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BALAJI WAFERS PVT LTD

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					                BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

            INDUSTRIAL VISIT REPORT

                            ON

           BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD.

                    PREPARED BY:

                  VYAS NIRAJ M


CLASS                  :-         S.Y.B.B.A.

ACADEMIC YEAR          :-         2006 – 2007

ROLL NO                :-         55

SEAT NO                :-

COLLEGE                :-         CHRIST COLLEGE




                   -:SUBMITTED TO:-

          SAURASHTRA UNIVERSITY, RAJKOT.


                     -:GUIDED BY:-

                Ms. VINITA AGRAWAL.

                Ms. DARSHITA GANATRA




                  CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT           1
                     BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                        DECLARATION

                 I, the undersigned, VYAS NIRAJ M. a student of
S.Y.B.B.A. here by declare that the project work presented in this
report is my own work and has been carried out under the supervision
of MS VINITA AGRAWAL, Mrs. CHARMI BADANI and
 Ms. DARSHITA GANATRA of Christ College, Rajkot.

                   This work has not been previously submitted to any
other university for any examination.

Date:-
Place:-



                                            Signature:-
                                        (VYAS NIRAJ M.)




                       CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                       2
                       BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                             PREFACE

              The corporate world was operated in dynamic environment,
it is still being operated in globally dynamic environment and will be
continued forever is the universal truth. Today’s manger’s role is not
restricted up to record keeper, mediator, councilor, a role of
conscience, trainer, peace maker, problem solver but also to work as
mentor and to nurture the people in ever changing environment.

            We are living in the era of digitalization, globalization,
computerization ad can see the emergence of new technology every now
and than. So in today’s competitive world, only theoretical study
approach is a narrow concept and students need some practical field
work and for this purpose Saurashtra University has arranged an
research report program for the future benefit of B.B.A students is
really valuable implication for me.

            For this purpose, I have made a project report on BALAJI
WAFERS PVT. LTD. and tried to mention and analyze the attitude,
awareness and usage of it’s all the products for the consumers of entire
market of his.




                         CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                            3
                      BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                   ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

            First of all, I am thankful to Saurashtra University for
giving the chance of practical knowledge in the syllabus of management
in B.B.A.

            I am also grateful to BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD. To
allow me to make a project report and especially Mr. JAY SACHDEV,
an authorized person of balaji group.

            The motivation and love behind the shaping of this project,
I owe special feelings towards my parents.

         I could not have completed this report without the guidance
of my professors i.e. MS. VINITA AGRAWAL, MRS. CHARMI
BADANI, MS. DARSHITA GANATRA, AND DR. SWATI DOSHI.

            At This Stage, I Would Like To Remember All My
Enthusiastic Classmates And Friends Who Give Their Love And
Support To Me Always.


Date:-
Place:-

                                             Signature:-
                                         (VYAS NIRAJ M.)




                        CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                        4
            BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

             GENERAL INDEX


SR. NO.            PARTICULARS         PAGE NO.

  1       GENERAL INFORMATION


  2       PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT


  3       PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT


  4       MARKETING MANAGMENT


  5       FINANCE MANAGEMENT


  6       VISION


  7       SWOT ANALYSIS


  8       FUTURE PLANS


  9       SUGGESTIONS


  10      CONCLUSIONS


  11      BIBLIOGRAPHY




              CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT              5
          BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

      GENERAL INFORMATION

              CONTENTS

SR. No.         PARTICULARS         PAGE
                                     No.

  1
          History of unit

  2
          Achievements

  3
          Company Profile

  4
          Organizational
          Structure




           CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT          6
                 BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

             HISTORY OF THE UNIT


      The makers of ‘balaji group’ brand wafers and namkeen
food products had deep faith in god & in good taste. Converting
dreams into reality it leads then to the biggest potato wafer plant
of India. The balaji plant covers over 85000 sq. m area in the
outskirts of the Rajkot city. Its big taste revenue i.e. turnover
touched to the crore rupees milestone. Balaji group has 90%
shares of wafers market and 70% shares of namkeen market in
Gujarat.

       The journey of balaji group in year 1976 by the members of
virani family. For supplying wafer and namkeens of local brands
to the patrons of astron cinema, Rajkot. Due to the short supply of
that product they decided to make their own product line in year
1982.

      By the overwhelming retail success they inspired to set a
semi automatic plant. Instead of preparing wafer by the
traditional frying method this semi automatic plant boosted the
quality, taste and more sales also. The fame of the taste reached to
the whole Gujarat hence it was time to takeover the whole
Gujarat so the biggest automatic plant of Gujarat came into the
picture.

      Quenching the demand of Gujarat, maharastra and
rajasthan region balaji group is now looking forward to march
over India.




                   CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                         7
                     BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                       ACHIEVEMENTS

             People’s love is the most memorable achievements. Truly,
 that helped BALAJI group them to reach its fame across the globe.
Apart from this, economic time recognized balaji group as ‘ SULTAN
OF WAFERS’ and international magazine i.e. Asia pacific food online
published a special article with ‘ CHIP OFF THE OLD BLOCK’ tag.
Balaji group is also a member of snacks food association. Balaji group
 believes in sheer performances which win a accolades of people and
                          media at same time.




                       CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                        8
                  BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                  COMPANY PROFILE


Name               :    BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD.

Address            :    Vajdi [Vad],
                        Kalawad road,
                        Rajkot,
                        Tal. Lodhika
                        Gujarat [India]

Year of Estab’t    :    1982

Main Products      :    (1.) Wafers
                        (2.) Namkeens


Form of Org’n      :    Limited Equity.

Size of Unit       :    Medium Scale Industry.

Director           :    Mr. Bhikhubhai Virani
                        Mr. Chandubhai Virani
                        Mr. kanubhai Virani
                        Mr. Sureshbhai Sakhiya
                        Mr. V.C. Pambhar

Total Area         :    85 000 Sq.m

Bankers            :    Corporation and SBI

Phone No.          :    0281 – 2782755
                               2783756
                               2783789




                   CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT         9
                  BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                  COMPANY PROFILE


Fax                :    +91 281 2783747

Accounting year    :    1st April to 31st march.

Email              :    contact @ balaji wafers.co

Website            :    balajiwafers.com

Working hours      :    8:00 a.m. To 5: 00p.m.

Lunch time         :    12:00 a.m. To 1:00 p.m.

Weekly off         :    Sunday




                   CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT            10
                     BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

            ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

            Organization structure is a basic frame work of company
management. It is the pattern in which various parts of the company
are interconnected.

            In BALAJI WAFERS PVT LTD. There is a line type of
organization in which responsibility flow upward and authorities flow
downward and upward.

        The following is the organizational structure of BALAJI
WAFERS PVT LTD.




                       CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                      11
                    BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                          CHAIRMAN

                              ↓
                     MANAGIND DIRECTOR

                              ↓
                          DIRECTORS

                              ↓
TECHNCAL DIRECTOR         MARKETING DIRECTOR         R & D DIR.




