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AP® English Language and Composition Syllabus
The AP® English Language and Composition Course, as taught by me, offers students
opportunities to learn to read and write as writers, with an awareness of purpose and
audience. We work in the beginning of the year on developing their closereading skills
so that they can identify and then emulate the techniques that writers use to persuade their
readers. We begin by labeling rhetorical devices and appeals and by reading examples of
the different rhetorical modes, which continues all year. The course is designed to help
students think about all of the choices of effective writers, ranging from choosing precise
vocabulary to choosing credible sources for supporting evidence, and to bring that level
of careful decisionmaking to the development of their own arguments in writing. My
syllabus is informed by the AP English Language and Composition Course Description.
Early in the course, I introduce the activity of interrupted readings in order to train
students to slow down their reading process and to write informally at each step of their
reading. Students receive essays broken apart into 45 separate sections on each page of
a packet and they are not to turn to the next section until told so by me. While on each
page, students listen to the passage read aloud (by a different student for each portion of
the text to avoid one interpretation through tone or voice inflection) and annotate the text.
They can respond to the passage in any way they wish; they can free associate, argue,
disagree, register confusion, dislike, etc. The only thing they must do is to write on the
page. Students learn to think about diction, connotation, rhetorical devices and
ultimately, how the tone changes throughout the course of the piece. This technique is
explained in the Appendix: “Instructional Techniques” in Teaching Nonfiction in AP
English: A Guide to Accompany 50 Essays: a Portable Anthology by Renee H. Shea and
Lawrence Scanlon; and I practiced this technique with Renee Shea at The Summer AP
Institute at Fordham University. Some examples of pieces which we read as interrupted
readings are “The Female Body” by Margaret Atwood and “On Seeing England for the
First Time” by Jamaica Kincaid.
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During the first week of the course we read “On Keeping a Notebook” by Joan Didion. I
ask students for what purposes does Didion use her notebook and to consider how we as
writers can use our notebooks. This begins the process of using the notebook as a means
of reflecting on our reading and collecting material and techniques to hone our craft as
writers. Students use these notebooks to explain the effect of each writer’s rhetorical
devices and to compile examples of these devices in use in order to model from the work
of great essayists.
We use the SOAPStone method, which students first apply to “The Prologue of the Wife
of Bath” in a rhetorical analysis and throughout the work of a chosen columnist. By
using this technique early and often, students become proficient at knowing how to begin
tackling a text by identifying the rhetorical situation. SOAPS is described as an acronym
developed by the College Board’s Building Success Program in the Appendix:
“Instructional Techniques” in Teaching Nonfiction in AP English: A Guide to
Accompany 50 Essays: a Portable Anthology by Renee H. Shea and Lawrence Scanlon.
In analyzing a text, students are asked to identify the Subject, Occasion, Audience,
Purpose and Speaker. This helps students to understand the specific situation of a text
and the addition of “tone” to create SOAPStone requires students to identify the tone of
One method recommended for use with persuasive essays is Stephen Toulmin’s model
for argument analysis. Students are asked to label the data (support), claim (assertion)
and warrant (shared assumption between speaker and audience) of an argument. This
technique is expounded in the Appendix: “Instructional Techniques” in Teaching
Nonfiction in AP English: A Guide to Accompany 50 Essays: a Portable Anthology by
Renee H. Shea and Lawrence Scanlon. We also study the Toulmin Model in depth in
Everything’s an Argument.
Similar to the Toulmin Model, the Graff Template helps students understand the
components of an argument. Gerald Graff gives a template to fill in sentences with the
elements of argument: claim, support and examples. It helps students think through the
parts of an argument, including counterargument; this template is also expounded in the
Appendix: “Instructional Techniques” in Teaching Nonfiction in AP English: A Guide to
Accompany 50 Essays: a Portable Anthology by Renee H. Shea and Lawrence Scanlon.
