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					Safety and Health in Mines

               ILO Convention No.176




              Martin Georg Hahn
           International Labour Office

                                         1
Introduction

 International Labour Organization
   UN specialised agency
   Unique tripartite structure
      Workers
      Employers
      Governments
   Seeks the promotion of social justice and
    internationally recognized human and labour
    rights


                                                  2
ILO – main areas of work

 International Labour Standards
   International standards
 Employment
 Social protection
   Occupational safety and health
 Social dialogue
   Sectoral social dialogue



                                     3
ILO tools and means of action

In order to improve working conditions, the
ILO uses a number of different instruments or
means of action
    International Labour Standards
        Conventions
        Recommendations
    Guidance and reference materials
    Technical assistance
    Technical cooperation



                                                4
International Labour Standards


 In essence, International Labour Standards
  are expressions of international tripartite
  agreement on a matter




                                                5
International Labour Standards

 Conventions
   International treaties, subject to ratification by ILO
    member States
   Create binding obligations under International Law
   Might require Member States to amend their national
    legislation


 Recommendations
   Set out guidelines which can orient national policy and
    action
   Often complement Conventions



                                                              6
Some relevant ILO Conventions
 Eight “fundamental” Conventions
   Freedom of association and collective bargaining (Nos.87
     and 98)
   Elimination of forced and compulsory labour (Nos.29 and
     105)
   Elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and
     occupation (Nos.100 and 111)
   Abolition of child labour (Nos.138 and 182)

 Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No.81)
 Working Environment (Air Pollution, Noise and Vibration)
  Convention, 1977 (No.148)
 Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 1981 (No.155)
 Occupational Health Services Convention, 1985 (No.161)

                                                                 7
Specific ILS for mining

 Safety and Health in Mines Convention, 1995
  (No.176) and its accompanying Recommendation
  No.183

 Others:
   Medical examination of Young Persons (Underground
    Work) Convention, 1965 (No.124)
   Minimum Age (Underground Work) Convention, 1965
    (No.123)
   Underground Work (Women) Convention, 1935 (No.45)


                                                        8
Convention No.176

 Official title:
    Safety and Health in Mines Convention, 1995
 Adopted in 1995
 In force since 1998
 23 ratifications

 Recommendation No.183
    Detailed guidance; not binding


                                                   9
Reasons for C.176

   Mining is a dangerous occupation
   Existing ILO standards were insufficient
   National legislation is often unsuitable
   Mining is a special case and requires
    special treatment




                                               10
The real problems

 “Causes”                     Causes
     Slips and falls              Lack of training
     Hit by object                Faulty equipment
     Transport and haulage        Low awareness
     Falls of ground              Lack of discipline
     Roof falls                   Misuse of equipment
     Rock bursts                  Poor management
     Fires                        Breach of regulations
     Explosions




                                                            11
Critical issues
 Basic education
 Training
 Clear responsibilities
    In particular in relation to contractors
 Preventative safety and health culture
    Supported by labour and management
 Protection of workers’ rights
 Tripartite cooperation and social dialogue
 Supporting legislation



                                                12
C.176 – main features

 Coherent national OSH policy in mines
 Need to ensure implementation
    Designation of “competent authority”
 Reporting and investigating procedures
 National record of accidents and incidents
 Suspension or restriction of work on OSH
  grounds
 Right to worker participation and consultation



                                                   13
Preventative & protective measures

 Eliminate or minimize the risk to workers
     Eliminate the risk
     Control the risk
     Minimize the risk
     Provide PPE (only as a last resort)




                                              14
Risk control measures

 Safe design, construction, commissioning and
  decommissioning of mines
 Maintain ground stability
 Provide two exists from underground; self-rescue
  equipment; emergency response plan
 Inspect and monitor workplace
    Inform workers of risks and minimize them
 Ensure adequate ventilation
 Develop safe work systems


                                                     15
Employers’ responsibilities

 Adequate training, retraining, instructions
 Supervision and control on each shift
 Investigation of all accidents
   Remedial action to be taken
   Report to be done
 Regular health surveillance of workers
 Principal employer coordinates safety
   Clear responsibility in sometimes complicated
    contractual situations (contractors)


                                                    16
Workers’ rights

 Report accidents and dangerous
  occurrences
 Request inspections
 Be informed of hazards
 Remove themselves from serious
  danger!
 Participate in matters affecting their health
  and safety
 Elect safety and health representatives

                                                  17
Workers’ responsibilities

 Comply with prescribed OSH measures
 Take care of their own safety
   And of other persons affected by their actions
 Report potentially risky situations that they
  cannot deal with
 Cooperate with employer in carrying out his
  duties and responsibilities



                                                     18
C.176

 Provides a floor
   Minimum requirements for safe and healthy
    mining
   Workers’ rights

 Links in with the Occupational Safety and
  Health Convention, 1981 (No.155)
   Ratified by over 50 Member States




                                                19
Ratifications of C.176
25




20




15




10




 5




 0
     1997   1998   1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008



                                                                                         20
Ratifying countries
   Albania              Peru
   Armenia              Philippines
   Austria              Poland
   Botswana             Portugal
   Brazil               Slovakia
   Czech Republic       South Africa
   Finland              Spain
   Germany              Sweden
   Ireland              United States
   Lebanon              Zambia
   Luxembourg           Zimbabwe
   Norway               Soon your country?
                                               21
Why is C.176 important?

 C.176 is essential to get things right
   Countries require sound policies as a basis for
    being able to achieve OSH improvements


 Countries who have achieved continuous
  improvements over the last 30 years have
  ratified
   The Convention is based on their experiences



                                                      22
Does it work?

 Countries that have changed their
  legislation, have typically achieved
  substantive initial improvements, but have,
  in some cases, not further reduced
  fatalities after a couple of years
 Is something wrong with the Convention?




                                                23
Following ratification

 Implementation matters!
   Workplaces need to change
   Legislation is necessary, but is not an end in
    itself
 Some improvements can be achieved just
  through better work procedures, but for
  further progress
   modernization of mines, machinery is required
   financial and human resources are required to
    ensure enforcement and training

                                                     24
Why C.176?

 Investments would be wasted without
   a targeted and focused approach
   that involves Workers and Employers


 C.176 is the first step to improve OSH in a
  sustainable way : the minimum standard
  all countries should comply with



                                                25
Why ratification?

 Only through ratification full compliance can be
  ensured
 ILO controls member States’ compliance
    in collaboration with employers and workers, who can
     lodge complaints

 Ratification is an important incentive for:
    countries, which need to change laws, to do so; and
    countries to NOT change their laws, if they are already
     in compliance



                                                               26
What does ILO offer to assist?

 Codes of practice
 Guidelines
    HIV/AIDS guidelines for the mining sector (in
     development)

 Manuals
 Other reference materials
    ILO's International Classification of Radiographs of
     Pneumoconioses
    ILO Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety



                                                            27
Code of practice on safety and health
in underground coalmines


 The code of practice provides practical
  guidance in support of the provisions of the
  Safety and Health in Mines Convention
  (No.176) and its accompanying
  Recommendation (No.183)

   Available in English, Chinese, French,
    Russian, Spanish and soon: Polish



                                                 28
Thank you




For further information
                                   www.ilo.ru/
                            www.ilo.org/sector
                          www.ilo.org/safework




                                                 29

				
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