focus or hook for
    encourage pupils to find a preferred style           and what texts to use                         from each group visits another group     listening e.g. a specific
   Use text-marking - pupils highlight topic        4. Help pupils to plan their approach to the      to share ideas, then reports back to     question for each group
    sentences, number key points, delete unhelpful                                                     the original group.                     Give pupils a format for
                                                         research e.g timescales
    information                                                                                                                                 recording information e.g.
                                                     5. Discuss what kind of reading style is          Snowball - pairs discuss or              diagram, flow chart, notemaking
   Give pupils key questions or sub-headings to
    structure notemaking
                                                         appropriate (skimming, scanning, close        brainstorm then double up to fours,      frame (increases retention
   Pupils convert text into a diagram or label a        reading)                                      which then double up to eight,           dramatically)
                                                                                                       leading to a whole-class debate.        Pupils could: identify a
    diagram                                          6. Encourage pupils to keep reviewing their
                                                                                                                                                limited number of key words or
   Pupils write points on cards which are later         understanding                                 Rainbow Groups - after a separate        phrases; list 3 major points
    sorted or sequenced e.g. for/against             7. Make sure pupils know how to make notes        group task, pupils are regrouped by      and 3 minor points; respond
   Pupils reduce text to 5 main points or 5             and have useful formats                       colour, to make new groups               physically when they hear key
    words/phrases                                    8. Demonstrate to pupils how to decide what       comprising someone from each old         ideas e.g. hands-up
   Use grids with headings KWL (Know already,                                                         group.                                  Plan group activities where
                                                         information should be used. Is it reliable?
    Want to know, have Learnt), QUAD (Question,                                                                                                 pupils are required to feed
                                                     9. Model how to blend findings together into      Jigsaw - before a task, 'home'           back and listen to each other
    Answer, Detail source) or The 6 W’s (Who,
                                                         an appropriate form                           groups allocate a section to each       Before a task, model listening
    What, When, Where, Why, How)                                                                       member. New 'expert' groups then
                                                     10. Set research outcomes which vary in form                                               and notemaking
                                                                                                       form for each section. Finally,         Provide a glossary if necessary
                                                         e.g. giving a talk, powerpoint
                                                                                                       'home' groups reform and share          Break up the listening into
                                                                                                       findings.                                chunks and gradually increase
                                                                                                                                                the complexity and demands of
                                                                                                       Spokesperson - each spokesperson         tasks to build up listening
                                                                                                       is asked in turn for a new point         stamina
                                                                                                       until every group passes.

Ten Strategies for Key Words                         Spelling Strategies                               Retention Rates
1. Have subject-specific dictionaries in                 Break it into sounds (u-n-i-o-n)
   subject rooms
                                                        Break it into syllables (con-tin-ent)
                                                                                                       Lecture - 5%
                                                                                                       Reading   -    10%                         The Little
2. Create word banks – written on strips,               Break it into affixes (dis + satisfy)
   displayed on word wall                               Use a mnemonic (Never Eat Chips Eat Salad
                                                                                                       Audio-visual – 20%
                                                                                                       Demonstration - 30%                          Book of
3. Make word and definition cards – useful               Sandwiches And Remain Young!)                 Discussion           -          50%
   for starters and plenaries                         Refer to a word in the same family
                                                                                                       Practice by doing              -            Literacy
4. Create interactive glossaries – page of key           (chemical, chemist, chemistry)
   words stuck in book. Definitions added by            Over-articulate it (Wed-nes-day)              70%
   pupil during unit.                                   Words within words (GUM in argument)          Teaching others                 -
5. Keyword crosswords/wordsearches                      Refer to word history (bi = two, cycle =
6. Create word-cluster posters – to link                 wheels)                                       90%
   common roots e.g. equi/equa, graph                   Use analogy (through, rough, enough)
7. Create mnemonics                                 Use a key word (I’m – to remember a            Does Your Lesson Plan Wear a
8. Create calligram posters – the meaning of         apostrophe can replace a missing letter)       VEST?
    a word is visually represented                  Apply spelling rules ( hopping = short vowel
9. Use icons alongside words – ‘comic sans’          sound, hoping = long vowel)                    V –  a VARIETY of activities that
    font recommended                                Learn by sight (look-say-cover-write check)
                                                                                                    to different learning styles         Strategies for Supporting
10. Play word games (on mini-whiteboards) -         Visual memory (recall images, colour, font)
                                                                                                    E – ENGAGEMENT for all pupils           Literacy across the
    hangman, dominoes, finding words in words
                                                                                                    S – opportunities for SOCIABLE               Curriculum
                                                                                                    T – TRANSFORMATION of information
                                                                                                    into a new form maximises               Hertfordshire KS3 English and
                                                                                                                                                    Literacy Team