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Rhetorical Mode Modeling and Portfolio:
Each marking period, we use our thematic essays as examples of rhetorical modes and
students create their own examples. After modeling the rhetorical modes present in 50
Essays throughout the year, students will choose their three favorites to revise with the
help of peer editing, teacherconferences, etc. The topics for these essays are based on
student choice, but must model the strategies as delineated in the text and exemplified in
the essays we have read throughout the course thus far. These essays are written once a
month from September through May. Once the three are reviewed and revised for final
submission, students will write a reflective informal essay on the process of drafting,
choosing, reviewing, peer editing and revising their portfolio to be included with the
three model essays for submission.
In order to help students develop sophisticated style as writers, we work on the basic
components of writing: sentences. With this goal in mind, we do exercises from
Rhetorical Grammar, Sentence Composing for College and Voice Lessons (listed in
“Teacher Resources and Course Texts”). These three texts help students understand the
effect of their usage decisions on the meaning of their sentences. They are the building
blocks of developing my students into mindful writers who understand the level of
decisionmaking necessary for them to produce precise and persuasive writing.
Throughout the course of the year, I cull vocabulary words from our current readings and
I quiz students on these terms on a weekly basis. Besides the benefits of vocabulary
study for the exams that students need to take, I use this constant influx of new terms to
explore connotations and our possibilities for precision in our writing. Rhetorical terms
are included in the vocabulary that we study, as are other words that will help students on
the AP exam. For example, we compile a list of vocabulary words to describe author’s
tone and do groupings of like adjectives. For example, students learn a cluster of words
that are related, such as: caustic, mordant, acrid, scathing, and acrimonious.
Students have oral presentations throughout the year that ask them to present their
findings on a particular topic or subject to the rest of the class. Two examples of this
type of assignment are The Rhetorical Device Presentation and The Researched
Argument Presentation. In the former, students are given two devices to research and are
asked to model pronunciation, formulate a definition, and provide 23 examples of the
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device in use. Students bring visual aids for the class and explain the use of their terms.
The latter presentation asks students to present their findings for their researched
argument to the class. They explain the differing sides to their argument (based on a
literary work) and then explain why they are arguing their side of the argument after
considering the evidence. They are then asked to field questions from the class about
their developing argument, which will be presented in a formal researched argument
Over the course of this first week students are to take a fulllength practice exam in class
so that they are aware of our goals for preparing for the AP exam in May. We will
continue to prepare for the exam throughout the course, with special attention paid to
each free response question, including the 2007 addition of the synthesis essay and time
spent on tactics for answering multiplechoice questions addressing documentation.
The Writing Process:
All major writing assignments are due in stages. Students present a topic, a thesis
statement, an outline (with textual evidence), a rough draft and then a final draft. These
different stages of the process are due approximately a week apart, so that students have
sufficient time to think, edit and revise between each step. We also spend a few days
writing drafts in class for each major assignment. During this time, peer editing and
teacher conferencing is scheduled. Students are asked to explain their argument to me
while they are developing it in order to help them think through their reasoning. Students
receive written comments, both praise and constructive criticism, on all papers turned
into me. There is also the portfolio assessment for the essays modeled after each of the
rhetorical modes that provides students with a chance to work on various pieces over a
long expanse of time. There is one major assignment per marking period (except the
Researched Argument which spans Marking Periods 34). A major assignment is 45
pages typed and goes through the various stages described. The compositions are 12
pages and some are written at home, while others are timed writing prompts in class.
Marking Period 1: History and Politics
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“On Keeping a Notebook” Joan Didion
Public statement from eight Alabama clergymen
“Letter from Birmingham Jail” Martin Luther King Jr.
As an introduction to rhetoric, students are to research the rhetorical appeals and are
made aware of many rhetorical devices. For the first time of identifying and discussing
these devices and appeals in practice, we read “Letter from Birmingham Jail” by Martin
Luther King Jr. Students read, label and respond in their notebooks to the essay. Among
the devices and ideas learned and labeled at this point: Logos, Ethos, Pathos, Induction,
Deduction, Syllogism, Logical Fallacy, Enumeration, Anecdote, Litotes, Periodic
Sentences, Cumulative Sentences, Analogy, Allusion, Refutation, Connotation,
Denotation, Empirical Data and Rhetorical Questions.
