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					 Thinkin
    g
Twice
Fast Cognition, Slow
Cognition, and the
Challenge of Critical
Thinking
Critical thinking in professional
contexts


     What is expert thinking?
        How does ‘expert error’
     happen?
            What moderates
     expert error?
A Tale of
  Three
Diagnoses
Vertigo



          Dr. Dark
          Dr. Hope
          Dr. Sage
Vertigo



          Dr. Dark
Vertigo



          Dr. Dark
          Dr. Hope
          Dr. Sage
Otoliths and the Epley
maneuver
Critical thinking in professional
contexts


     What is expert thinking?
        How does ‘expert error’
     happen?
            What moderates
     expert error?
 What is
 Expert
Thinking?
Expert thinking / Novice
thinking

              Pattern recognition
Pattern recognition?




                       Cognitive
                       crystallizati
                       on
Routine Expertise / Flexible
expertise
              Explore analogies with
               systems they understand
               better.
              Search for potential
               discrepancies in the
               analogy.
              Access intuitive mental
               models based on visual
               and kinesthetic intuition.
              Investigate the target
               system with extreme case
               arguments, pushing
               parameters to zero or
               infinity.
              Construct a simpler
Routine Expertise / Flexible
expertise
              Fast cognition / Slow
              cognition
                                Deliberate reasoning
Rapid pattern recognition
                                piecing together
and cognitive
                                outputs of fast
crystallization, quick
                                cognition and provoking
intuitive assembly of
                                further fast-cognition
interpretations
                                operations




    “Thinking twice” – a dual
    processing model
    Fast cognition / Slow
    cognition
 Black                    White
box (es)                   box




“Thinking twice – a dual processing
model
Dual processing in
action

                What to do? – Maybe
                this!
                Will it work? – Imagine
                it!
                Maybe not – What else
                to do?
                Recognition-Primed Decision Making
                (increasing elaborative
                processing)
Familiarity zones




Harvard Square

                 Union Square



                                Red Square
Familiarity zones
                 Fast cognition                    Slow cognition

                 Richly informed and highly        Doesn’t have to work very hard
We live here     responsive.                       to make interpretations.



                 Considerably less informative     Works harder to piece together
We visit here    but some resources.               a reasonable account.



                 Helpful only in a generic way,
                                                   Works very hard to get
We’re new here   ‘importing’ patterns from other
                                                   oriented.
                 settings
Summary
What is expert thinking?

     Expert thinking / Novice thinking
     Pattern recognition / Cognitive
     crystallization
     Routine expertise / Flexible
     expertise
     Fast cognition / Slow cognition
     Black box(es) / White box
     We live here / We visit here /
  How does
‘expert error’
   happen?
Insights / illusions of fast
cognition

                 A deliberate
                 cognitive illusion
Insights / illusions of fast
cognition

                 Natural cognitive
                 illusions
Insights / illusions of fast
cognition

                 Natural cognitive
                 illusions
Insights / illusions of fast
cognition

                 Natural cognitive
                 illusions
  A penny
  saved is
  worth
  more than
  a penny
  earned.
Insights / illusions of fast
cognition

                 Natural cognitive
                 illusions
  Survival
  rates
  versus
  morality
  rates
 Insights / illusions of fast
 cognition

   Sunk costs       Natural cognitive
                    illusions
Opportunity
costs
      Hindsight
      bias
Confirmation bias
Insights / illusions of fast
cognition

   The grand
   illusion
  The
  click
  of
  closur
    What
  moderates
‘expert error’?
Naïve expertise /
critical expertise
                     Thinking Twice!

                     Alert
                       Searching for
                       anomalies
                     Skeptical
                       Scanning for
                       evidential weaknesses
                       and counter evidence
                     Exploratory
                       Seeking alternative
                       interpretations
Abilities / Dispositions

                    Alert
                      Searching for
                      anomalies
                    Skeptical
                      Scanning for
                      evidential weaknesses
                      and counter evidence
                    Exploratory
                      Seeking alternative
                      interpretations
Abilities / Dispositions


                    Key finding
                    The moderating
                    function of the slow
                    mind tends to be
                    uncorrelated or
                    only weakly
                    correlated with
                    measures of
                    cognitive ability.
Familiarity zones
                 Fast cognition                    Slow cognition
                                                   Doesn’t have to work very hard
                 Richly informed and highly        to make interpretations. But
We live here     responsive.                       needs to stay awake and monitor
                                                   for mistakes.

                                                   Works harder to piece together
                 Considerably less informative     a reasonable account. But needs
We visit here    but some resources.               to watch out for the ‘at last’
                                                   effect.


                 Helpful only in a generic way,    Works very hard to get
We’re new here   ‘importing’ patterns from other   oriented. But needs to watch
                 settings                          out for grasping at straws.
Familiarity zones
                 Fast cognition                    Slow cognition
                                                   Doesn’t have to work very hard
                 Richly informed and highly        to make interpretations. But
We live here     responsive.                       needs to stay awake and monitor
                                                   for mistakes.

                                                   Works harder to piece together
                 Considerably less informative     a reasonable account. But needs
We visit here    but some resources.               to watch out for the ‘at last’
                                                   effect.


                 Helpful only in a generic way,    Works very hard to get
We’re new here   ‘importing’ patterns from other   oriented. But needs to watch
                 settings                          out for grasping at straws.



                                                   Functions deceptively, allowing
Elsewhere and    Functions deceptively, creating
                                                   you to construct an
don't know it.   an illusion of familiarity.
                                                   interpretation that is wildly off.
How does ‘expert error’
happen /
What moderates expert
error?
                  Insights / Illusions
                    of fast cognition
                   Naïve expertise /
                    Critical expertise
                   Abilities /
                    Dispositions
  Avoiding Dr.
     Dark
Some Morals for
   Learning
Particular morals

               Learn about
               troublesome cognitive
               illusions – framing
               effects, etc.
               Cultivate deliberate
               critical patterns – e.g.
               efforts to tell
               counterstories, ask
               ‘what if not’
               Foster reviews of
               thinking, as with the
               military ‘after action
               review’
The Big moral

        Slow cognition is not just
        for building up fast
        cognition.
        It has its own critical
        function that needs to be
        developed.
        Slow cognition is not just
        an ability, a bundle of skills
        and strategies.
        It is very much a
        disposition, a bundle of
        attitudes and alertness.
        Especially in its function of
        moderating expert error.
Think
Twice
!

				
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posted:4/1/2012
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