                                                             CONNECTIVES                                                                Supporting Reading of Difficult Texts
       3 Tips for Improving                        Adding                                           What do Good Readers do?             Create a context - provide a
                                                   And, also, as well as, moreover, too
           Writing Style                                                                                                                  'warm-up' activity such as a
                                                   Sequencing                                        See images                          lesson starter involving
                                                   Next, then, first, finally, meanwhile, after      Hear a reading voice                brainstorming, key words or
                                                   Emphasising                                       Predict what will happen next       prediction
Vary the openings of sentences:
                                                                                                     Speculate
Start with a verb ending in ing…                   Above all, in particular, especially,
                                                                                                     Ask questions, tease at puzzles    Glossaries - to explain
Start with a verb ending in ed…                    significantly, notably                            Pass comments                       difficult and new technical
Start with an adverb ending ly…
                                                   Comparing                                         Feel                                vocabulary
Start with a preposition e.g. over, at, on,
                                                   Equally, similarly, likewise, as with, like       Empathise
                                                   Cause and effect                                  Rationalise what is happening      Collaborative work - pooling
Use connectives to:
                                                                                                     Reread                              ideas helps with confidence
- combine sentences                                Because, so, therefore, thus, consequently
- start sentences (with a comma)                   Qualifying                                        Reinterpret
                                                                                                     Interpret patterns                 Shared Reading - where the
- link sentences and paragraphs                    However, although, unless, except, if, yet
                                                                                                     Relate to own                       passage is read on the OHP
- express thinking more clearly
                                                   Illustrating                                       experience/knowledge                by the whole class. The
                                                   For example, such as, for instance, in the        Pass judgements - likes,            teacher can annotate the
Vary sentence length and construction:                                                                                                    OHT.
John sprinted to work. He was very late.           case of, as revealed by                            dislikes
John sprinted to work, because he was very late.   Contrasting                                                                           DARTS "directed activities
                                                                                                        * Modelling and discussing
Because he was very late, John sprinted to work.   Whereas, unlike, alternatively, on the                                                 relating to texts" can make
John, who was very late, sprinted to work.                                                              these behaviours benefits
                                                   other hand, otherwise                                                                  a difficult passage more
                                                                                                               all students               accessible

                                                                                                                                         Modelling - teacher
                                                                                                                                          discusses and demonstrates
                                                                                                                                          the reading strategies that
                                                                                                                                          could be used

                                                                                                                                         Opportunities to read
                                                                                                                                          similar texts

  A Sequence for Teaching                                Help Students to                                         DARTS                      Reading Strategies
                                                                                                        (Activitieswhich encourage
         Writing                                     Organise their writing by:                               close reading)            Continuous reading
                                                                                                                                        Uninterrupted reading of an
   Establish clear aims – what is the FAP?   Modelling planning, introducing a variety of planning   Cloze   - filling the gap      extended piece of text e.g. novel
                                              formats and providing note-making frames                                               Close reading
    (Form, Audience, Purpose)                                                                         with a missing word or         Careful study reading, which
   Provide examples of that text type                                                                phrase.                        usually includes pausing to think
                                              Teaching Mr PEEL for paragraphs
   Explore features of the example –                                                                                                or look back e.g. making notes
                                              - point, evidence, explanation, link                                                   from a text book
  shared reading looking for word,                                                                    Sequencing    -                Skimming
  sentence and text-level features            Looking at paragraphing in exemplar texts e.g.
                                                                                                      reconstructing a text that     Glancing quickly through the
                                              highlighting topic sentences
 Define the conventions – list the                                                                   has been cut into chunks.
                                                                                                                                     passage to get the gist of it
                                                                                                                                     e.g. first reading of a new
  ‘ingredients’ for this kind of writing      Preparing pupils for the structure of that genre of                                    passage
   Demonstrate how it is written –           writing e.g. recipe = chronological                     Text marking    -              Scanning
  teacher models thought processes                                                                                                   Searching for a particular piece
                                                                                                      underlining, annotating or     of information e.g. using an
 Compose together – class contributes        Providing writing frames and sentence starters for
                                                                                                      numbering text to show         index
   Scaffold the first attempts – e.g.        those students who need them
                                                                                                                                         Supporting weaker readers
    writing frames, key words, sentence       Organising sequencing activities:
    starters                                  - students’ ideas on post-its or cards                  Text restructuring       -     What are we reading for?
   Independent writing                       - key words or phrases which can be expanded            reading and then remodelling   Which strategy do we need to use?
   Draw out key learning                     - topic sentences/ sub-headings                                                        How do we do this? What do we do
                                                                                                      the information in another     with our eyes?
                                                                                                      format e.g. flow charts,       What sort of information are we
                                                                                                      diagrams, venn diagrams,       looking for?
                                                                                                                                     Watch me model what I do as I
                                                                                                      grids, lists, maps, charts,    read this.
                                                                                                      concept maps or rewriting in
                                                                                                      another genre.

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