What is forensic science? -----Forensic science is the application of
science to those criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police
agencies in a criminal justice system.
Certain areas of chemistry, physics, and biology are useful for
determining the evidential value of crime-scene and related
evidence, omitting any references to the subject of medicine and
History and Development of Forensic Science:
Assignment-1: Read page # 3 to 9 from your text book, research online
and type the report on History and Development of Forensic
Science. Report should be at least 4-5 pages.
Services provided by crime Laboratories:
1. Physical science unit- Principles and techniques of chemistry,
physics and geology to the identification and comparison of crime-
2. Biology unit- Biologists and Biochemists apply their knowledge to
the identification and DNA profiling of dried blood stains and other
3. Firearms unit- The examination of firearms, discharged
bullets, cartridge cases, shotgun shells, and ammunition of all
types is conducted by the firearms unit.
4. Document Examination unit- The handwriting and typewriting
on questioned documents are studied.
5. Photography unit- A complete photographic laboratory is
maintained to examine and record physical evidence. Highly
specialized techniques such as digital imaging, infrared,
ultraviolet, and X-ray photography.
1. Toxicology unit- Body fluids and organs are examined by the
toxicology group to determine the presence or absence of
drugs and poison. Generally Intoxilyzer are used to determine
the alcoholic consumption of individual.
2. Latent fingerprint unit- The responsibility for processing and
examining evidence for latent fingerprints when they are
submitted in conjunction with other lab-examinations belong to
the latent fingerprint unit.
3. Polygraph unit – The polygraph, or lie detector is an essential
tool of the criminal investigation. Many police agencies
incorporated this unit into laboratory’s administrative structure.
4. Voiceprint Analysis Unit- In cases involving telephoned
threats or tape recorded messages, investigator may require the
skills of the voiceprint analysis unit to tie the voice to a particular
5. Evidence collection Unit- This unit dispatches specially
trained personnel; civilian and/or police to the crime scene to
collect and preserve physical evidence that will later be
processed at the crime laboratory.
Explain the functions of forensic scientist:
1. Analysis of physical evidence
2. Provision of Expert Testimony
3. Furnishing Training in the proper Recognition, Collection, and
Preservation of Physical Evidence
Describe other forensic services:
1. Forensic pathology; Autopsy, Rigor mortis, Liver mortis, Algor
2. Forensic Anthropology: It is a specialty that is concerned
primarily with the identification and examination of human skeletal
3. Forensic Entomology: The study of insects and their relation and
their relation to a criminal investigation.
4. Forensic Psychiatry: It is a specialized area in which the
relationship between human behavior and legal proceedings is
examined. They examine behavioral patterns of criminals as an aid
inn developing a suspect’s behavioral profile.
5. Forensic Odontology: Practitioners of forensic odontology provide
information about the identification of victims when the body is left
in an unrecognizable state. The characteristics of teeth, their
alignment, and overall stricture of the mouth provide individual
evidence for identifying a specific person. Also useful in bite mark
6. Forensic Engineering: Forensic engineers are concerned with
failure analysis, accidents reconstruction, and causes and origins of
fires or explosions. Forensic engineers answer questions such as
these; How did an accident or structural failure occur?