CHAPTER 5 LITERATURE REVIEW LITERATURE REVIEW TRAINING Since training is a continuous process and not a one shot affair and since it consumes time and entails much expenditure it is necessary that a training program or policy should be prepare with great thought and care, for it should be serve the purpose of the establishment as well as the needs of employees. Moreover, it must guard against over training, use of poor instruction, too much training in the skills that are unnecessary for a particular job, initiations of other company training programmers, misuse of testing technique, inadequate tools and equipments and over reliance on one single technique. For example on slides, pictures, or lectures and not enough on practice, a successful training programmed presumes that sufficient care as been taken to discover areas in which it is needed most and to create the necessary environment for its conduct. The selected trainers should be one who clearly understands his job and professional expertise, has an aptitude and ability for teaching, processes a pleasing personality and a capacity for leadership is well versed in that principles and methods of training and is able to appreciate the value of training in relation to an enterprise. MEANING Training means a process of learning and sequence of programmed behaviour. It gives people an awareness of the rules and procedures to guide their behaviour. It means to improve their performance on the current job or prepare them for an intended job. In organizational terms, it is intended to equip persons to earn promotion and hold greater responsibility. Training a person for a bigger and higher job is developed. And this may well include not only imparting specific skills and knowledge but also including certain personality and mental attitude. Training is a short term process utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which non managerial personnel learn technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose. Training refers only to instructions in technical and mechanical operations. Training in four ways “what” is learned; “who” is learning; “why” such learning takes place; and “When” learning occurs. DEFINITION Edwin B. Plippo - “The act of increasing the skills of an employee for doing a particular job”. Lawrence L. Steinmetz – “Training is a short term process utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which non managerial personnel learn technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose”. John P Campbell – “Training course is typically designated for a short term, stated set purpose such as the organization of some piece of machinery. CHAPTER 6 EMPLOYEES TRAINING Importance of training Training is the corner stone of sound management for it makes employees more effective and productive. It is actively and intimately connected with all the personal or managerial activities. It is an integral part of the whole management program, with all its many activities functionally inter related. There is an ever present need for training men so that new and changed techniques may be taken advantages and improvement affected in the old method, which are woefully inefficient. Training is practical and vital necessity because, apart from the other advantages mentioned above, it enables employees to develop and increase their “market value” earning power and job security. It enables management to resolve source of friction arising from parochialism, to bring home to the employees the fact that the management is not divisible. It moulds the employee’s attitude and helps them to achieve to better co-operative with the company and a greater loyalty to it. The management is beneficial in the sense that higher standards of quality are achieved, a satisfactory organizational structure is built up; authority can be dedicated and stimulus for progress applied to employees training moreover, high tense the morale of the employees for its helps in reducing dissatisfaction, complaints, grievance and absenteeism reduce the rate of turnover. Responsibility for Training Training is the responsibility of four main groups. The top management, which frames the training policy. The personal department, which plans, establishes and evaluates instructional programs. Superiors, who implement and apply development all procedure. Employees, who provide feedback, revision and suggestions for corporate educational endeavors. Steps in training program Each training program is a costly affair and a time consuming process. Therefore it must be devised very carefully so that it achieves it is objective with least possible cost. In order to make a training program effective it should proceed through a sequence of steps. They are:- 1. Identifying Training Needs A training programme should be established only when it is felt that it would assist in the solution of specific operational problem. The most important step, in the first place, is to make a through of the entire organization, its operations and man power resources available in order to find out “the troubles spots”, where training may be needed. It should however be noted training is not a cure all. 2 Preparing Training Program After identifying the employees training needs, training programme should be prepared to meet out those needs. A program is a type of plan, which can be through of in terms of planned action integrated into a unity and the designed to bring about the stated objectives. A training programme should address the following issues. Type of employees to be trained, new comers or old employees. Type of training materials that may require. Duration of training programme. On the job training off the job training. Methods that may be for providing training. Resources personnel who will provide for training. 2. Prepare The Learners In preparing the learners for training programme, following steps are required. a) Putting the learners at ease so that they do not feel nervous at the job particularly if they are new comers. b) Explaining the importance of the job and its relationship to total workflow. c) Explaining the needs and objectives of the training in relationship to their jobs. d) Creating interest among the learners about the training and arousing their motivation to learn. e) Placing the learners as close to their working place as possible in the case on the job training. f) Familiarizing them with the equipments, materials tools, trade terms etc… 3. Implementing Training Programme. This is the most crucial stage of training program. Then the learners are ready of the training they should be exposed to various training activities. There may be two type of training programme, on the job training and off the job training. In the case of on the job training, the learner is providing training at their work place. In the case off the job training, the learners are provided training at their work place. In the case off the job training is conducted away from the work place. 4. Performance Try Out At the stage, the learners are advised to perform the job on their own albeit with slow speed initially, there is likelihood that they commit mistakes. Such mistakes may be overcome with the help of the trainers. After certain period of time, the learners become more efficient in performing the job through conditions practice as the job involved is a respective one. At the stage, there should b e some mechanism to ascertain whether the learner have leant what was intended. This may be in the form of measurement of work performance, results, interviews of the learners, comprising question to identify the degree of training and observing the behavior of learners. 