Composition: King’s Quotations
“Select a quotation from King’s letter and explain why you find it compelling or on what
grounds you would challenge it. Cite evidence from your own experience or your
reading to develop your position. Possible quotations to focus on include:”
1. “Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.”
2. “Freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the
3. “Shallow understanding from people of good will is more frustrating than
absolute misunderstanding from people of ill will.”
(“Suggestion for Writing” from Shea, Renee H., Lawrence Scanlon, and Robin Dissin
Aufses. The Language of Composition: Reading, Writing, Rhetoric (Table of Contents
and Sample Chapter). Boston: Bedford, 2007.)
Canterbury Tales Geoffrey Chaucer
“The Declaration of Independence” Thomas Jefferson
“The Gettysburg Address” Abraham Lincoln
“The Morals of the Prince” Niccolo Machiavelli
“A Modest Proposal” Jonathan Swift
Everything’s an Argument Chapters 15 Section on “Reading Arguments” (details
Purposes of Argument, Pathos, Ethos, Logos and Thinking Rhetorically)
The tools taught in marking period one are used throughout the course as we widen our
focus to include other genres, many more essays, visual rhetoric and film. The process of
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composition is also taught over the course of the year, stressing each step of the process,
from conception to reflection.
Composition: The Use of Rhetoric in The Prologue of the Wife of Bath
Assignment: Write an essay discussing the use of rhetoric in the Wife of Bath’s Prologue.
Consider and discuss her use of rhetorical appeals and devices. Is she effective and/or
persuasive? Which rhetorical appeal is dominant? Be certain that you are not simply
labeling, that you are instead creating an argument based on her use of rhetoric. In other
words, how is she using the tools of rhetoric to develop her argument?
Be sure to also address the following questions:
• What is the author’s SUBJECT?
• What is the OCCASION?
• Who is the AUDIENCE?
• What is the PURPOSE?
• Who is the SPEAKER?
• What is the TONE?
• How does it begin and end?
Major Assignment: Tracing Style through Columnists
Choose a columnist from the list provided:
Roger Angell, Maureen Dowd, Nora Ephron, M. F. K. Fisher, Frances FitzGerald, Janet
Flanner, Ellen Holtz Goodman, David Halberstam, John Angus McPhee, H. L. Mencken,
Jan Morris, David Remnick, Red Smith, Joseph Lincoln Steffens, Paul Edward Theroux
Calvin Trillin, and Tom Wolfe. (Above choices are taken from the columnists listed on
the AP Language and Composition Course Description section on recommended
writers.) Collect, read and print/cut out eight columns from that writer.
Part One: Using the SOAPStone method, answer the following questions for each of the
• What is the author’s SUBJECT?
• What is the OCCASION?
• Who is the AUDIENCE?
• What is the PURPOSE?
• Who is the SPEAKER?
• What is the TONE?
The SOAPStone analysis for each column should be focused and brief. You may elect to
answer these in a chart format or a list.
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Part Two: In a typed, doublespaced, onetwo page response, analyze the writer’s
unique style based on your study of his or her work. Consider diction (deliberate word
choice), syntax (sentence structure), treatment of subject matter (objective vs. subjective),
and figurative language.
Marking Period 2: Gender
Macbeth William Shakespeare
“Lost in the Kitchen” Dave Barry
“Women’s Brains” Stephen Jay Gould
“Declarations of Sentiments and Resolutions” Elizabeth Cady Stanton
“There is no Unmarked Woman” Deborah Tannen
“I Want a Wife” Judy Brady
Everything’s an Argument” Chapter 6: “Structuring Arguments” (details Toulmin Model)
“The Female Body” Margaret Atwood
Roman Polanski’s Macbeth
Akira Kurosawa’s Throne of Blood
Composition: Macbeth Soliloquy Analysis
Choose one of the soliloquies in Acts IIII of Macbeth and perform a rhetorical analysis.