                    GENERAL MANAGER

MARKETING          PRODUCTION         FINANCE       PERSONNEL



AREA SEARCH MAN.     SUPERVISOR         C.A.        GM & MD




SALESMAN             WORKER           ACCOUNATNAT




                                        CLERK




                     CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                   12
                BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

          PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT
                       CONTENTS

                                          PAGE
SR.NO.   PARTICULARS                      NO.

   1     INTRODUCTION
   2
         ORGANISATIONAL CHART
   3
         PLANT LOCATION
   4
         PLANT LAYOUT
   5
         PRODUCTION PLANNING & CONTROL
   6
         MACHINE & MACHINE CAPACITY
   7
         REPAIRS & MANINTENANCE
   8
         RAW MATERIALS
   9
         PRODUCTION PROCESS
  10
         QUALITY CONTROL
  11     MATERIAL HANDLING
  12
         STORE KEEPING
  13
         CODIFICATION & DENTIFICATION

  14     PURCHASING OR SUPPLIER
         RELATIONSHIP
  15
         ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION
  16
         INVENTORY MGT.
  17
         INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING




                 CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT          13
                       BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                         INTRODUCTION

            Production plays a very important role in all the activities
of company management. This is the first step of the company
management. All the business activities revolve around the production
process. The production activity is nothing but the step by step
conversion of one form of material into another chemically or
mechanically. The basic inputs of the mine, farm, sea and forest are
used as raw material on which the processing is done to create the
output. Production is an activity through which the form utility is either
created or enhanced.

             Production management is a process of planning,
organizing, directing and controlling the activities of production
function. Production function is the conversion of raw material into
finished goods. Production management is concerned with those
processes which convert the inputs into outputs. The inputs are various
resources like raw materials and the outputs are goods and services.

             In BALAJI WAFERS PVT LTD.., production department
is looked after by Mr.M.P.Patel (Director)




                         CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                        14
                     BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

            ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
          Organization structure is a basic frame work of company
management. It is the pattern in which various departments of the
company are interconnected.

            In BALAJI WAFERS PVT LTD. There is a line type of
organization in which responsibility flow upward and authorities flow
downward and upward.

        The following is the organizational structure of BALAJI
WAFERS PVT. LTD.

                             CHAIRMAN

                                 ↓
                       MANAGIND DIRECTORS

                                 ↓
                       BOARD OF DIRECTORS

                                 ↓
                        GENERAL MANAGER

                                 ↓
                      PRODUCTION INCHARGE

                                 ↓
                           SUPERVISION

                                 ↓
                             WORKERS




                       CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                      15
                       BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                       PLANT LOCATION:-
            Site selection is an important activity which decides the fate
of the business. A good location may, reduce the cost of production and
distribution to a considerable extent. The reduction of cost of
production and distribution helps in elevating either the competitive
strength or the profit margin of the business.

            Therefore, the location for the factory should be selected
very carefully. While selecting a site, it is necessary to consider
technical, commercial, and financial and then the location is selected
which may provide maximum advantages.

           So, looking to all these factors BALAJI WAFERS PVT.
LTD.(S) Ltd. Has established the plant in an industrial estate-

             BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD. had chosen this location
taking into consideration following factors:-

                  Supply of Raw Material
                  Nearness of Market.
                  Transportation Facilities.
                  Labour Supply.
                  Availability of Power & Natural resources.
                  Government Facilities.
                  Personal Factors.
                  Social Factors.


The following is the location address of BALAJI WAFERS PVT LTD..

                     BALAJI WAFERS PVT LTD.
                            Vajdi [Vad],
                          Kalawad road,
                              Rajkot,
                           Tal. Lodhika
                          Gujarat [India]



                         CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                        16
         BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

         PLANT LOCATION




COSMOP
LEX
            K
            A
            L
            A              MTV
            W
            A
            D
VVP
COLLEG
E

            R              PETROL
            O              PUMP
            A
            D
BALAJI
WAFERS



          CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT    17
BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

 PLANT LAYOUT




 CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT   18
                       BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

        PRODUCTION PLANNING & CONTROL

           Before starting any production work it is necessary to plan
out the production activity very well. If the production planning is not
up to the mark then it will result to production fault. Wastage can also
be reduced by controlling the production process.


            Production planning involves the decision on the resources
that the firm will require for its further manufacturing operations and
allocation of these resources to produce the desired product in the
required amounts at the minimum costs.

             Planning is also done regarding the finance required for the
production. The amount of capital required should be very well planned
before starting the production. The capital should neither be less nor
should it be more because in both the cases is loss for the company.

             The man power required for the production process should
also be planned. The number of workers, supervisors, etc. should be
fixed well before the production.

            Production planning an control is very well managed in
balaji wafers pvt ltd. They plan their product according to the order
get from the dealer and also they do product planning b using their
previous records. In this way they can also control the production.


            BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD .Produces the products after
receiving the order from the dealers so that they can have control on the
production and can reduce wastage.




                        CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                         19
                       BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

            MACHINE & MACHINE CAPACITY

            A fully automatic plan t worth Rs. 80 lacs of wood tap aria
ltd.. Indore and one packing machine of Woodmal Company of USA
valued Rs. 60 lacs has been installed with production capacity of 4500
kgs per hour.

           Average manufacturing per day is 1800 kgs. The
manufacturing of wafers and namkeens is little high in the winter and in
monsoon season i.e. in the month of august due to festivals production
goes to maximum possible level. This industry covers about 90% of the
market share in the wafers and about 70% in the namkeens.

           As this is a fully automatic plant, all the process like cutting
of potatoes, wasginhg, peeling, steaming and frying are done
automatically. This machine being automatic consumes electricity and
sometimes they use diesel for running boiler.




                         CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                         20
                       BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                REPAIRS & MAINTENANCE

        Repairs and maintenance is very essential part of the
production management. As entire scenario of the production is
depended on the machines and plant one has to make sure that they are
well maintained.

        The machine installed in the unit utilizes all the raw material
and process them to produce the final product but when they are not
well maintained they directly affect the quality of the product.

          There is systematic repairs and maintenance of the plant of the
unit, as all the production work is done by it,. Company has hired some
technicians to look after the plant and various vital component of the
same.




                        CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                        21
                           BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                            RAW MATERIAL

             Raw material is the most basic requirement for producing
any products. The selection of raw material should be proper. The
quality of raw material should be perfectly checked because the quality
of raw materials directly affects the quality of final product depends on
the type and quality of raw materials used.

            BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD. produces various products
like wafers and namkeens. It is very important for the company to use
appropriate raw materials.

            BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD. Uses following material for
the production of various products. They are:-

   1. Potato
   2. Different dals
   3. Peanuts
   4. Banana
   5. Chilly powder
   6. Sugar
   7. Salt
   8. Edible oil
   9. Tomato
   10.Other spices

          The raw materials are supplied to BALAJI WAFERS PVT.
LTD.., by following suppliers:-



                           LA CAST METAL COMPANY LTD.
                           KVR BMC AUTO LTD.
                           KVR BNC PISTONS LTD.




