Conditioning for Anaerobic and Aerobic Power by ert554898

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									Conditioning for Anaerobic
   and Aerobic Power


            Chapter 19
          Anaerobic vs. Aerobic
            Energy Systems
   Anaerobic
    –   ATP-CP : 10 sec. Or less
    –   Glycolysis : Few minutes


   Aerobic
    –   Krebs cycle
                                   2 minutes +
    –   Electron Transport Chain
                               Energy Transfer Systems and Exercise
100%

                                             Anaerobic
 % Capacity of Energy System


                                             Glycolysis

                                                                       Aerobic
                                                                       Energy
                                                                       System




                                             ATP - CP



                               10 sec   30 sec            2 min   5 min +
Anaerobic Conditioning
   Phosphate Pool
    –   All out bursts of 5-10 seconds will significantly deplete
        the ATP-CP system.
    –   Very little LA produced (< 10-15 sec. Bursts)
    –   Rest periods of 30 – 60 seconds will provide complete
        recovery ([ATP-CP] back to normal)
    –   High intensity interval training
            Increases [ATP-CP]
            Facilitates neuromuscular adaptations to the RATE and
             PATTERN of the movement.
Anaerobic Conditioning
   Glycolysis / Lactic Acid System
    –   ALL OUT effort beyond 10 seconds (usually 1 min.)
    –   Very taxing on athlete (psychologically and physically)
    –   Recover twice as long exercise bout
            2-1 ratio
    –   Results in “stacking” of LA  Increasingly high [LA]
    –   Full recovery ([LA] back to baseline) may take hours.
    –   ONLY occurs in muscles overloaded!
Aerobic Energy Production
   Steady state exercise beyond 3-4 minutes is
    powered mainly by Aerobic Glycolysis
    –   Pyruvic Acid & Lipid/Protein fragments enter Kreb’s
        Cycle and ETC. Energy produced resynthesizes
        ATP.
    –   As long as sufficient O2 is available to meet energy
        needs, fatigue is minimal and exercise continues!
    –   The intensity that elicits anaerobic metabolism is
        dependant on the person’s aerobic capacity
             Glucose                                   Anaerobic

 Energy                      H+

          Pyruvic Acid (2)              Lactic Acid (2)
 ATP
                                        Inter Cellular Fluid
                                        Mitochondria
                       CO2   &    H+
Fatty
Acids                                                     Aerobic
          Acetyl Co-A (2)
Amino
Acids

                                   Energy          ATP
              Krebs
 CO2
              Cycle                H+        To ETC
                         Energy    ATP
            Krebs
                             CO2
            Cycle
                        H+


                      Electron       ATP
                     Transport
                       Chain
        --
2H+ +   O    = H2O
Aerobic Capacity
 Abilityof the Cardiovascular
  system to deliver oxygen rich
  blood to body tissues.
 Muscles ability to process and
  utilize oxygen to produce
  energy.
Evaluating Aerobic Capacity
   Measure
    –   VO2max via spirometry / graded exercise stress
        test
   Estimate
    –   Sub-maximal graded exercise test
    –   Step test
          Based   on the fact that individuals with higher SV
           will recover faster
          Recovery HR will be lower in individuals w/ higher
           VO2max
                  Sub-Max Graded Test
            250

            200
                       Age Predicted HR max
HeartRate




            150




                                                        Predicted VO2max
            100

            50

             0
                  0   10           20         30   40                      50
                                  Workload (VO2)
      Heart Rate Response to
             Step Test
180
160
140                                                               Sedentary

120                                                               Trained


100                                                               Elite Athlete


 80
 60
 40
 20
      Rest    Begin     1 min   2 min     End      1 min   2min
             Exercise                   Exercise
   Factors That Effect Aerobic
          Conditioning

        level of cardiovascular fitness
 Initial
 Frequency of training
 Duration of training
 Intensity of training
 Specificity of training
    Initial Fitness Level
 Lower initial fitness level allows more room
  for improvement
 Generally “average” individual can expect
  5-25% improvement w/ 12 weeks of
  training
 Everyone has GENETIC Limit
 Some people are genetically more gifted
  and/or respond better to training
 Frequency of Training
 Generally   recommended: at least 3
  X’s/week
 Training 4 or more days per week
  results in only small increases in
  VO2max

       control: 6 or 7 days/week
 Weight
 recommended
  Duration of Training
 30 minutes of continuous
  exercise is recommended
 Discontinuous exercise of
  greater intensity has shown
  comparable results
    Continuous vs. Discontinuous
             Exercise
   Continuous (Long Slow Distance , LSD)
    –   70-90% of HR max
    –   Less taxing on individual
   Interval Training
    –   Repetitive exercise intervals separated by rest
        intervals
    –   Exercise Interval: 90% HR max
    –   Rest interval: 3X’s as long as exercise (3:1
        ratio)
         Training Intensity
 Most critical factor in training
 May be expressed as:
   % of VO2max
   Heart rate or % of maximum HR
    –   METS
    –   Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE)
    –   Calories per unit time
          Training Intensity
   Threshold for aerobic improvement
    –   At least 50-55% of VO2max
    –   70%+ of age predicted max HR (220-age)
    –   Often referred to as “conversational exercise”
   Overload will eventually become average
    activity
    –   Must increase intensity / duration to continue
        improvement in CV endurance
         ACSM
    Recommendations
 At least 3X’s per week
 30 – 60 minutes
 Continuous, large muscle mass
  exercises
 Expend at least 300kcals per session
 70% of age predicted max HR
    Specificity of Aerobic Training
   Training response is specific to the
    activity that is utilized for exercise
    sessions
    –   IE cycling will result in large increases in
        aerobic capacity while cycling but only small
        increases in CV endurance while swimming.
          Due   to the inefficiency of the muscles that are
           not trained
          LA production / LA tolerance is not improved in
           these muscles
                      Guidelines
   Start slowly
    –   Much higher risk of injury before adaptation occurs
             strength of tendons / ligaments &  CT in muscle
   Warm Up (50-60% Max HR)
    –    temp. of & blood flow to muscle
    –   Gentle stretching
   Dress for the weather
   Cool Down
    –   Increases LA removal
    –   Decreases pooling of blood in veins
    –   Gentle stretching

								
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