5. Follow Up Action At the final stage of the training programme, follow up actions are required to ensure that the trainees have learnt the job fully and they can work independently without the help of the trainees. This stage consists of the following: 1. Putting the trainees on their own checking frequently how they are applying the methods that they have learnt during the training. 2. Tapering of extra super vision gradually and close follow up until they are qualified to work with normal supervision. Training Techniques The forms and types of employees training methods are inter-related. It is difficult if not impossible; to say which of the methods or combination of methods is more useful than the other. In fact, methods are multifaceted in scope and dimensions and each is suitable for a particular situation. The best techniques for one situation need not be best for the different groups or tasks. Care must be taken in adapting the technique to the learner and the job. An efficient training technique generally fulfills this objectives, provides motivations to the training to improve job performance, develop a willingness to change, provide for the trainees active participation in the learning process, provide a knowledge of results about attempts. To improve, and permit practice where appropriate. CLASSIFICATION OF TRAINING CLASSIFICATION OF TRAINING On the job Off the job On Job Apprent Vestibules Case Role In Sensitivity specific rotation iceship study playing basket training exercise ON THE JOB 1. on specific job Under this technique an employee is placed in new job and he is told how it may be performed. A person can learn when he is put on specific job. He can develop skills for doing the job in a better way over the period of time. 2. Job rotation In job rotation a management trainee is made to move from job to job at certain intervals .the major objective of job rotation is to broaden the background of the trainee. He can learn the working of various selection and departments of organization. 3. Apprenticeship Under apprenticeship the trainee works in to the direction and supervision of the person as assistant. Each apprentice is given a program of assignments according to a predetermined schedule, which provides for efficient training in trade skills. 4. Vestibule training This method attempts to them to duplicate on the job situation in a company classroom. It is a classroom, which is often imparted with the help of equipment, and machines, which are identical with those in use in the place of work. A. OFF THE JOB 1. Case study A case study is a summary of data that present issues or problems calling for solution or actions on the part of trainee. When the trainees are given cases to analysis they are asked to identify the problem and to recommend tentative solution for the problem. 2. Role playing Discussions of case studies in the area of inter personnel relation generally remains at an uneconomical inter actual level, to correct this role-playing has been developed. In this method the instruction assigns parts takes from case materials to group members. The role player attempts to act their part, as they would behave in real situations. 3. In basket exercise It is used to develop skills in writing in letters, document reports etc. 4. Sensitivity training Under this training a 10-15 person are put in to face-to-face situation. This groups, as no agenda no establish roles, no norms of performance. This creates a tension, anxiety among the group members an it will measure attempt to receive by withdrawing from active participation or by attempting to provide the missing structural elements assuming leadership, establishing roles, setting up an agenda etc. Training procedures in KAL The various steps in training procedures are as follows: 1. Induction training 2. Identification of training needs 3. Consolidation of training needs 4. Preparation of training calendar and conducting training 5. Updating and maintenance of employer training record. 6. Collection of immediate feedback and training programme. 7. Monitory effectiveness of training 1. Induction training Induction training is given to every new employee at the time of joining the company by the respective personnel department. The induction training covers the rules and regulation of the company, organization structure activities of various industrial activities. Quality and environment policy of the company is also explained to every new entrant in keeping with the company’s commitment to achieve total quality in all spheres of industrial activity, every executive cadre employee as to submit a detailed induction training report to the unit personnel head, with in one week after completion of induction program 2. Identification of Training Needs Training needs of all employees are identified once in every 2 years on the basis of their present and future development needs and organization perspectives. Training needs of executives and non executives and will be identified department wise through training needs identification form. The identification normal has three sections explaining the functional or technical training need specific to the job of the employee, second one highlighting behavioral fact and the third one the organizational prospective. Training needs are assessed by the immediate superiors. 3. Consolidation of Training Needs The unit personal department will consolidate the training needs of each employees based on the areas identified used for this purpose. A committee constituted for this purpose will review the training needs identified and will categorize the needs to be covered during the first and second years. The respective personal departments of the unit will co-ordinate this activity the unit personal head will forward a copy of the consolidated list of training needs indicating the priorities to the corporate personal department before 15th march every year in order to prepare the training calendar for that year. 4. Preparation of Training Calendar and Conducting Training. The training calendar will list out the proposed dates for the training, the no of participants etc… The corporate personal department will be responsible for preparing the training calendar. In house training conducted by corporate personal department is given either by internal faculty or in coordination with external training agencies. External training will be given on the basis of need assessed and subject to availability of suitable programs. Information of the selection of an employee to any training is made through inter office memos. The training calendar will be reviewed half yearly in order to assessed the progress and when it is not possible to conduct any of the programs which is set under the calendar, reasons thereof is formally recorded. 5. Updating and Maintenance of Employee Training Record Training record containing all information of the training attended by an employee (in hours/ external) is maintained in the concerned personal department. It is responsibility of the respective controlling officer in the manufacturing department to prepare on the job training in each relevant areas of work of each operator in this department. 6. Collection of Immediate Feedback and Training Program Evaluation. The respective unit personal department will collect immediate feedback from an employee and will be forward to corporate personnel department for training evaluation and the corporate personnel department wills evaluate each programme on the basis of feedback forms. 7. Monitoring the Effectiveness of Training. The respective controlling officer of an employee will be responsible to assessed the effectiveness of each training of one has attended within 6 months of attending that programme. The assessment will be based on some of the selected training efficiency measurable. Some of the efficiency measurement variable for functional and behavioral training.
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