Consider what the effects of these rhetorical devices are and what their use reveals about
the inner workings of the character and the play. How do Shakespeare’s decisions as a
writer create meaning?
Composition: Compare and Contrast Essay: Gender
Choose one of the essays and one of the films that we have studied and compare and
contrast their views on gender. Consider the rhetorical devices of the essay in relation to
the visual arguments of the film. How do the different decisions of the writers and
director create meaning?
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Marking Period 3: Work and Class
Wuthering Heights Emily Bronte
“On Compassion” Barbara Lazear Ascher
“The Stunt Pilot” Annie Dillard
“Notes of a Native Speaker” Eric Liu
“On Being Black and Middle Class” Shelby Steele
“Where I Lived, and What I Lived For” Henry David Thoreau
“What’s in a Name?” Henry Louis Gates Jr.
Everything’s an Argument Chapter 12 “Style in Arguments” (details style and word
Composition: Novel as Argument
Analyze Bronte’s generic, rhetorical and linguistic choices as argument. Write an essay
in which you examine her choices to expound a particular argument in Wuthering
Heights. Consider the larger question of how works of fiction are arguments.
Composition: Movie Poster Analysis
Part One: Answer the following questions about the following visual (there is a colored
version available in the classroom):
1. How is color used in the poster?
2. What is in the foreground?
3. What is in the background?
4. What can we say about their facial expressions?
5. What can we say about the words on the bottom of the poster, in terms of font and
6. What can we say about the caption, in terms of both meaning and font?
7. Remember this is an advertisement made to get people to go and see a movie; is it
effective? In what ways is it trying to get people to spend money at the theater?
8. What can we say about the poster?
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Part Two: Write an analysis in which you discuss the visual rhetoric of this movie
Marking Period 4: Race and Culture
Heart of Darkness Joseph Conrad
“An Image of Africa” Chinua Achebe
“The White Man’s Burden” Rudyard Kipling
“How It Feels to Be Colored Me” Zora Neale Hurston
“Notes of a Native Son” James Baldwin
Everything’s an Argument Chapter 14 “Visual Arguments” (details visual elements of
argument and achieving visual literacy)
“On Seeing England for the First Time” Jamaica Kincaid
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Francis Ford Coppola’s Apocalypse Now
Composition: To Teach Heart of Darkness or Not?
Create an argumentative response to the following question by referring to your reading,
viewing and personal experience: Should English teachers (in high school, university,
elsewhere) continue to teach Heart of Darkness? If so, with what context and caveats?
Why or why not?
Major Assignment: Researched Argument (Marking Period 34)
Compose an argument on a book by an author of your choice (from the list below),
drawing on research, especially professionally published critical articles and books.
Pursue your interests in the text, exploring a theme, a problem, an issue, or some element
or aspect of the text you find interesting. Define what you are explaining, offer an
arguable main point, and explore that point in an argument, drawing on examples from
the text of the novel and using your research to explore and support your main point. You
must provide an overview of criticism on the issue in order to insert yourself in the
ongoing conversation on that issue.
I (as part of your audience) want to see evidence of your transaction with the texts, both
primarythe noveland secondarycritical arguments, social and historical contexts,
intellectual currents, and so on.
My advice is to avoid the extremes of either getting dominated by the critical arguments
or ignoring them.
You can use critical arguments while still being true to yourself as a reader. Think of it as
a dialectical process: you bring certain ideas, habits, feelings, dispositions, education,
expectations and interests to the texts. These are somewhat conditioned by the context of
reading for a course (that you must read these, research them, and write about them for a
grade). The process of using what you bring in transaction with the texts changes you as
a readerit alters what you bring to the texts as you read. A good critical essay takes this
process far enough to arrive at an insight into the text, an answer or better still, a set of
possible answers to the writer's question(s) of inquiry. That central insight then guides
how you compose, how you decide what to include, what sources really count, what
passages in the texts are key to your argument. You are making a claim that is at issue,
that could set off debate and that needs some explanation. Arriving at that insight and
articulating it in precise and eloquent language can guide you in how to use the research
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in exploring and supporting your questions and claims.