                            CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                    22
                       BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                  PRODUCTION PROCESS
             The operations function essentially is a transformation
process that accepts the inputs, and gives the outputs after adding value
to the inputs. The transformation process is expected to generate an
output. The transformation process is expected to generate an output
described by market and this it should do in the most efficient way.
Production process has to adopt itself to number of changing factors
like capacity, lead-time, flexible trade-offs between material, labour and
capital, trade-offs between volume and variety, etc. we cannot have the
best process, it could only be the most acceptable process, given the
different trade-offs.

            In BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD., production process is a
well – planned process. In contains all that important stages, which is
required to make a product well, accepted in the market.

        The well – planned production process of BALAJI
WAFERS PVT. LTD. is as follows:-

    The first of production process begins on receiving the order from
     the dealer.
    Potatoes are placed on electric channel and washed properly.

    After washing, they are brought for pilling purpose to the peeling
     machine.

    Once they are washed and finely peeled they are passed through a
     belt where labours remove off the spoiled potatoes.

    After washing and peeling, they sent for cutting. There are
     different shapes in cutting machine; these shapes are arranged
     according to the need.

    After washing, they are again sent for washing and after that for
     frying purpose.
    Once frying gets over again inspection is done to remove the
     broken pieces of wafers.



                         CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                        23
                    BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,
  Once this process ends chips are placed in Spicer drum and
   necessary spices are added to it. And than at last they are packed
   and dispatched.

PROCESS LAYOUT OF BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD.

                        RAW MATERIAL

                                ↓
                           WASHING

                                ↓
                            PEELING

                                ↓
                          INSPECTION

                                ↓
                            CUTTING

                                ↓
                           WASHING

                                ↓
                            FRYING

                                ↓
                          INSPECTION

                                ↓
                        ADDING SPICES

                                ↓
                           DISPATCH




                      CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                       24
                       BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                      QUALITY CONTROL

             In industrial context quality is defined in much more
functional fashion thus we can say that quality means, “Fitness for use”
whether for a product or service. It is also considered as the sum total of
the attributes or properties that describe the product.

            Today the existence of any manufacturing unit depends on
the quality of product or services it manufactures or supplies. The
image or goodwill of any unit is closely related to the quality of product
made or supplied by that unit;

            “Level of quality is the mirror for the manufacturer.”

            Quality is very important for a manufacturer of product or
services because very existence of manufacturer depends on the quality
level.

            In this unit, there is a systematic quality control process.
Company has purchased certain very costly equipment for this purpose.
Where they check the raw material and finished goods both. Of course,
for this purpose experts personnel are recruited to do the testing work.




                         CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                         25
                       BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                    MATERIAL HANDLING

             According to American material handling society, “material
handling is the art and science of the movement, packing and the
storage of substance in any form”

              It should be noted that material handling is the distinct
activity falling within the jurisdiction of production dept. It is not the
part of production control but it is closely associated with the function
of the production control. It is largely concerned with routine function
of the production activity and to some extent the scheduling of the
production dept.
              In BALAJI WAFERS PVT LTD. There is a systematic
process of handling different kinds of materials.

              Buckets are also used to handle the material. Buckets are
like an open container which has wheels. The materials produced are
put in to it and it can be pulled from one place to another.

             The company also uses manual ways to handle the
materials. The materials which are light in weight and which has very
possibility of damage are transported manually.




                         CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                        26
                       BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                  STORES MANAGEMENT

             The efficiency of the mfg. operation depends largely on the
efficient functioning of the receiving and stores operations. Receiving
and storing are the services, functions and involve much of the proper
work.

             The direct production cost is reduced by strategically
location of the stores ensuring quick issue and elimination of production
stoppages caused by waiting for materials. It indirectly reduces the
production costs in terms of reduced investments in materials, storage
space and insurance, elimination of the pilferages and theft,
obsolescence, reduced handling cost, etc…

             BALAJI WAFERS PVT LTD.. Have building for storing
their raw materials so they store raw materials in the building meant
for the storage of the raw materials. Company hardly stores its material
for more than 2 days. They generally anticipate the demand for
production and accordingly they order.




                        CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                         27
      BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

CODIFICATION & IDENTIFICATION




       CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT   28
          BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

PURCHASING OR SUPPLIER RELATIONSHIP




           CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT     29
                       BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

               ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION

           A success of an industrial unit lies in its production of its
products without pollution the surroundings. An industrial unit for its
functioning depends a lot on the environment. Without properly no
matter however efficient the unit may be.

            If the pollution is inevitable then the industrial unit should
find out some method to neutralize the effect of pollution. It should
implement ways which would cut down the pollution emitted by the unit
and help to keep the environment clean and pollution free.

            BALAJI WAFERS PVT LTD. Has also taken steps in order
to control in the surrounding of their factory shop. These steps are
given below:-

    All furnaces are equipped with recuperators to limit emission of
     carbon particle produced due to burning of oil and hence to keep
     environment clean.
    The boundaries of the factory are planted with 100 to 150 trees
     which help a lot in neutralizing the pollution in the environment.

            The company has also received NOC from Gujarat
      Pollution Board.




                         CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                        30
                       BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                INVENTORY MANAGEMENT

            Inventory is defined as a usable resource which is physical
tangible such as materials. In this sense, our stock is our inventory but
even then the term inventory is more comprehensive. Though inventory
is usable resource it is also an idle resource unless it is managed
effectively and efficiently. Inventory control refers to the process
whereby the investment in materials and parts carried in stock is
regulated within predetermined limits set in accordance with the
inventory policy established by management.

             Inventories constituent the largest component of current
assets in many organization. Poor management of inventories therefore
may result in business failures. In case of a manufacturing organization,
the inability could bring production process to a halt. Conversely, if a
firm carries cost may represent the difference between profit and loss.
Efficient inventory control therefore can significantly contribute to all
overall profit position of the organization.

            BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD. has a systematic inventory
control. For inventory, BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD. uses First In
First Out (FIFO) method. They dispatch they finish products as soon as
they are produced. Company does not hold inventory for more than 2
days including raw material and finish products.




                        CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                        31
 BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING




  CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT   32
                       BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

          SCRAP AND WASTE MANAGEMENT

             Waste management has several dimensions: engineering,
geographic, social and management. Its basic purpose is to minimize of
the overall waste in the given system. Waste here refers to waster of the
all kinds of the resources, but especially the material which constitute a
significant portion. Some wastage is inevitable in any conversion process
of inputs in to output. To reduce waste, we have therefore to maximize
the use of the resources. Resource management and waste management
are supportive to each other.

           In BALAJI WAFERS PVT LTD.. The management of the
scrap and waste is done in appropriate manner.

            The forge piece which is left at the end of forge process can
be reused or can be sold as scrap.

