Future Areas of Research of agriculture by rkbazad

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Future Areas of Research of agriculture

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									Future Areas of Research of agriculture




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          5. Future Areas of Research of agriculture
        About 11 lakh hectares of land in Rajastan is affected with salinity and sodicity .
Farmers of the salt affected land to some extent use the recommendations given by the
scientists and are able to raise a reasonable good crop. However, these research
recommendations are not followed as such by the farmers as there may be some
constraints on the part of farmer or on the part of technology.              Most of the
technologies are specific but many a times they are generalized at extension level, thus
desired results are not obtained.

         There is a scarcity of good quality water in Northwestern Rajasthan but with the
introduction of sprinklers large number of wells are being dug in undulating lands and
farmers have been raising the crops. The EC of the water ranging between 2 to 6 dSm -1.
The farmers of the area is totally ignorant about irrigated agriculture in general and the
use of poor quality water in particular. Moreover, the technologies so far developed for
the use of poor quality water use relates mainly to flood system of irrigation whereas
there is tremendous increase in area under pressurized irrigation system particularly the
sprinklers.

        Due to extension of irrigation facilities the problematic area in IGNP is increasing
day by day. The major reasons for development of salt affected soils are the excessive
use of irrigation water, seepage from canal, presence of hard pan near the surface in the
soil profile, lack of proper drainage and presence of natural depressions at some
locations. The water table in IGNP command area is rising at alarming rate resulting into
water logging and development of soil salinity in the area. Large area in phase II of IGNP
command has hard pan very close to surface. If proper water management and
agronomic practices are not followed, this area will be converted into water logged/ salt
affected soils. So there is great need to conduct experiments for standardization of
practices, suitable for the area.

       Though lot of work has been done to solve most of the problems of soil and
water salinity, however, there is great scope for further work in Rajasthan on following

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areas.

S.No.    Areas of Research
 1.      Management of poor quality waters for drip and sprinkler irrigation of plants.
 2.      Effect of irrigation frequency and depth of irrigation with saline water on crops and soils.
 3.      Agronomic practices most suitable for salinity/alkali resistant non-conventional crops grown
         on gypsiferous / calcareous soils.
 4.      Integrated nutrient management for salt affected gypsiferous/ calcareous soils.
 5.      Studies on mineralization of added organic-N in salt affected soils.
 6.      Studies on reclamation of salt affected soils of IGNP area having high water table.
 7.      Rate of soil salinization under varying cropping sequences and water table conditions.
 8.      Standardization of rapid diagnostic criteria for identification of salt affected soils.
 9.      Standardization of methods for determining gypsum content in gypsiferous soils
 10.     Detailed studies on the effect of specific ions / ionic ratios on soil and plant
 11.     Investigations on salt balance studies in different cropping systems.
 12.     Identification of best cropping sequence for sustainable agriculture in salt affected soil of
         IGNP area
 13.     Indices for salinity/alkalinity/boron tolerance for crops.
 14.     Plant based reclamation approach based on molecular marker.
 15.     Screening of Horticultural crops for salinity and alkalinity tolerance.
 16.     Effect of forest trees on salt affected soil.
 17.     Conjunctive use of saline and good water for grain and forage production and afforestation
 18.     Performance of forest trees in water-logged salt affected soils or under irrigation with poor
         quality waters.
 19.     Drainage systems under different soil types in irrigation projects for controlling water table
         and soil salinity.
 20.     Use of drainage effluents for irrigation or growing fish in disposal ponds or for salt production
 21.     Reclamative capacities of different halophytes
 22.     Quality criteria for sewage water for irrigation.
 23.     Studies on socio-economic viability of reclamation of waterlogged soils at farmers field.
 24.     Development of regional hydro-salinity models.
 25.     Studies on management of Nitrate/fluoride rich waters for their profitable utilization.
 26.     Induction of salt resistence in different crops through soma-clonal techniques.
 27.     Development of regional hydro-salinity models. Studies on management of Nitrate/fluoride
         rich waters for their profitable utilization. Induction of salt resistence in different crops
         through soma-clonal techniques


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