Personality by fdshsdhs


       Psychoanalytic theory of
• Freud –

  – believed that the unconscious mind really
    ruled our behavior
  – personality traits can be traced back to our
    childhood years
  – people’s behavior is governed by the
    unconscious mind and that many people are
    unaware of why they do things
        Structure of personality

  – functions in the irrational and emotional part
    of the mind.
  – At birth - all Id - want want want. The Id is the
    primitive mind.
  – the “pleasure principle”: “I want it and I want it
    all now”.
  – Id equates to "Child".
  – Evident at birth
   – functions with the rational part of the mind.
   – The Ego develops out of growing awareness that
     you can’t always get what you want.
   – “reality principle”.
   – Compromiser-negotiates between the Id and the
   – Ego equates to "Adult".
   – Evident at 2 to 3 years of age
• The Superego is the last part of the mind to
  develop-around ages 3-5.
• moral part of the mind.
• Represents parental and societal values. It
  stores and enforces rules.
• It constantly strives for perfection, even though
  this perfection ideal may be quite far from reality
  or possibility.
• Can be equated to the parent.
         Eros and Thantos
– Eros represents the life instinct sourcing from
  the libido, which stands for creativity, sexual
  desires and pleasure seeking

– Thantos is the "death instinct", which signals a
  desire to give up the struggle of life and return
  to the grave. Produces aggressive and
  destructive urges
Freud Psychosexual Development
• Stage 1 – Oral Stage (Birth-18 months) –
  erotic focus is the mouth.

  – Pleasure seeking activities include sucking,
    chewing, biting.
  – If needs are gratified too much or too little
    they continue to seek gratification as an adult
• Stage 2 – Anal Stage –         Anal Stage
  (1 ½ years to 3) – erotic
  focus is on the anus –
  expelling or retaining

   – If child gets locked into
     this stage, they continue
     to engage in behaviors
     associated with retention
     or elimination. They may
     become anal retentive or
     anal expulsive.
• Stage 3 – Phallic Stage (3 to 6 years) – erotic
  focus is on the genital area.

  – Oedipal/Electra complex
  – Problems resolving the complex may lead to feelings
    of inferiority toward their own sex and having to prove
    something to the opposite sex.
• Stage 4 – Latency Stage – (6 to puberty) – no
  erotic focus, represses sexuality
  – Child represses sexual urges and thoughts and
    engages in nonsexual activities such as developing
    social and intellectual skills
• Stage 5 – Genital Stage
  (Puberty through
  adulthood) – Erotic focus
  is on genitals once again,
  but more about becoming
  sexually intimate with

  – If other stages have been
    met successfully,
    adolescent will now be able
    to form loving, successful
  Freud’s Defense Mechanisms
• Repression – pushing negative events back into
  the unconscious

• Regression – when the person acts much
  younger than their age

• Denial – when the person acts like there is no
  problem when they know that there is

• Identification – when people who would not
  ordinarily bond do for a common goal
         Defense Mechanisms
• Reaction formation – when one acts in a way
  that is opposite of what they really think

• Projection – when one accuses others of feeling
  how they actually feel

• Displacement – taking one’s feelings out on

• Rationalization – making excuses for one’s
  behavior so as not to look bad
             Adler’s theory

• Each of us is born into the
  world with a sense of inferiority.
• We start as a weak and helpless child and
  strive to overcome these deficiencies by
  become superior to those around us.
• Called this struggle a striving for superiority
  he saw this as the driving force behind all
  human thoughts, emotions, and behaviors.
• This excessive feeling of inferiority can
  also have the opposite effect.

• Says we can develop an inferiority

• This belief leaves us with feeling incredibly
  less important and deserving than others,
  helpless, hopeless, and unmotivated to
  strive for the superiority that would make
  us complete.
        Superiority Complex

An exaggerated feeling of being superior to

 A psychological defense mechanism in
 which feelings of superiority counter or
 conceal feelings of inferiority.
         Adler and birth order
• Believed that the order in which you
  are born to a family affects your

• First born children who later have
  younger siblings may have it the
  worst. These children are given
  excessive attention and pampering by
  their parents until the little brother or
  sister arrives.
• Suddenly they are no longer the center of
  attention and wondering why everything
• They are left feeling inferior, questioning
  their importance in the family, and trying
  desperately to gain back the attention they
  suddenly lost. The birth order theory holds
  that first born children often have the
  greatest number of problems as they get
• Middle born children may have it the easiest,
  and interestingly, Adler was a middle born child.
• These children are not pampered as their older
  sibling was, but are still afforded the attention.
• As a middle child, they have the luxury of trying
  to dethrone the oldest child and become more
  superior while at the same time knowing that
  they hold this same power over their younger
• Adler believed that middle children have a high
  need for superiority and are often able to seek it
  out such as through healthy competition.
• The youngest children, like the first born, may be
  more likely to experience personality problems
  later in life.
• This is the child who grows up knowing that he
  has the least amount of power in the whole
• He sees his older siblings having more freedom
  and more superiority.
• He also gets pampered and protected more than
  any other child did.
• This could leave him with a sense that he can
  not take on the world alone and will always be
  inferior to others.
Karen Horney – Neurotic Needs
• 1. The neurotic need for
  affection and approval - need
  to please others and be liked
  by them.