            Forge piece which are rejected, which are found at the end
process can be reused are called end piece. These pieces are not fully
scrap they can be reused in the production again. So these pieces are
separated from the scrap[ and are again sent to the production dept.
But some pieces which are known as “flash” are of no use in production.
This is the unused part of the product which is separated when the
product is giving finishing touch. As these pieces used in the production
they are sold as scrap.




                         CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                        33
              BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

         PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT

                  CONTENTS

SR.NO.             PARTICULARS          PAGE NO.

  1      INTRODUCTION

  2      ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE

  3      NO. OF. EMPLOYEES

  4      RECRUITMENT & SELECTION

  5      INDUCTION AND PLACEMENT

  6      TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

  7      PROMOTION & TRANSFER POLICY

  8      PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

  9      WAGE & SALARY ADMINISTRATION

  10     TRADE UNION

  11     PERSONNEL RECORDS

  12     EMPLOYEE BENEFIT

  13     COLLECTIVE BARGAINING

  14     TIME KEEPING SYSTEM

  15     JOB ANALYSIS

  16     INDUSTRIAL RELATION

  17     GRIEVANCE HANDLING

  18     WORKING CONDITION




               CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT          34
                      BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                        INTRODUCTION
            If we look at the world management it can be divided into
“MANAGE-MEN-T’. If the word ‘tactfully’ substituted for ‘T’ then the
word management would read “MANAGE-MEN –TACTFULLY”.
Thus the word itself suggest the most important aspect of management,
namely, of managing men and human beings in a particular manner ,
namely , tactfully,.

            Although in one sense every one in an organization is
concerned with the personnel function, in case of larger organization a
special dept. is segregated to help the line management to secure the
optimum use of personnel dept. performing an advisory or a staff
function. The personnel department helps management in securing,
using, and development appropriate, manpower to achieve the
organizational objective.

      The objective of personnel management can therefore be briefly
described as follows/:\
   1. To attract and secure appropriate people capable performing
      effectively the organization’s specified tasks.

  2. To utilize the human resource effectively.

  3. To generate maximum individual development of the people
     within the organization.




                        CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                       35
                     BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

            ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

        Organization is group of people working together co operating
under “authority” towards achieving benefits for the participants and
organization itself. Every organization has its goals and objectives.

         In balaji wafers there does not exist any separate personnel
department for achievement of goals. This entire task is handled by
general manager and managing director itself. Any kind of complaints
or grievances are directly solved by them.




                       CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                      36
                       BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                     NO OF EMPLOYEES
             However, the big the organization may be but its employees
are its real strength. Employees are one of the important resources of
any organisation.

            The no. of employees matters a lot in the performance of the
organisation. The number of employees should be proportionate to the
size of the organisation. Any increase or decrease in the number of
employees would cause a problem in the fu8ctioning of the organisation.

            In BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD. The number of the
employees is as follows:

             DETAILS                        NO. OF EMPLOYEES
Office Staff                                         24
Supervisors & Inspectors                             29
Engineers                                            6
Supporting staff                                     15
Total                                                74




                        CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                       37
                        BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

            RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION

            The recruitment process starts with identification of
vacancies to be filled up . it is basically concerned with the identification
of sources from where the personnel can be employed and motivating
them to offer for the employment.

            The object of recruitment and selection is to ascertain
clearly the type of person required and to secure an appropriate
candidate for filling that position.

            The BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD. function of recruitment
and selection is carried out systematically.

           Company fills up vacancies through promotion of people in
the organization and through the selections of people from outside i.e.
through advertisement , personal relations etc.

            In balaji wafers there are mainly two types of workers that
are at operating and managerial staff.

            Selection of managerial is done on the basis of job analysis
and for operating staff skills are taken into consideration.




                          CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                          38
                      BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

              INDUCTION AND PLACEMENT


INDUCTION:

      Induction is a technique by which a new employee is rehabilitated
into changed surrounding and introduced to the practices, policies and
the objectives of the organisation. In other words, it is a welcoming
process. The idea is to welcome a newcomer, make him/her feel at home
and generate a feeling of belongingness, however its small, but is
meaningful and has significance as a part of total organisation.

PROCESS OF INDUCTION:-

   Firstly, information is given to newly appointed person to whom
    he has to give a report and the place of report.

   Secondly, the respective manager welcomes the employees.

   Thirdly it gives overall information about the department in
    which he/she is designated.




                        CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                       39
                      BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

               TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT

           Training is the short-term process utilizing a systematic and
  organized procedure by which non-managerial personnel learn
  technical knowledge and skill for a definite purpose.

           Development is a long-term educational process by utilizing
  a systematic and organized procedure by which managerial
  personnel acquire conceptual and theoretical knowledge for general
  functioning of the unit.

           Organizations don’t have choice whether to train its
  employees or not the only choice is that of the methods of the
  training the are going to implement.. There is continuous
  environmental pressure for increasing the efficient and if the
  organisation does not respond to this pressure, it may in itself losing
  whatever share of market it has. Training imparts skill and
  knowledge to employees in order with which they contribute to the
  organisation efficiency and be able to cope up with the pressures of
  the changing environment.


           In BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD. give training to its
employees according to the job required from them.

           They mostly train their employees as per on job training.

           If on job training is not enough, they also give their
employees external training.




                        CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                         40
                        BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                PROMOTION AND TRANSFER

             Promotion is generally meant the assignment of a position
of higher responsibility to an individual. Promotion can be used as a
recruitment source for higher positions. This would encourage the
existing employee, providing them with motivation and the same time
opening a source of recruitment at the lower end of the hierarchy for
outsiders.

               A lateral movement of an employee not involving promotion
of demotion is described as transfer. A transfer therefore does not
involve a material change in responsibility. As in case of promotions,
transfers are utilized to place employees in position where they are likely
to be more effective or where they are likely to get greats job
satisfactions.

            In BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD. The employees are given
promotion and transfer on the basis of performance and skills.


             There are no frequent transfers of the employees. Transfers
are mainly internal. Employees are transferred from one department to
other.

             Promotion of the employees is based on their performance
and skills. At these time company refers the entire portfolio of the
employee, during his stay with the company and accordingly decides
promotion and transfers.




                          CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                        41
                        BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                 PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

             Appraisal is the evaluation of worth, quality or merit. In
 this organisation context performance is a systematic evaluation of
 personnel by supervisors or other familiar with their performance.
 Performance appraisal is also described as merit rating in which one
 individual is ranked better or worse in comparison to other. The basic
 purpose in their merit rating is to ascertain an employees eligibility for
 performance training and development., salary increase, transfer,
 discharge etc.

             The objectives of performance appraisals are as follows:

       To identify areas for further training needs.
       To help determining promotion and transfer.
       To reduce grievances.
       To improve job performance.

            BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD. Concentrates on giving
performance appraisals to its employees. It gives appraisal to the
employees on the basis of performance. BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD.
Gives 10% increment in the salary to its staff members.




                          CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                        42
                       BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

          WAGES AND SALARY ADMINISTRATION

             Payment made to labour is generally referred to as wages.
Money paid periodically to persons whose output cannot be easily
measured, such as clerical staff as well as supervisory and managerial
staff is referred to generally as salaries. Salaries are thus paid on the
monthly basis and at times the element of incentive is introduced in the
form of commission.