That all sounds very fine you are probably thinking, but how do I do it? Partly, you have
to work toward wellarticulated questions and possible claims, and you have to do lots of
rereading, marking and annotating the texts, scribbling out notes, lists, clusters of
connected ideas, composing thesis paragraphs, summarizing source arguments. And you
have to work with othersyour peers in helping them to better understand how what they
are trying to do affects another, similar reader and by receiving and using the feedback
you get from them and from your teacher.
This process takes some commitment and time. Don't wait until the end to draft your
essay. The process is crucial and allowing yourself the time for it to unfold is essential
for your success.
You should draw on at least 78 good sources. Keep quotations to a minimumdo not
compose an essay dominated by the research of others, made up of strings of quotations
and summaries. Rather, write an essay that makes your own point and uses criticism to
explore, support, and provide context for that point (including arguments you don't agree
with, that you argue against in favor of your own point of view). Any summary and
paraphrase you do of sources must be in your own words: summary and paraphrase are
legitimate only when the words and sentence structure are substantially different from the
The essay must
• go through a draft, review, and revision process
• be 22002750 words (810 MLA formatted pages)
• draw on at least 78 good sources
• be titled with a real titlenot "researched argument"be creative
• include page numbers MLA style
• be spellchecked, welledited, and proofread for correctness
• include MLA style citations of all quoted and summarized or paraphrased
• include an MLA style Works Cited page
• explain an issue in interpreting your novel
• articulate a main point, proposition, or argumentative claim
• support this point with further points and evidence from the novel
• include some wellchosen quotations from the novel
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• feature primarily your own workyou own points and discussion of the issues
you choose to write aboutinformed by perspectives from sources
• use points and a few quotes from research to explore and support your points
• Take good notes on your sources. Photocopy printed sources so you can mark
freely on them.
• Mark significant passages in the novelperhaps use postit notes to mark key
• Do not let the research dominate your essay.
• Choose quotes for specific reasons. Quote sparinglyyour essay should not be a
web of quotes or predominantly summarized material from sources.
• Write with your own voice, purpose, and argument. Your style should be
somewhat formal (no contractions or sentence fragments), BUT do not indulge in
stultifying, overblown, pseudoacademic "research paper" writing style. Use
passive voice constructions sparingly. You can use "I," but don't go overboard
• Acknowledge counterarguments and answer objections if you can. If you can't
satisfactorily answer a very strong counterargument, either concede the point or
leave it out. If you concede the point, you may need to qualify your main point.
• Summarize and paraphrase ideas from sources legitimatelyyou must change the
words AND the sentence structure.
• Use "attributions" such as "Eavesdaughter asserts that Silko. . ."
• Make sure you work enough on your main point so that it is a valid, but not
utterly obvious, insight and is a proposition that deserves development and
• Think of your audience as each other, me, and any readers of the novel. This is an
audience who has read the novel, so plot summary is not needed.
• If you do not bore yourself with your essay, you will not bore readers.
You must submit the name of your chosen author and novel.
An annotated bibliography is a list of books or references with notes. When you turn this
in, you are required to have six entries: each entry will have a citation, which is the same
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as what you will include in your works cited list (please use MLA style) and an
annotation. Your annotation is a summary or description of the reference. Consider this
summary or description as it relates to your research question. Evaluate whether the
source is reliable. Each annotation should be 5075 words.
Student Press Conferences
You will prepare a five minute “press conference” on your topic. During your press
conference, brief us on your research. When you are in the audience, you must ask
questions (you are the reporters).
At least 7 pages completed to be reviewed in peer groups and with me.
