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					                   Contraception Vs. HIV: An Annotated Bibliography

        This annotated bibliography provides the readers with the sources that have been
used in this research paper. These sources are centered around the on going research
study of the possibility of hormonal contraception being an increased risk of transmitting
or passing on HIV to their sexual partners. Unfortunately, due to the lack of evidence and
further research studies being needed, they have not come to a conclusion or a confirmed
action towards this issue. Due to the lack of research on this important topic that could
affect millions of people, there should be ways of getting this out to the public such as
campaigns or public service announcements or by raising more funds, so this research
can be done in a timely manner. This topic is left unsolved and should be done more
rapidly because it puts many peoples’ lives on the line especially with no legitimate
answers or decisions taken upon this problem.

Jacobson, Jodi. (2011, October 5). Hormonal Contraception and HIV: Weighing the
Evidence and Balancing the Risks. Retrieved October 18, 2011, from
        According to this article, it is show that women who do not have HIV, but are
taking injection contraceptives are at risk for getting HIV from their infected partners &
those who are HIV-positive are at double risk for passing it to other people who are not
infected with it. Pregnancy is also a factor and is twice likely to pass it on or receive it.
There needs to be more research done in order to confirm this theory. It is mentioned that
they need to find enough evidence to take away this contraceptive because it does reduce
the statistics of difficult pregnancies, abortions, and deaths. January 2012 will be the time
of further research.
        This article is definitely helpful to my research because it goes more in depth of
what further research and evidence they need in order to make a decision whether or not
they will take injection contraceptives away. They are also giving more information on
the root of the problem and what they are going to do to solve this issue.

Mostad, S., Overbaugh, J., DeVange, D., Welch, M., Chohan, B., Mandaliya, K., & …
Kreiss, J. (1997). Hormonal contraception, vitamin A deficiency, and other risk factors
for shedding of HIV-1 infected cells from the cervix and vagina. Lancet, 350(9082), 922-
927. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
        According to this article, a research study has been in the process of whether or
not hormonal contraception is a factor to the reason why shedding of HIV-1 infected cells
appear in the cervical and vaginal area. Hormonal contraceptives and vitamin A
deficiency could be the reasons of sexual or vertical transmission of HIV-1 cells. HIV-1
cells were in connection with CD4, which led to a connection with the depot and oral
        This article adds relevant information to my research topic, but it is very opposite
from my other chosen article. It also goes more in depth with the topic and it is not as
broad as my other article. They both have diverse conclusions, so it is an on-going
process in determining what concludes this topic.
Myer, L., Denny, L., Wright, T., & Kuhn, L. (2007). Prospective study of
hormonal contraception and women’s risk of HIV infection in South Africa. International
Journal Of Epidemiology, 36(1), 166-174. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
        This article is mainly about South African women were tested in a process of 24
months to determine if all hormonal contraceptives are a factor in increased HIV
infection. Many women are at risk for having HIV infection, but they wanted to figure
out if hormonal contraception increased the risk of having HIV. Women participants
were asked about their sexual behaviors and what type of contraceptive they were on
whether it was depot, oral, or norethindrone enanthat. They concluded that hormonal
contraceptives are not an increased risk of HIV.
        This would be useful to my research topic because it will give more insight about
the statistics and research study that they have been in the process with. It will also
provide me with information and conclusions with the results they determined while they
were in the process.

Paulson, Tom. (2011, October 4). Quandary for women: Contraceptive use vs HIV risk in
Africa. Retrieved October 18, 2011, from
        Paulson mentions in this article that they found issues in eastern and southern
Africa. Depo-Provera is being at risk for HIV infection, but the evidence for this is not as
strong as it should be. This article also shows different views on this problem by
synthesizing sources.
        This article may add on to my research because of the number of different views
they have that I could possibly use towards my research. They are also a little repetitive
in the beginning with their information, but it could possibly be a good idea to see how
different people come up with different perspectives on this issue.

Young, Saundra. (2011, October 4). Injectable contraceptive use found to double HIV
risk in Africa. Retrieved October 18, 2011, from
         It is mentioned in this article by Jared Baeten, “if you put an HIV positive man
and an HIV negative woman together, the chances of a woman getting HIV is doubled”
and “if there was an HIV negative man and HIV positive woman using hormonal
contraceptives, the chances of her passing it on is doubled.” They also found out that this
is the first study that shows that men’s risk went up. This study had 3,800 participants in
Africa and was an on-going process for two years.
         This article is so useful as new research because it goes in depth with examples to
make it clearer for me to understand. They also show many comparisons with the
different contraceptives and how it could increase HIV positive males and females and
HIV negative males and females.

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