            Wages can be paid according to 3 systems. These systems
   are:

   1. Time or day wage system.
   2. The piece wage system.
   3. Fixed rate system.

            Salaries are always paid at the end of a particular period.
Mostly salaries are paid at the end of one month.

            In BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD. The wages and salary
administration is done in the following manner.

    Laborers are given monthly wages of about average Rs.2600 per
     month.

    All the staff members are paid on monthly basis. The company
     also gives salary increment of 10% approximately every year on
     the basis of performance.




                        CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                        43
BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

  TRADE UNION




 CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT   44
                       BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

             RECORDS OF THE EMPLOYEES

            The objective of maintaining records of the employees
should not be merely to record inadequateness or employment problems
such as accident, indiscipline and absenteeism. A record of these is no
doubt useful. There are many reasons for maintaining adequate records
of employees. Records of the employees are useful for several purposes
such as:

       For communication to other departments of the organisation.
       For supplying information required by government agencies.
       For succession planning
       For identifying training needs.
       For designing training programmes around a homogenous
        group.
       For preparing payroll and paying compensation.
       For conducting industrial relation, research and audit.
       For identifying the magnitude of transaction involved in the
        personnel function

             In BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD. records of the employees
are kept systematically.
              Records of employees are computerized and each employee
is given a particular code.

             For records of employees the company uses photo identity,
name, educational qualification, skills, experience, date of joining, date
of resign, birth date, address, etc….




                         CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                        45
                      BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

       BENEFITS & SERVICES OF EMPLOYEES

             Industrial units pay their employees salary or wages for
their work done. But only salary and wages are not enough. Employees
should be given many other benefits by to company which would
provide security and would motivate them. These benefits are very
important for the company to provide because it will motivate the
employees and would enhance their work which will bring ultimate
success to the firm.

            BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD. Also gives various benefits
and services to its employees. These benefits are as follows:

Bonus:

     Employees are given average 10 to 15% bonus regularly at the
     end of the year as per their performance.
Medical facilities:

      Company provides re imbursement of medical expenses incurred
and includes hospitalization, nursing homes and surgical charges for
employee as well as his family.

Canteen facilities;

      They offer meal worker at a reasonable rate.




                        CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                      46
                    BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

               COLLECTIVE BARGAINING

      Collective bargaining means a procedure under which two
parties, namely, workers and management, reach an agreement about
wage rates and basic conditions of employment and on some other
important issues of an organizations,.




                      CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                   47
                       BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                   TIME KEEPING SYSTEM

             An organisation must decide its working hours and shifts
very carefully because it has a direct effect on the performance of the
employees. The working hours should not be more which would be very
stressful for employees. There should be free time after appropriate
intervals which would release the stress of the employees.

             Same things apply in the decision for fixing of shifts. Shifts
should be decided in such a way that the organisation should be able to
rotate its employees to use their efficiency fully.

          In BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD. The is perfect balance
between working hours and shifts.

            In BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD. The working days are
divided into 2 shifts 4 hours each.

            OFFICE:
            8:00 A.M. TO 12:00 P.M.
            1;00 P.M. TO 5:00 P.M.

            WORKERS;
            8:00 A.M. TO 12:00 P.M.
            2:00 P.M. TO 5:00 P.M.

           When there is full demand in the market for wafer then
working shifts are changed accordingly.




                         CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                         48
                      BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                        JOB ANALYSIS

          Job analysis is a detailed and systematic study of jobs to
know the nature and characteristics of people to be employed for each
job.

             The requirements of a job are known as job description and
qualities demanded from the hob holder are termed as hob
specification.




                        CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                       49
                       BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                   INDUSTRIAL RELATION

             Expression industrial relations are used to express the
nature of relationships between the employer and employee in an
industry or an organisation. Where willing co operation emanates from
employees towards the achievement of organizational goals. There is
said to be industrial relation and there are condition which can generate
good industrial relations. A correct perspective the industrial relations
position is possible on an appreciation of the stages of development
through which a country has passed over a period of time to the present
moment.

            In BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD.... The management and
employees maintain a good industrial relation. They both understand
each other and there is no incident of any such dissatisfaction or strike.




                         CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                        50
                       BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

            GRIEVANCE HANDLING SYSTEM

              An employee grievance is an indication of his discontent or
dissatisfaction. It may be expressed or the employee may not
communicate it. If t is expressed it is easier for the manager concerned
to deal with it and remove it where possible. A grievance even though
imaginary is likely to affect the employee’s efficiency and should thus be
removed promptly. When communicated, the manger to listen and
understand and thus encourage the employees to put forth his
grievance.
             BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD. Handles the grievances of its
employees in the vest possible way. The company provides all the thing
required for an employee and so there is very less chance of any
grievance. Even then if there is any grievance from the employee it’s
first heard by the management and if it is reasonable the required is
done.




                         CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                        51
BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

WORKING CONDITION




 CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT   52
               BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

          MARKETING DEPARTMENT

                   CONTENTS

SR NO.             PARTICULARS           PAGE
                                          NO.


  1      INTRODUCTION TO
         MARKETING

  2      ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE

  3      PRODUCT PLANNING

  4      PRODUCT LIFE STYLE

  5      PRODUCT MIX

  6      BRANDING, PACKAGING &
         LABELING

  7      MARKETING RESEARCH

  8      SEGEMENTATION

  9      PRICING POLICY & STRATEGY

 10      PROMOTION MIX

 11      DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL

 12      COMPETITOR

 13      EXPORTS



                CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT          53
                      BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                       INTRODUCTUION

            Marketing management represents an important functional
area of business management efforts for the flow of goods and services
from the producers to the consumer. It looks after the marketing system
of the enterprise.

              Marketing management has to implement marketing
strategies, programmes and campaigns. It must evaluate the
effectiveness of each part of marketing mix and introduce necessary
modifications to remove discrepancies in the actual execution of plans,
policies, strategies, procedures and programmes.


           Marketing management has to plan and develop the
product on the basis of known consumer demand. It has to build up
appropriate marketing plan or marketing-mix to fulfill the et-goals of
the business. It has to formulate sound marketing policies and
programmes. It looks after their implementation and control. In
essence, marketer is a manager of customer demand in a changing
business world.




                        CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                       54
                       BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

             ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
          Organization structure is frame work of firm’s employees
which shows position of each employee in a department.

             In this company there is no marketing department as such
but concerned activity of buying and selling is done by respective officer
only i.e. purchase and sales officer.



                      MANAGING DIRECTOR
                              ↓
                      MARKETING MANAGER
                              ↓


ADVT & RESEARCH    PURCHASE OFFICER      SALES OFFICER    EXPORT MANAGEMENT




Sales officer look out for sales and export together while purchases
officer deals only in purchases.




