The Emphasis Principle

Document Sample
The Emphasis Principle Powered By Docstoc
					      “Rethinking the
   Teaching of Grammar”
            by Rei R. Noguchi
             The English Record,
         Vol. 52(2), 2002, pp. 22-26



The Emphasis Principle

 PowerPoint Presentation Created by Elizabeth M. Hanson
 Teaching Grammar,
     especially the
     “drill and kill”
  type of instruction,
    may not improve
the quality of grammar.
 Principles of Writing,
Not Rules of Grammar,
  should be stressed
    when teaching
  expository writing.
     Grammar rules
 have limited effects.
“Never  place a preposition
 at the end of a sentence.”
“Never use the passive
 voice.”
 Principles of Writing,
       however,
      hold true
in many situations.
The Emphasis Principle
       guides
     the entire
  writing process,
from start to finish.
The Emphasis Principle:
      A key idea
  is given emphasis
  by placing it at the
          end
    of a sentence.
Key Ideas are accentuated
1.Bill ate a ham sandwich
  yesterday for lunch.
2.For lunch, Bill ate a ham
  sandwich yesterday.
3.Yesterday for lunch, Bill
  ate a ham sandwich.
 The Emphasis Principle:
    When the key idea
    needs to be placed
at the end of a sentence,
    the passive voice is
        permissible.
Active versus Passive Voice
   The active voice is not
    always right.
   “Don’t write in the
    passive” can violate
    the Emphasis Principle.
Active versus Passive Voice
   CHOOSE THE BEST ANSWER:
    The audience wondered
     who would get the
     science award.
    a. Maria won it.
    b. It was won by Maria.
      Answer B is correct
b. It was won by Maria.
It refers to the science
 award, which is
 old information.
Maria refers to the winner,
 which is new information.
Prepositions and Emphasis
Pre  + position means
 “not last
 in the sentence.”

This   is the old Latin rule.
Prepositions and Emphasis
“Where  is he at?”
violates this Latin rule.

“Where is he?” seems to
solve the mystery.
 Prepositions and Emphasis
Yet,“Where is he?” can
 be vague or ambiguous.
“Where is he near?”

“Where is he behind?”

“Where is he next to?”
 The Emphasis Principle
is an overarching principle
   that:
(1) overrides Latin
   grammatical rules
(2) guides sentence
   formation
 The Emphasis Principle
(3) guides information in a
 paragraph
(4) guides the arrangement
 of paragraphs within an
 essay; and
 The Emphasis Principle
(5) ensures that the entire
 essay is driven by the
 correct placement of new
 information in the most
 salient positions so that
 the essay supports the
 thesis.
The Emphasis Principle
organizes paragraphs
    so the best idea
   is presented last
        to build
 an effective climax.
The Emphasis Principle
 organizes essays so
   the best idea is
  presented last to
 conclude the essay.
 The Emphasis Principle
is an integrative guide
 for arranging
 information, and
is a holistic explanation
 for the informational
 structure of an essay.
The Emphasis Principle
has more potential for
 improving the overall
    writing quality
   than any single
    grammar rule.
Most importantly,
        the
Emphasis Principle
  is teachable.

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:4
posted:4/1/2012
language:
pages:23