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					 The Final Days of WWI
            and
The Paris Peace Conference

    “A War to End All Wars”
  “A Peace Built on Quicksand”
Final Days of WW I
 Russia’s withdrawal from the war due to
  second revolution, led by Vladimir Lenin
 Lenin signs The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk,
  ending the war between Germany and Russia
 The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, March 3,
  1918, is hard on Russia
    –   Russia surrenders land to Germany
    –   Includes areas now known as: Finland, Poland,
        Ukraine, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania
Final Days of WW I

   Germany’s fighting is now focused on one front
   German forces begin to crush their French
    opponents…within 40 miles of Paris
   German military weak, supplies & men exhausted
   Allies with fresh American troops launch a counter
    attack.
   July 1918 Second Battle of the Marne
   Allied troops and tanks, with 2 million more
    American troops
    Armistice
   Central Powers began to crumble
    1.   Bulgaria
    2.   Ottoman Turks
    3.   Austria-Hungary…revolution
    4.   German soldiers mutiny, Kaiser Wilhelm II loses
         support…steps down on November 9, 1918.
   An armistice is an agreement to stop fighting.
   Armistice Day:
    –    November 11, 1918
       World War I came to an end
Effects of War
   Dysentery
   “Shell Shock”
   Trench Foot
   Self-inflicted Wounds
   Suicide
   Over 10 million dead; over 20 million wounded
   People are angry and seek revenge
Paris Peace Conference:
Peace of Justice
 Held in Paris, France, in 1919
 Over 30 countries would send diplomats to
  negotiate the peace
 The leaders of Allied and Central Powers
  met at the Palace of Versailles
 President Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Points
  supported self-determination for all nations
  and a just peace
Peace of Vengeance
   Italy and Britain wanted territory

   France wanted to punish Germany

   Italy and the United States left, leaving
    peace settlement to France and Britain
Treaty of Versailles with Germany
     France and Britain created
      a severe treaty that
      punished Germany
     Germany had to:
     1.   Return Alsace-Lorraine
          region to France
     2.   Keep area near France,
          called Rhineland,
          demilitarized
     3.   Pay war reparations of 32
          billion dollars
     4.   Agree to “war guilt”
          clause
    A New World
   The League of Nations was created:
    –   Prevent war
    –   Collective security
    –   Disarmament
    –   Settle international disputes
    –   Predecessor to The United Nations
   Treaties similar to Germany’s signed with other
    Central Powers
   Many countries experienced a change in their
    borders
   Bulgaria, Germany, and Russia lost territory
   Hungary independent from Austria
   Many new countries were created
                          Before &
                           After




New countries were
created to match the
ethnic groups in Europe
A Peek into the Future
1.   The people of Germany are enraged by the reduction in
     the size of its army and its territory

2.   Italy received some land, but thought it should get more
     (the Mediterranean?)

3.   Japan received the Pacific island, but thought it should
     have gotten more (Racial equality & China?)

4.   All three would have expansionist ideas that will
     eventually lead to WWII

				
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