                         CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                        55
                      BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                    PRODUCT PLANNING
        A product planning is a company plan for marketing its
products. Product planning means planning for the product that is to
decide what type of products to be produced or what need or
requirements the product should satisfy.

          In balaji wafers product planning is done very carefully. They
first contact dealers and ask for the demand of product in the market &
new demand of customers then they prepare few samples and give to
dealers. As per the suggestion and taste of customers, they manufacture
the new product.




                        CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                        56
                       BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                    PRODUCT LIFECYCLE

            The product life cycle concept derives from the fact that a
products sales volume and sales revenue follow a typical pattern of 5
phase cycle.

  1.   Introduction
  2.   Growth
  3.   Maturity
  4.   Saturation
  5.   Decline and obsolescence

            In BALAJI WAFERS, its product also has its lifecycle.
They introduced their products then it grew very fast and reached
maturity where they started earning profits when the product reaches
the saturation stage it introduces some new feature in product so it
doesn’t reach decline and obsolescence stage.




                        CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                       57
             BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

               PRODUCT MIX

1. POTATO MASALA WAFERS
2. POTATO SALTED WAFERS
3. TOMATO MASTI
4. CHAT CHASKA
5. BANANA MARI WAFERS
6. BANANA MASALA WAFERS
7. FARALI CHEVDO
8. CHANA DAL
9. MUNG DAL
10. MASALA PEAS
11. SHING BHUJIA
12. RATLAMI SEV
13. ALOO SEV
14. TIKHA MITHA MIX
15. KHATTA MITHA MIX
16. MASALA SHING
17. SHING
18. GATHIYA
19. CHATAKA PATAKA




              CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT   58
        BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

BRANDING, PACKAGING & LABELLING




         CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT   59
                      BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                    MARKET RESEARCH
            Market research under customer-oriented marketing
philosophy can offer current, adequate and accurate information about
potential buyers and all other aspects of market environment such as
dealer’s needs and preferences, consumer expectation competition,
marketing conditions, etc. it is through marketing research that an
enterprise plans the appropriate marketing strategies and implements
the marketing concept, and takes a scientific approach to marketing
management. Marketing research is field of experts, requiring special
training.
            There are the burning problems in front of marketing
executive marketing research helps in gathering the useful information
in this regard. Marketing research is very useful to the organization
because based on facts, decision can be taken promptly.

            At BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD. produces and deals with
domestic good there is no large scope for market research. The
company carries with it a wide range of customers. The company does
its market research by asking the customers if any change in the quality
of product is required or any new products are required by the
customers.




                        CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                        60
                       BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

              MARKETING SEGMENTATION

            Market segmentation is method for achieving for achieving
maximum market response from limited marketing resources by
recognizing differences in the response characteristics of various parts
of the market. In a sense, market segmentation is the strategy of ‘divide
and conquer’ i.e. dividing market in order to conquer them.

           Thus, in order to facilitate the marketing of is product the
marketing manager, sub divides a market into homogenous sub set of
customers having common in one set so that customers may be served
better with district marketing mix. Such selection of sub sets as
homogenous group is called market segmentation.

            This company has done segmentation of market very
systematically.

A. PRODUCT WISE:

            This firms producers domestic products like deep well and
diesel engines which depends on demand of people.
 B. GEOGRAPHICAL:

             Geographical segmentation calls for dividing market in
state region, country etc. here division is done as:

       1. Saurashtra i.e. Local market.
       2. National market.
       3. International market.


             In balaji wafers market segmentation is done on the basis
of geographical and product basis.




                        CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                         61
                      BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,



                       PRICING POLICY

             Pricing decisions have strategic importance enterprise.
Pricing governs the very flexibility of any marketing programmes
because it’s the only element in a marketing mix accounting for demand
and sales revenue. Other element in a marketing mix accounting for
demand and sales revenue. Other elements cost factors. Price is the only
variable factor determining into prominence in many pricing decisions.
We now come to the most absorbing question of pricing.


            In BALAJI WAFERS PVT LTD. There proper process in
deciding the price of any product.

            Before deciding the price of any product the company has
to consider many factors. The company has to see various factors like
raw material rates, cost of the die prepared to produce the product,
number of components involved in the product, etc..

           After considering all these factors the company decides a
competitive price, which will help them to compete with the
competitors.




                        CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                        62
                      BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,




                       PROMOTION MIX

            Promotion is the process of marketing communication to
inform, persuade, remind and influence consumers or users in favour of
your product or service.

            Promotion is a form of communication with a additional
element of persuasion to accept ideas, products and services and hence
persuasion communication becomes the heart of promotion. In essence,
promotion is the spark plug of our marketing mix and an important
marketing strategy. People must know that right product at the right
price is available at the right time. It is said in a competitive market
without promotion nothing can be sold.

             In BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD.; undertakes promotional
activities not on very large scale basis. BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD.;
also does its promotion through their website, product catalogue, gift,
price discounts, etc.




                        CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                        63
                      BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,




              CHANNEL OF DISTRIBUTION

            Channel of distribution can be defined as “The marketing
process in which the good and services are transferred from producers
to consumers.

           Distribution means to distribute, or spread in the field of
marketing. Channel of distribution indicates roots or pathways through
which goods or services flows from producers to consumers.

            The entire function of getting foods into the hands of the
customers is often referred to as distribution. The middle man engaged
in moving goods from the place of production to the place of
consumption goods are moved to the desired place through the channel.
In other words, the root by which goods move from the place of
consumption is termed as channel of distribution.

             Channel of distribution of BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD.
are as follows:-

                   BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD..
`


                              DEALER


                          WHOLESELLER


                             RETAILER


                            CONSUMER




                       CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                       64
                      BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                        COMPETITORS

            Today world is full of competitions. It is very difficult to
survive in this competitive world. To survive in this competitive world,
the company should try to satisfy the needs of the consumers by
providing Good and services at reasonable cost. The company can’t
compromise with its quality of goods.

            As there is competition in the market it is very important
for the company to satisfy its consumer to the fullest and to live up to
their expectations.

           BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD; also has many competitions
in the market. Competitors of BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD.,. Are as
follows:

      RUFFLES LAYS
      EVEREST WAFERS
      ATOP WAFERS
      SAMRAT NAMKEEN
      SHAKTI WAFERS




                        CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                        65
                        BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

PRODUCTS & PRODUCTS RELATED STRATEGY

             The products are the most tangible and important single
component of the marketing mix. The product policy and strategy is the
cornerstone of marketing mix. Without a product, there is nothing to
distribute, not to promote, nothing to price. If the product fails to satisfy
consumer demand, no additional cost on any of the other ingredients of
the marketing mix will improve the product performance in the market
place.

            Each product is combination of tangible plus intangible.
Product strategy indicates how the firm chooses to use branding as an
integral part of its overall marketing strategy. In a sense, br4anding is
simply another dimension of marketing strategy. To the consumer, a
brand name is a mean is of identification of the product as well as
means of differentiation of he branded product from its rivals.

             BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD. produces a variety of the
products. It produces following items:-

    Wafers
    Namkeen


             The simple mantra rocked and hanged the definition of the
chip world. Winning the heart by quality and great taste and
distributing sufficient dealer margin is a winning strategy of balaji
group. Its ‘value for money’ strategy enables even a kid to buy fresh &
healthy food I n small prices. Indeed in a neck to neck competition ear
one must implement new ideas and balaji group has developed the think
tank who continuously update strategy in the right direction. Think win
- win & stay ahead with them.




                          CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                          66
                      BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                            EXPORTS

            International trade consists of two part i.e. import trade
and export trade. In export trade goods are sold from the producer’s
country to any other country.

           International market hold when reputation and quality of
company is good and main affection factor is price. In this company
they do not have exports.




                       CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                       67
              BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

            FINANCE DEPARTMENT

                    CONTENTS



SR NO.           PARTICULARS             PAGE NO.


  1      INTRODUCTION

  2      ORGANISATIONAL
         STRUCTURE

  3      FINANCIAL PLANNING


  4      SOURCES OF FINANCES

  5      CAPITAL STRUCTURE &
         CAPITALISATION


  6      CAPITAL BUDGETING

  7      WORKING C APITAL
         MANAGEMENT


  8      RATIO ANALYSIS

  9      LEVERAGE


 10      PROFIT AND DIVIDEND DISTR.




                CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT              68
                       BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                        INTRODUCTION

           Finance holds the key of all activities the path of success is
greased with money. Money is an arm or a leg; you either use it or loose
it”

            Financing is the process of organising the flow of funds so
that a business can carry out its objectives in the most efficient manner
and meet its obligations in the most efficient manner and meet its
obligations as they fall due.

            Finance “guides and regulates investments decision and
expenditure. To get the best out of the available funds is the major task
of finance manager. Finance is the common denominator of the vast
range of corporate objectives and the major part of any corporate plan
must be expressed in the financial terms.”

            Finance management today is recognised as the most
important branch of business administration. Finance management
provides the best guide for the future resources allocation by a firm.




                        CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                         69
     BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,



ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE

     BOARD OF DIRECTORS



     MANAGING DIRECTOR



      FINANCE MANAGER



     CHIEF ACCOUNTANT




      CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT   70
                      BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,



                    FINANCIAL PLANNING

           One of the most important functions of finance manager is
that of planning. Financial planning is essentially concerned with
judicious procurement and profitable use of funds – a use which is
determined by realistic inventories decisions. Financial planning helps
management to avoid waste by providing policies and procedures which
make possible a closer co ordination between various functions of the
business enterprise. Financial planning is responsibility of top level
management.

            Finance guides and regulates investments decision and
expenditure. To et the best out of the available funds is the major task
of finance manager. Finance is common denominator for the vast range
of corporate objectives and major part of any corporate plan must be
expressed in the financial terms.

            BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD. Does a systematic financial
planning.

            25% to 50% of finance is provided the company first
decides the project and then the finance is procured from banks.

            To avoid wastage of finance the company first decides the
project and then the finance is procured.

              For the short term capital the company depends on cash
credit, bills of exchange, promoters and debtors. Debtors are also given
each discount for early payment which encourages them for early
payment and the requirement of short term capital of the company is
met.




                        CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                        71
                       BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                   SOURCES OF FINANCES

             A financial plan has to be prepared for the purpose
estimating short term and long term needs of finance to company.
Capitalisation is the sum total of all kinds of long term securities as well
as surplus which are not mean for distribution. The amount of capital at
any time should not exceed not should be less than the amount required
in both the situation company will be the loser.

              Capitalisation means the total amount of a company capital
of total volume of its capital stock. In other words, we can say that the
capitalisation means the total borrowed capital and ownership capital of
the firm. If the resource funds and retained profit increases with growth
of company it means capitalisation of the company is increasing.


           BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD. sees to it that it collects
optimum capital. Its share capital of Rs. 42,38,000. And also has
borrowed capital of secured loans of Rs. 4,21,22,828.




                         CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                          72
                       BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,



                     CAPITAL STRUCTURE

            Capital structure is sometime known as the financial plan.
It’s the permanent financing of the firm represented by long term share
capital by equity share and preference shares.

             In capital structure the proportion of the capital is to decide
with regard to use of debt and equity. The requisition of proportion
arises because if company issues only ownership capital then it cant
satisfy the main objective i.e. to maximize the shareholders return and
if the company issues more borrowed capital then it has to pay
compulsory interest and thus it reduces shareholders capital.

             Thus the mixture of debt and equity is called capital
structure.

      `BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD. has its capital structure as under:

OWNERSHIP CAPITAL:-

      Equity shares: - Rs. 42,38,000
      Reserves and surplus:- Rs. 1 96 87 350

BORROWED CAPITAL:-

      Secured capital:- Rs. 82 59 494
      Unsecured capital:- Rs. 1 41 75 984




                         CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                          73
                       BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,



                    CAPITAL BUDGETING

             Fixed capital is along term investments i.e. for more than 1
year or the years as till the company exists, some fixed assets are not
expected be sold in the market by the firm. Fixed capital has fixed cast
because it is long term investment. It must be managed properly and
efficiently other wise; it may prove dangerous for survival of the firm.
Thus, for the acquisition of the fixed capital proper care should be
taken. They must be utilized and managed with efficiency so that the
firm can get benefits from it.

             For BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD. the main sources of
fixed capital are equity share. To maintain appropriate fixed capital the
company follows various measures. The company maintains the
liquidity. Excess loans take from the bank is repaid. Fixed capital is
mainly required for the fixed assets like machineries, land and building
and other assets. Following are the cost of foxed assts of BALAJI
WAFERS PVT LTD.

   Assets: -                                         Rs. 33 86 085
PARTICULARS             YEAR 2005                YEAR 2006
GROSS BLOCK             4 32 70 399              5 58 14 394
LESS: DEPR:             92 76 099                1 54 77 755
NET BLOCK               3 39 94 300              4 03 36 638




                        CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                        74
                        BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,



           WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT

            Working capital may be regarded as the lifeblood of the
business. Its effective provisions can do much to ensure success of a
business, which its inefficient management can lead not only to loss of
profits but also to ultimate downfall of what otherwise might be
considered as promising concern.

            The term working capital is commonly used for the
requirement of capital for daily operation of business i.e. for purchase
of raw material, payment of salaries and wages to the employees, rent
for the building, electric charges etc. and working capital is concerned
with the problem that arrive to attempt to manage, current assets,
relationship that exit between them.

            Current assets mean “those assets which are easily
converted into cash with in one year.”

            For BALAJI WAFERS PVT LTD. the main source for
working capital is cash credit, bank overdraft, packing credit, debtors
and creditors.

GROSS WORKING capital in balaji wafers is as follows:

Gross working capital:
= Inventories + sundry debtors + loans advances + bank and cash
balance
= 8039014 + 245788 +950507 + 12317114
=21552423

Working capital :
Current assets – current liabilities.
= 9988776 – 9197358
= 791418.




