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									                     CHAPTER 5

                      LITERATURE REVIEW


        Since training is a continuous process and not a one shot affair and since it
consumes time and entails much expenditure it is necessary that a training program
or policy should be prepare with great thought and care, for it should be serve the
purpose of the establishment as well as the needs of employees. Moreover, it must
guard against over training, use of poor instruction, too much training in the skills
that are unnecessary for a particular job, initiations of other company training
programmers, misuse of testing technique, inadequate tools and equipments and
over reliance on one single technique. For example on slides, pictures, or lectures
and not enough on practice, a successful training programmed presumes that
sufficient care as been taken to discover areas in which it is needed most and to
create the necessary environment for its conduct. The selected trainers should be
one who clearly understands his job and professional expertise, has an aptitude and
ability for teaching, processes a pleasing personality and a capacity for leadership is
well versed in that principles and methods of training and is able to appreciate the
value of training in relation to an enterprise.


Training means a process of learning and sequence of programmed behaviour. It
gives people an awareness of the rules and procedures to guide their behaviour. It
means to improve their performance on the current job or prepare them for an
intended job. In organizational terms, it is intended to equip persons to earn
promotion and hold greater responsibility. Training a person for a bigger and higher
job is developed. And this may well include not only imparting specific skills and
knowledge but also including certain personality and mental attitude.

    Training is a short term process utilizing a systematic and organized procedure
by which non managerial personnel learn technical knowledge and skills for a
definite purpose. Training refers only to instructions in technical and mechanical

Training in four ways

 “what” is learned;
 “who” is learning;
 “why” such learning takes place; and
 “When” learning occurs.


Edwin B. Plippo         - “The act of increasing the skills of an
employee for doing a particular job”.

Lawrence L. Steinmetz – “Training is a short term process
utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which non
managerial personnel learn technical knowledge and skills for a
definite purpose”.

John P Campbell – “Training course is typically designated for a
short term, stated set purpose such as the organization of some
piece of machinery.
                    CHAPTER 6


Importance of training
        Training is the corner stone of sound management for it makes employees
more effective and productive. It is actively and intimately connected with all the
personal or managerial activities. It is an integral part of the whole management
program, with all its many activities functionally inter related.

        There is an ever present need for training men so that new and changed
techniques may be taken advantages and improvement affected in the old method,
which are woefully inefficient.

        Training is practical and vital necessity because, apart from the other
advantages mentioned above, it enables employees to develop and increase their
“market value” earning power and job security. It enables management to resolve
source of friction arising from parochialism, to bring      home to the employees the
fact that the management is not divisible. It moulds the employee’s attitude and
helps them to achieve to better co-operative with the company and a greater loyalty
to it. The management is beneficial in the sense that higher standards of quality are
achieved, a satisfactory organizational structure is built up; authority can be
dedicated and stimulus for progress applied to employees training moreover, high
tense the morale of the employees for its helps in reducing dissatisfaction,
complaints, grievance and absenteeism reduce the rate of turnover.

Responsibility for Training
Training is the responsibility of four main groups.

 The top management, which frames the training policy.
 The personal department, which plans, establishes and evaluates instructional
 Superiors, who implement and apply development all procedure.
 Employees, who provide feedback, revision and suggestions for corporate
   educational endeavors.

Steps in training program

   Each training program is a costly affair and a time consuming process. Therefore
it must be devised very carefully so that it achieves it is objective with least possible
cost. In order to make a training program effective it should proceed through a
sequence of steps. They are:-

1. Identifying Training Needs

        A training programme should be established only when it is felt that it
would assist in the solution of specific operational problem. The most important
step, in the first place, is to make a through of the entire organization, its operations
and man power resources available in order to find out “the troubles spots”, where
training may be needed. It should however be noted training is not a cure all.
2 Preparing Training Program

     After identifying the employees training needs, training programme should be
  prepared to meet out those needs. A program is a type of plan, which can be
  through of in terms of planned action integrated into a unity and the designed to
  bring about the stated objectives. A training programme should address the
  following issues.

   Type of employees to be trained, new comers or old employees.
   Type of training materials that may require.
   Duration of training programme.
   On the job training off the job training.
   Methods that may be for providing training.
   Resources personnel who will provide for training.
  2. Prepare The Learners

  In preparing the learners for training programme, following steps are required.

  a) Putting the learners at ease so that they do not feel nervous at the job
  particularly if they are new comers.
  b) Explaining the importance of the job and its relationship to total workflow.
  c) Explaining the needs and objectives of the training in relationship to their
  d) Creating interest among the learners about the training and arousing their
  motivation to learn.
  e) Placing the learners as close to their working place as possible in the case on
  the job training.
f) Familiarizing them with the equipments, materials tools, trade terms etc…
3. Implementing Training Programme.
          This is the most crucial stage of training program. Then the learners are
ready of the training they should be exposed to various training activities.
There may be two type of training programme, on the job training and off the job
training. In the case of on the job training, the learner is providing training at their
work place. In the case off the job training, the learners are provided training at
their work place. In the case off the job training is conducted away from the work
4. Performance Try Out
          At the stage, the learners are advised to perform the job on their own
albeit with slow speed initially, there is likelihood that they commit mistakes. Such
mistakes may be overcome with the help of the trainers. After certain period of
time, the learners become more efficient in performing the job through conditions
practice as the job involved is a respective one. At the stage, there should b e some
mechanism to ascertain whether the learner have leant what was intended. This may
be in the form of measurement of work performance, results, interviews of the
learners, comprising question to identify the degree of training and observing the
behavior of learners.
5. Follow Up Action
          At the final stage of the training programme, follow up actions are
required to ensure that the trainees have learnt the job fully and they can work
independently without the help of the trainees. This stage consists of the following:
1. Putting the trainees on their own checking frequently how they are applying
the methods that they have learnt during the training.
2. Tapering of extra super vision gradually and close follow up until they are
qualified to work with normal supervision.
Training Techniques