• 2. The neurotic need for a
  partner, for someone who will
  take over one's life. This
  includes the idea that love will
  solve all of one's problems.

• 3. The neurotic need to restrict
  one's life to narrow borders, to
  be undemanding, satisfied with
  little, to be inconspicuous.
                    Horney cont’d
• 4. The neurotic need for
  power, for control over others,
  for a facade of omnipotence.
  Looks down on those who are
• 5. The neurotic need to exploit
  others and get the better of
  them -it can become
  manipulation and the belief
  that people are there to be
• 6. The neurotic need for social
  recognition or prestige -
  overwhelmingly concerned
  with appearances and
                       Horney cont’d
•   7. The neurotic need for personal

•   8. The neurotic need for personal
    achievement - have to be number
    one at everything they and
    devalue anything they cannot be
    number one in
•   9. The neurotic need for self-
    sufficiency and independence –
    tend to refuse help from anyone
•   10. The neurotic need for
    perfection - driven to be perfect
    and scared of being flawed. They
    can't be caught making a mistake
    and need to be in control at all
 Behavioral theories of personality
• States that personality is nothing more
  than a collection of learned behavior

• Personality is acquired through classical
  and operant conditioning
     Behavior is deterministic

• The underlying assumption of the learning
  perspective is that all behavior is learned
  through experiences and by interaction
  with the environment.

• Reciprocal determinism – we impact our
  environment and our environment impacts
      Humanistic perspective
• Believe you are a product of all the
  choices you have made in your life

• They also emphasize the subjective
  experience which is each person’s private
  perception of reality
 Congruence vs. Incongruence
• Congruence is when our perceptions of
  ourselves matches what others see in us

• Incongruence is when our perceptions of
  ourselves does not match what others see
• The incongruent person often has a wide
  discrepancy between their image of
  themselves and what others see in them

• This often leads to the person to become
  confused, vulnerable, dissatisfied, or
  seriously maladjusted
               Ideal self
• Rogers also felt that one must have
  congruence between one’s self-image and
  the ideal self.

• That is who we see ourselves as and who
  we want to be should be closely related
• Rogers also believed that what others say and
  how they act towards you may develop
  conditions of self-worth.

• Children learn that some actions will win love
  and approval from parents and others will lead
  to rejection

• This may lead to a positive self-regard or a
  negative self-regard

• A positive self-regard may be achieved by
  parent’s unconditional positive regard
          McCrae and Costa
• Introversion vs. extroversion: describes the
  extent to which people are shy (introverted) or
  outgoing (extraverted). Extroverted people tend
  to be talkative, sociable, enthusiastic, lively,
  cheerful, and adventurous.

• Neuroticism: describes the extent to which
  people are unstable and emotional. People high
  in neuroticism may have difficulty controlling
  their impulses and may be seen by others as
  being somewhat negative. People who are high
  in neuroticism are worriers and complainers.
• Agreeableness: describes the extent to which people are
  good-natured, gentle, secure, and friendly. People who
  are low in agreeableness tend to be stubborn, irritable,
  headstrong, abrasive, and suspicious; they tend also to
  have hostile relationships.

• Conscientiousness: describes the extent to which people
  are responsible, persevering, scrupulous, dependable,
  and tidy. People who are low in conscientiousness tend
  to be irresponsible, undependable, unscrupulous, and

• Openness to experience: describes the extent to which
  people are original, imaginative, questioning, artistic, and
  capable of creative thinking. People who are low in
  openness to experience tend to be conforming,
  unimaginative, and predictable.
   Personality Questionnaires
• Paper-and-pencil tests
  – Tend to be more objective than other tests
  – Questions, administration and scoring is
  – Test must be reliable and valid

  – One measure consistently used is the MMPI –
    the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
 MMPI asks you to rate statements
• I would enjoy the work of the chicken
• My eyes are always cold
• Frantic screams make me nervous
• I believe I smell as good as most others
• Most of the time I go to sleep without
  saying goodbye
• I use shoe polish to an excess
•   The sight of blood no longer excites me
•   I salivate at the sight of mittens
•   As an infant I had very few hobbies
•   Spinach makes me feel alone
•   I stay in the bathtub until I look like a raisin
•   I like to put chameleons on plaid cloth
•   I never finish what I
      Potential Questions on MMPI
• Some of the actual questions are:
  –   Everything tastes the same
  –   There is something wrong with my mind
  –   I enjoy animals
  –   Whenever possible I avoid being in a crowd
  –   Someone has been trying to poison me
  –   I daydream often

  – These seem to be questions that people with
    disorders will commonly answer similarly

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