                          CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                     75
                       BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

             RECEIVABLES MANAGEMENTS

             Receivable are assets which created as a result of the sale of
good & services in the ordinary course of business. These are known
as“account receivables, trade receivable or customer receivables. A
firm, therefore, carries receivable for is customers for some period,
which depends upon the requirement of customers at one end and the
credit sanctioning capacity of the firm at the other. An analytical
framework has been developed to provide insight into the process of the
creation the main determinants of account receivable. The framework
should be useful for decision making purposes and managerial functions
in the areas of accounts,.

            For BALAJI WAFERS PVT LTD. The main source of he
receivables are bill receivable and debtors. The debtors are informed
one day before the due date about their payment.

           If any debtor pays the amount before the due date then he is
given discount on payment which encourages the customer to make
early payments.




                         CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                         76
                      BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                    CASH MANAGEMENT

            The basic mechanism involving conversion of funds into
saleable products and back into liquid form which is very important in
the business. Cash in its ultimate state yield no return and as such is
barren.

            Cash is the beginning as well the end of the operating cycle
of manufacturing concern. It the basic input need to keep the business
running on continuing basis and is also the ultimate out put expected to
be realized by selling the product. The cash balanced of company is a “
safety valve or shock absorber”. Protecting the company against short
run fluctuations in fund requirements.

            BALAJI WAFERS PVT LTD. maintains cash in an
appropriate manner. The company always monitors the bank account
regularly and funds are kept in banks. This helps he company to keep
appropriate amount of cash with them.




                        CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                        77
                       BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                        RATIO ANALYSIS

     “Ratio analysis is an expression of quantitative relationship
between two numbers.”

      Five types of ratio analysis are given below;
                 a. current ratio
                 b. liquid ratio
                 c. debt equity ratio
                 d. total assets ratio
                 e. net profit ratio
current ratio:
current assets / current liabilities = 21552423 / 11563647
                                      = 1.86
Liquid ratio:
Liquid assets/ liquid liabilities = 1949762/9197358
                                  = 0.21
Debt equity ratio;
Equity capital/borrowed capital = 43122828/4238000
                                     = 10.16
Total assets ratio:
Sales/total assets = 235800000/48564907
                    = 4.86
Net profit ratio:
Net profits/sales * 100
= 12200000/235800000*100
                                     =5%




                         CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                      78
                       BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                            LEVERAGE

         The employment o an asset or source of funds for which the
firm has to pay a fixed cost or fixed return may be termed as leverage.
The earnings available to the shareholders as also the risk are affected.
If earnings less the variable costs exceeds the fixed cost or earnings
before interest and taxes exceed the fixed return requirement, the
leverage is called favourable which they do not, the result is
unfavourableleverage.


         2. FINANCIAL LEVERAGE:
         It may be defined as the firm’s ability to use fixed operating
         cost to magnify the effects of changes in sales in earnings
         before interest and taxes.

         2. OPERATIONAL LEVERAGE:
          It is defined as the ability of the firm to use fixed financial
         changes in EBIT on the firms earning per share.




                        CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                         79
                       BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

         PROFIT & DIVIDEND DISTRIBUTION

             Profit is defined as the difference between the present value
of the expected net revenues and initial capital expenditure. Profit is
also defined as a surplus of revenue after the deduction of the expenses
incurred on earning it. Usually profits don’t happen they managed. Net
profits are the balance left over after the targets outlays have been paid
and the capital brought up to the same point of value as it was in the
beginning.

            Profit is signal for the allocation of resources and a
yardstick for judging managerial efficiency.

             The profit analysis of the BALAJI WAFERS PVT LTD.
For the last 3 years is as follows:

            2003 – 2004: 43 lacs
            2004 – 2005: 1.2 crore
            2005 – 2006: 1.5 crore


This unit does not go for dividend distribution as this unit is privately
owned.




                         CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                        80
                       BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,




                        SWOT ANALYSIS

SWOT analysis means analysis of STRENGTH, WEAKNESS,
OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS.

             It is important for every company to analyse their SWOT.
Because this gives a complete picture of he performance of the
company. The company comes to know where its has room for
improvement in which area it has its mastery, what are the
opportunities which it has to grab and what are the threats that it has to
face in near future.

               BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD. Has done its SWOT analysis
as follows:-

STRENGTHS:
    1. strength of BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD. is good quality
       products, regular and on time supply of goods and customer
       satisfaction at competitive prices.
    2. Excellent management for raw material and dispersion.
    3. Large market share.
    4. huge amt of capital
    5. proper pricing

WEAKNESS:
   1. This unit does not have any major weakness. Some of minor
      weaknesses are lack of internal co ordination and employees’
      turnover rate is more.

OPPORTUNITIES:-
    1. Expansion in inaccessible areas
    2. growing market in area around the globe.

THREATS:-
    1. Increasing global competition.
    2. loss of market share.



                         CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                        81
                   BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,




                     FUTURE PLANS

     Future plans of BALAJI WAFERS PVT LTD. Are as follows

1. To get more and cheaper production.
2. To launch new products.
3. To discover new markets.
4. To establish a new plant in Gujarat region so as to reduce the
   burden on rajkot unit.
5. To increase market share and stand against stiff market
   competition.




                     CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                    82
                     BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                       SUGGESTIONS

            Today is the era of hyper competition and cyber
competition, now a day domestic companies face many threats due to
arrival of MNCs in India. But balaji pvt. Ltd. Is a company which is
capable enough to sustain and maintain the same growth rate in the
market this is possible only thought proper integration of management
strategy and intellectual plans and balaji is having peculiar
“KATHIYAWADI STRATEGY’ for its products

      After completing my project on BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD.I
want to give following suggestion to the company.

     1. The production capacity should be utilized maximum extent.
     2. Company should try to go for exports.
     3. They should try to increase the advertisement to create
        awareness of the company’s product
     4. Company should try and expand the market to national level
        also.




                       CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                      83
                      BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                        CONCLUSIONS

           India is developing country and it had adopted free
economy. So it has an opportunity for very domestic company to
upgrade its technology and other process in order stand in modern
market.

           BALAJI WAFERS PVT LTD. was not started on very large
basis but due to the best efforts of the executive and director it has
earned good reputation in the sector.

             It earns valuable foreign exchange for India through its
exports and has maintained good relation with outsiders and employees.
It has a very efficient group of employees and I wish BALAJI WAFERS
PVT LTD. A very good luck for the future.




                       CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                       84
                   BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD,

                     BIBLIOGRAPHY

   To complete the project on “BALAJI WAFERS PVT. LTD.” I have
referred the following books;

  1. PRODUCTION & OPERATIONS DEPARTMENT:
                                    - CHUNAWALA
                                    - PATEL
  2. PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT
                                    - R.S. DAVAR

  3. MARKETTING MANAGEMENT
                                              -S.A.SHARELAKER

  4. FINANCE MANAGEMENT
                                              - KHAN & JAIN




                     CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT                 85

				
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