You must have at least eight sources. At least six of your sources (in addition to any
sources that were class readings) must be nonweb page sources. Remember, you only
include sources on your works cited page that you actually cite. Although most of your
sources will be secondary sources, you will have one primary source (your book of
810 MLA formatted pages and Works Cited page.
Authors: Choose a fulllength work by one of the authors on the list
Chinua Achebe (Nigeria)
Nadine Gordimer (South Africa)
Gabriel Garcia Marquez (Colombia)
Isabel Allende (Chile)
Jose Luis Borges (Argentina)
V. S. Naipaul (Trinidad)
Aime Cesaire (Martinique)
Derek Walcott (St. Lucia)
Seamus Heaney (Ireland)
Salman Rushdie (India)
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Marking Period 5: Ethics
Persepolis Marjane Satrapi
“Why Don’t We Complain” William F. Buckley Jr.
“The Ways We Lie” Stephanie Ericsson
“Shooting an Elephant” George Orwell
“The Death of the Moth” Virginia Woolf
“What’s Wrong with Animal Rights?” Vicki Hearne
“Behind the Formaldehyde Curtain” Jessica Mitford
Everything’s an Argument Chapters 1620 Section on “Conventions of Argument”
(details evidence, logical fallacies, intellectual property, evaluating and documenting
sourcesI require students to use MLA style citations, notes and works cited pages)
Composition: Paired Texts
“Read paragraphs 3 and 4 of ‘The Death of the Moth’ and the passage from ‘The Spider
and the Wasp,’ by Alexander Petrunkevich, below. Both focus on the death of an insect,
the one a solitary moth dying what seems to be a natural death, the other the death of a
tarantula brought about by a wasp. Write an essay in which you compare and contrast
the tone of the two, paying special attention to narrative viewpoint and pacing.”
When the grave is finished, the wasp returns to the tarantula to complete her
ghastly enterprise. First she feels it all over once more with her antennae. Then
her behavior becomes more aggressive. She bends her abdomen, protruding her
sting, and searches for the soft membrane at the point where the spider’s legs join
its body—the only spot where she can penetrate the horny skeleton. From time to
time, as the exasperated spider slowly shifts ground, the wasp turns on her back
and slides along with the aid of her wings, trying to get under the tarantula for a
shot at the vital spot. During all this maneuvering, which can last for several
minutes, the tarantula makes no move to save itself. Finally the wasp corners it
against some obstruction and grasps one of its legs in her powerful jaws. Now at
last the harassed spider tries a desperate but vain defense. The two contestants
roll over and over on the ground. It is a terrifying sight and the outcome is always
the same. The wasp finally manages to thrust her sting into the soft spot and
holds it there for a few seconds while she pumps in the poison. Almost
immediately the tarantula falls paralyzed on its back. Its legs stop twitching; its
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heart stops beating. Yes it is not dead, as is shown by the fact that if taken from
the wasp it can be restored to some sensitivity by being kept in a moist chamber
for several months.
After paralyzing the tarantula, the wasp cleans herself by dragging her boy along
the ground and rubbing her feet, sucks the drop of blood oozing from the wound
in the spider’s abdomen, then grabs a leg of the flabby, helpless animal in her
jaws and drags it down to the bottom of the grave. She stays there for many
minutes, sometimes for several hours, and what she does all that time in the dark
we do not know. Eventually she lays her egg and attaches it to the side of the
spider’s abdomen with a sticky secretion. Then she emerges, fills the grave with
soil carried bit by bit in her jaws, and finally tramples the ground all around to
hide any trace of the grave from prowlers. Then she flies away, leaving her
descendant safely started in life.
(Essay question and passage taken from: Shea, Renee H. and Lawrence Scanlon.
Teaching Nonfiction in AP English: A Guide to Accompany .
50 Essays Boston: Bedford,
Major Assignment: Magazine Analysis
Choose a magazine on which to perform an audience analysis. Analyze the visual and
linguistic rhetoric of three main components: the cover, one article and one
advertisement. Discuss what underlying assumptions the creators of this magazine make
about their audience based on their use of language, layout, content, etc. What argument
does the magazine make as a whole?
