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  • pg 1
									By: Tim D’Agostino
AP Chem (05-06)
Breakdown of Name
• In organic chemistry, a compound name
  consists of a:
     • Prefix
     • Suffix (also known as the substituent)
     • Parent Name
        – Based on the longest carbon chain

                     Example: 2-methylbutane
                       2 -     methyl    butane

                        Prefix         Suffix   Parent Name
Step 1
Find the longest continuous chain of carbon
atoms, and use the name of this chain as the
base (parent) name of the compound.

                            4 Carbons = Butane

                              Parent Name:
            Number the carbon atoms in the
Step 2      longest chain, beginning with the
            end of the chain that is nearest to a

  Substituent –                   1

  group attached
    to the main                   2     3    4
 A substituent group that is formed by
 removing an H atom from an alkaline is
 called an alkyl group.

                 In this case, simply remove the -ane from
                 the name and replace it with -yl.

Name and give the location of
each substituent group.
                                            Step 3
                          CH3- was derived from
                          CH4 (Methane)

                           In this case, remove the
                           –ane from Methane and
                           replace it with –yl.

  Substituent (Suffix) - Methyl

Name and give the location of
each substituent group.
                                  Step 3 – cont.
Remember when you had to number the
Carbons starting closest to the substituent
group? Now the numbers are needed.

                                   Find the carbon that the
              1                    substituent group is
                                   attached to.
              2      3     4
                                   The number you assigned
                                   to that carbon will serve
                                   as the prefix.

Name and give the location of
each substituent group.
                                          Step 3 – cont.
                      Now put it all together!

          2     3     4
                                Step 1 (Parent Name):
                                4 Carbons - Butane

                          Step 2 (Number the Carbons)

Step 3 (Name and Find Substituent)
Attached to the second carbon.

 Name: 2 - Methyl butane
Two or More Substituents
      In some cases, there are two or more
                   If the substituents are different, simply list
                   them in alphabetical order.

                                             H3 C    CH2
                                              H3C CH
If there are a number of substituents that          H2C    C     CH2CH3

are the same, use greek prefixes before                    CH2
the suffix to indicate the number of that           H3C CH
particular substituent present.                            CH3
Example:                            In this molecule, there are
                                    2 cases of CH3 (methyl) as
H3 C    8
            CH2                     well as 1 case of C2H5
        7   CH2
 H3C CH                             Since “e” comes before “m,”
        5   H                       list ethyl first in the chemical
       H2C 4C              CH2CH3
                 3   CH2
       H3C CH                       After counting the Carbons,
                 1   CH3            one will find that ethyl is
                                    connected to the fourth
NAME:           4-ethyl-
Then look at the methyl.        H3 C         CH2
One instance is connected to        9

the second carbon and the                7   CH2
other is connected to the                     6
sixth carbon.                    H3C CH
                                          5  H
                                        H2C 4C              CH2CH3
Don’t forget since there
are two cases of methyl to                            CH2
use the greek prefix of di-                           2
                                        H3C CH
Finally, since there are 9                        1   CH3
carbons, the parent name is
nonane. (C9H20)

NAME:      4-ethyl- 2,6-dimethyl nonane
You try one!
Step 1 (Parent Name):
4 Carbons - Butane
                                 4      3      2   1

 Step 2 (Number the Carbons)

 Step 3 (Name and Find the Substituent)
 Two attached to the second carbon. (use prefix di-.)
     Since there are two on the same carbon, you still
     need to account for both by having a 2,2- prefix.

  Name: 2,2 - Dimethyl butane

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