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									A study of the impact of early socialization factors on self-efficacy, self-confidence, and
autonomy in women
by Muri, Stephanie, D.S.W., Boston College, 1996, 135 pages; AAT 9717545

Abstract (Summary)
This study explored the relationship between socialization factors occurring during childhood
and adolescence and a sense of personal competence in adult women. The four early
socialization factors selected for examination were father-daughter closeness, the presence of a
mentor relationship, single-sex education, and participation in team sports. A sense of personal
competence was determined by measurement on three scales: self-efficacy, self-confidence, and
assertion of autonomy.
A convenience sample of 139 female employees of a small, Catholic university responded to a
mailed survey. A questionnaire was sent consisting of published scales of three determinants of a
personal sense of competence as well as an author-designed scale measuring father-daughter
closeness and other questions regarding the three remaining socialization factors. Relationships
between the early socialization factors and personal competence were examined and analyzed.
Of the four early socialization factors measured, three (father-daughter closeness, a mentor
relationship, and single-sex education) were found to be related to self-efficacy for the sample
overall. Examinations within subgroups of the sample revealed two additional findings. First,
single-sex education (at the college level) was found to be related to self-confidence. Second,
opposite to the predicted direction, the women who lacked father-daughter closeness (as teens) or
a mentor relationship (prior to age 22) scored higher on assertion of autonomy than women who
had these factors present.
The results from the overall sample suggest that certain factors in childhood and adolescence can
predict a sense of personal competence in adult women. Some of those factors are
father-daughter closeness, the existence of a mentor relationship, and single-sex education.
Suggestions for examination of other factors, not examined by this study, are proposed.
Implications for child-rearing practices, clinical social work practice, educational programs and
social policy aimed at strengthening the development of a sense of personal competence in
women are addressed.

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This article is about the sociological term. For the economic term, see Nationalization.


/wiki/Image:IMG010biglittledogFX_wb.jpgSocialized dogs can interact with other non-aggressive
dogs of any size and shape and understand how to communicate.

[edit] Dogs
In domesticated dogs, the process of socialization begins even before the puppy's eyes open.
Socialization refers to both its ability to interact acceptably with humans and its understanding of
how to communicate successfully with other dogs. If the mother is fearful of humans or of her
environment, she can pass along this fear to her puppies. For most dogs, however, a mother who
interacts well with humans is the best teacher that the puppies can have. In addition, puppies
learn how to interact with other dogs by their interaction with their mother and with other adult
dogs in the house.
A mother's attitude and tolerance of her puppies will change as they grow older and become
more active. For this reason most experts today recommend leaving puppies with their mother
until at least 8 to 10 weeks of age. This gives them a chance to experience a variety of
interactions with their mother, and to observe her behavior in a range of situations.
It is critical that human interaction takes place frequently and calmly from the time the puppies
are born, from simple, gentle handling to the mere presence of humans in the vicinity of the
puppies, performing everyday tasks and activities. As the puppies grow older, socialization
occurs more readily the more frequently they are exposed to other dogs, other people, and other
situations. Dogs who are well socialized from birth, with both dogs and other species (especially
people) are much less likely to be aggressive or to suffer from fear-biting.

Generally, internalization is the long-term process of consolidating and embedding one’s own
beliefs, attitudes, and values, when it comes to moral behavior. The accomplishment of this may
involve the deliberate use of psychoanalytical or behavioral methods.
When changing moral behavior, one is said to be "internalized" when a new set of beliefs,
attitudes, and values, replace or habituates the desired behavior. For example, such
internalization might take place following religious conversion.
Internalization is also often associated with learning (for example learning ideas or skills) and
making use of it from then on. The notion of internalization therefore also finds currency in
applications in education, learning and training and in business and management thinking.
[edit] Psychology and sociology
In sciences such as psychology and sociology, internalization is the process of acceptance of a
set of norms established by people or groups which are influential to the individual. The process
starts with learning what the norms are, and then the individual goes through a process of
understanding why they are of value or why they make sense, until finally they accept the norm
as their own viewpoint.
Role models can also help. If someone we respect is seen to endorse a particular set of norms, we
are more likely to internalize those norms. This is called identification. In Freudian psychology,
internalization is one of the concepts of the psychological process of introjection, a psychological
defense mechanism.
In developmental psychology, internalization is the process through which social interactions
become part of the child’s mental functions, i.e., after having experienced an interaction with
another person the child subsequently experiences the same interaction within him/herself and
makes it a part of his/her understanding of interactions with others in general. As the child
experiences similar interactions over and over again, s/he slowly learns to understand and think
about them on higher, abstract levels. Lev Vygotsky suggested that mental functions, such as
concepts, language, voluntary attention and memory are cultural tools acquired through social
interactions[citation needed].

[edit] Economics
In Economics, internalization can refer to several concepts. "When you place an order to buy or
sell a stock, your broker has choices on where to execute your order. Instead of routing your
order to a market or market-makers for execution, your broker may fill the order from the firm's
own inventory -- this is called 'internalization.' In this way, your broker's firm may make money
on the "spread" – which is the difference between the purchase price and the sale price."[1]

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