Marking Period 6: Identity
Metamorphosis Franz Kafka
“How to Tame a Wild Tongue” Gloria Anzaldua
“The Myth of the Latin Woman: I Just Met a Girl Named Maria” Judith Ortiz Cofer
“On Being a Cripple” Nancy Mairs
“The Way to Rainy Mountain” N. Scott Momaday
“Just Walk on By: Black Men and Public Space” Brent Staples
“What are Homosexuals For?” Andrew Sullivan
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Composition: Cofer and Staples
“Both Cofer and Brent Staples, in his essay ‘Just Walk on By: Black Men and Public
Space,’ center their arguments in personal experience but make a larger point. Compare
and contrast the rhetorical strategies of the two authors.”
(Essay question taken from: Shea, Renee H. and Lawrence Scanlon. Teaching Nonfiction
in AP English: A Guide to Accompany .
50 Essays Boston: Bedford, 2005.)
Major Assignments: Rhetorical Mode Portfolio
After modeling the rhetorical modes present in 50 Essays throughout the year, students
will choose their three favorites to revise with the help of peer editing, teacher
conferences, etc. The topics for these essays are based on student choice, but must model
the strategies as delineated in the text and exemplified in the essays we have read
throughout the course thus far. These essays were written once a month from September
through May. Once the three are reviewed and revised for final submission, students will
write a reflective informal essay on the process of drafting, choosing, reviewing, peer
editing and revising their portfolio to be included with the three model essays for
Teacher Resources and Course Texts:
Bronte, Emily. Wuthering Heights. Richard J. Dunn ed. 4th ed. New York: W. W. Norton
& Company, 2002.
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Chaucer, Geoffrey. Canterbury Tales, in Modern English. Nevill Coghill trans. 6th ed.
London: Penguin Classics, 2000.
Cohen, Samuel, ed. 50 Essays: A Portable Anthology. Boston: Bedford, 2004.
Corbett, Edward P. J. and Robert J. Connors. Classical Rhetoric for the Modern Student.
4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Davis, Paul, ed.The Bedford Anthology of World Literature. Boston: Bedford, 2003.
Classroom Activities to Teach Diction, Detail, Imagery,
Dean, Nancy. Voice Lessons:
Syntax, and Tone. Florida: Maupin House, 2000.
Kennedy, X. J., Dorothy M. Kennedy, and Jane E. Aaron, eds. The Bedford Reader.
Boston: Bedford, 2003.
Killgallon, Don. Sentence Composing for College. Portsmouth: Boynton/Cook
Kolln, Martha. Rhetorical Grammar: Grammatical Choices, Rhetorical Effects. 4th ed.
New York: Longman Publishers, 2003.
Lester, James D. ed. Plato’s Heirs: Classic Essays. Illinois: NTC Publishing Group, 1996.
Lunsford, Andrea A., John J. Ruszkiewicz, and Keith Walters. Everything’s An
Argument . 4th ed. Boston: Bedford, 2007.
Murphy, Barbara and Estelle Rankin. 5 Steps to a 5: AP English Language. Ohio,
Rosa, Alfred and Paul Eschholz. Models for Writers: Short Essays for Compositions. 9th
ed. Boston: Bedford, 2007.
Satrapi, Marjane. Persepolis: The Story of a Childhood. New York: Pantheon, 2003.
Shakespeare, William. Macbeth (Folger Shakespeare Library). New York: Washington
Square Press, 2004.
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Shea, Renee H., Lawrence Scanlon, and Robin Dissin Aufses. The Language of
Composition: Reading, Writing, Rhetoric (Table of Contents and Sample Chapter).
Boston: Bedford, 2007.
Shea, Renee H. and Lawrence Scanlon. Teaching Nonfiction in AP English: A Guide to
50 Essays Boston: Bedford, 2005.)
Strunk, William Jr., E. B. White and Roger Angell. The Elements of Style. 4th ed.
Massachusetts: Allyn & Bacon, 2000.
Swovelin, Barbara E. Cliffs AP English Language and Composition 2nd ed. New York:
Hungry Minds, 2001.