   The forms and types of employees training methods are inter-related. It is
difficult if not impossible; to say which of the methods or combination of methods
is more useful than the other. In fact, methods are multifaceted in scope and
dimensions and each is suitable for a particular situation. The best techniques for
one situation need not be best for the different groups or tasks. Care must be taken
in adapting the technique to the learner and the job. An efficient training technique
generally fulfills this objectives, provides motivations to the training to improve job
performance, develop a willingness to change, provide for the trainees active
participation in the learning process, provide a knowledge of results about attempts.
To improve, and permit practice where appropriate.
                      CLASSIFICATION OF TRAINING

                          CLASSIFICATION OF TRAINING

                On the job                               Off the job

  On         Job      Apprent   Vestibules   Case     Role        In      Sensitivity
specific   rotation   iceship                study   playing    basket     training

1. on specific job

           Under this technique an employee is placed in new job and he is told how
it may be performed. A person can learn when he is put on specific job. He can
develop skills for doing the job in a better way over the period of time.

2. Job rotation

  In job rotation a management trainee is made to move from job to job at certain intervals .the
major objective of job rotation is to broaden the background of the trainee. He can learn the
working of various selection and departments of organization.

3. Apprenticeship

Under apprenticeship the trainee works in to the direction and supervision of the
person as assistant. Each apprentice is given a program of assignments according to
a predetermined schedule, which provides for efficient training in trade skills.

4. Vestibule training
This method attempts to them to duplicate on the job situation in a company
classroom. It is a classroom, which is often imparted with the help of equipment, and
machines, which are identical with those in use in the place of work.

1. Case study

A case study is a summary of data that present issues or problems calling for
solution or actions on the part of trainee. When the trainees are given cases to
analysis they are asked to identify the problem and to recommend tentative solution
for the problem.

2. Role playing

Discussions of case studies in the area of inter personnel relation generally remains
at an uneconomical inter actual level, to correct this role-playing has been
developed. In this method the instruction assigns parts takes from case materials to
group members. The role player attempts to act their part, as they would behave in
real situations.

3. In basket exercise
  It is used to develop skills in writing in letters, document reports etc.

  4. Sensitivity training

    Under this training a 10-15 person are put in to face-to-face situation. This groups,
  as no agenda no establish roles, no norms of performance. This creates a tension,
  anxiety among the group members an it will measure attempt to receive by
  withdrawing from active participation or by attempting to provide the missing
  structural elements assuming leadership, establishing roles, setting up an agenda etc.

Training procedures in KAL

  The various steps in training procedures are as follows:

  1. Induction training
  2. Identification of training needs
  3. Consolidation of training needs
  4. Preparation of training calendar and conducting training
  5. Updating and maintenance of employer training record.
  6. Collection of immediate feedback and training programme.
7. Monitory effectiveness of training

1. Induction training

  Induction training is given to every new employee at the time of joining the
company by the respective personnel department. The induction training covers the
rules and regulation of the company, organization structure activities of various
industrial activities. Quality and environment policy of the company is also
explained to every new entrant in keeping with the company’s commitment to
achieve total quality in all spheres of industrial activity, every executive cadre
employee as to submit a detailed induction training report to the unit personnel head,
with in one week after completion of induction program

2. Identification of Training Needs

  Training needs of all employees are identified once in every 2 years on the basis
of their present and future development needs and organization perspectives.
Training needs of executives and non executives and will be identified department
wise through training needs identification form. The identification normal has three
sections explaining the functional or technical training need specific to the job of the
employee, second one highlighting behavioral fact and the third one the
organizational prospective. Training needs are assessed by the immediate superiors.

3. Consolidation of Training Needs

  The unit personal department will consolidate the training needs of each
employees based on the areas identified used for this purpose. A committee
constituted for this purpose will review the training needs identified and will
categorize the needs to be covered during the first and second years. The respective
personal departments of the unit will co-ordinate this activity the unit personal head
will forward a copy of the consolidated list of training needs indicating the priorities
to the corporate personal department before 15th march every year in order to prepare
the training calendar for that year.

4. Preparation of Training Calendar and Conducting Training.

  The training calendar will list out the proposed dates for the training, the no of
participants etc… The corporate personal department will be responsible for
preparing the training calendar. In house training conducted by corporate personal
department is given either by internal faculty or in coordination with external
training agencies. External training will be given on the basis of need assessed and
subject to availability of suitable programs. Information of the selection of an
employee to any training is made through inter office memos. The training calendar
will be reviewed half yearly in order to assessed the progress and when it is not
possible to conduct any of the programs which is set under the calendar, reasons
thereof is formally recorded.

5. Updating and Maintenance of Employee Training Record

  Training record containing all information of the training attended by an employee
(in hours/ external) is maintained in the concerned personal department. It is
responsibility of the respective controlling officer in the manufacturing department
to prepare on the job training in each relevant areas of work of each operator in this
   6. Collection of Immediate Feedback and Training Program

     The respective unit personal department will collect immediate feedback from an
   employee and will be forward to corporate personnel department for training
   evaluation and the corporate personnel department wills evaluate each programme
   on the basis of feedback forms.

   7. Monitoring the Effectiveness of Training.

       The respective controlling officer of an employee will be responsible to
assessed the effectiveness of each training of one has attended within 6 months of
attending that programme. The assessment will be based on some of the selected
training efficiency measurable. Some of the efficiency measurement variable for
functional and behavioral training.

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