Forensic science by ert554898


									                    Forensic science
What is forensic science? -----Forensic science is the application of
     science to those criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police
     agencies in a criminal justice system.
Certain areas of chemistry, physics, and biology are useful for
     determining the evidential value of crime-scene and related
     evidence, omitting any references to the subject of medicine and
     the law.
History and Development of Forensic Science:
Assignment-1: Read page # 3 to 9 from your text book, research online
     and type the report on History and Development of Forensic
     Science. Report should be at least 4-5 pages.
Services provided by crime Laboratories:
1. Physical science unit- Principles and techniques of chemistry,
     physics and geology to the identification and comparison of crime-
     scene evidence.
2. Biology unit- Biologists and Biochemists apply their knowledge to
     the identification and DNA profiling of dried blood stains and other
     body fluids.
3.  Firearms unit- The examination of firearms, discharged
    bullets, cartridge cases, shotgun shells, and ammunition of all
    types is conducted by the firearms unit.
4. Document Examination unit- The handwriting and typewriting
    on questioned documents are studied.
5. Photography unit- A complete photographic laboratory is
    maintained to examine and record physical evidence. Highly
    specialized techniques such as digital imaging, infrared,
    ultraviolet, and X-ray photography.
Optional Services:
1. Toxicology unit- Body fluids and organs are examined by the
    toxicology group to determine the presence or absence of
    drugs and poison. Generally Intoxilyzer are used to determine
    the alcoholic consumption of individual.
2. Latent fingerprint unit- The responsibility for processing and
    examining evidence for latent fingerprints when they are
    submitted in conjunction with other lab-examinations belong to
    the latent fingerprint unit.
3.  Polygraph unit – The polygraph, or lie detector is an essential
    tool of the criminal investigation. Many police agencies
    incorporated this unit into laboratory’s administrative structure.
4. Voiceprint Analysis Unit- In cases involving telephoned
    threats or tape recorded messages, investigator may require the
    skills of the voiceprint analysis unit to tie the voice to a particular
5. Evidence collection Unit- This unit dispatches specially
    trained personnel; civilian and/or police to the crime scene to
    collect and preserve physical evidence that will later be
    processed at the crime laboratory.
Explain the functions of forensic scientist:
1. Analysis of physical evidence
2. Provision of Expert Testimony
3. Furnishing Training in the proper Recognition, Collection, and
    Preservation of Physical Evidence
Describe other forensic services:
1. Forensic pathology; Autopsy, Rigor mortis, Liver mortis, Algor
2.   Forensic Anthropology: It is a specialty that is concerned
     primarily with the identification and examination of human skeletal
3.   Forensic Entomology: The study of insects and their relation and
     their relation to a criminal investigation.
4.   Forensic Psychiatry: It is a specialized area in which the
     relationship between human behavior and legal proceedings is
     examined. They examine behavioral patterns of criminals as an aid
     inn developing a suspect’s behavioral profile.
5.   Forensic Odontology: Practitioners of forensic odontology provide
     information about the identification of victims when the body is left
     in an unrecognizable state. The characteristics of teeth, their
     alignment, and overall stricture of the mouth provide individual
     evidence for identifying a specific person. Also useful in bite mark
6.   Forensic Engineering: Forensic engineers are concerned with
     failure analysis, accidents reconstruction, and causes and origins of
     fires or explosions. Forensic engineers answer questions such as
     these; How did an accident or structural failure occur?

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