Psychological Assessment Psychological by ert554898

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									Psychological Assessment
      Spring 2011
  William P. Wattles, Ph. D.
  Francis Marion University


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• "When I die, I want to die like my
  grandfather who died peacefully in his
  sleep.
• Not screaming like all the passengers in his
  car."



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       Quantitative Reasoning
• Number Thinking
  – scale




                                3
             Human Behavior
• Individual differences
   – Predict
   – Understand
   – Change
• Example from 302
   – No 134, 150
   – Good gpa, work
     attitude

                              4
                 Psychology
• The science that deals
  with mental processes
  and behavior.




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        Welcome to Assessment
•   Valuable skill
•   Lots of work
•   Three texts
•   Quizzes
•   4-6 reports




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 What personal experiences have
  you had with generalities?
• Profiling     • Stereotypes




                                  8
                   Generalize
• The Academy of              • The American Civil
  Behavioral Profiling is a     Liberties Union today
  professional association      called on lawmakers to
  dedicated to the              investigate the actions
                                of air marshals who
  application of evidence       handcuffed and
  based criminal profiling      detained a 54-year-old
  techniques within             Florida doctor of Indian
  investigative and legal       descent because they
  venues.                       “didn’t like the way he
• http://www.profiling.org/     looked.”

                                                           9
                  Generalize
• a. To reduce to a
  general form, class, or
  law.
• To form a concept
  inductively.




                               10
 What constitutes psychological
         assessment?
How are we different
  from palm readers?
Tea leaf readers?




                                  11
                 Horoscope
• a prediction of
  someone's future
  based on the relative
  positions of the
  planets
• http://www.astrocrack.
  com/learn/astro-
  glossary/

                             12
            Clinical Judgment
• What are the
  implications of relying
  on clinical judgment
  vs. actuarial data?




                                13
       Perception vs. Sensation
• Sensation one to one
  relationship with
  stimulus
• Perception interprets
  sensation with historic
  and other information.




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          Is assessment useful?
• Pay for nothing.
  Shouldn’t we just
  treat?
• May not be useful
  unless it relates to the
  problem and is
  presented in a timely
  and useful manner.

                                  19
     Importance of assessment
• The theory and instruments of assessment
  are the foundation of clinical investigation,
  applied research and program evaluation.
• In the early 1700’s Linneaus described a
  case of aphasia so well that it could easily
  be diagnosed today.


                                                  20
 What constitutes psychological
         assessment?
• Careful Observation
  – trained to observe
  – inference based on experience and training
• Interview
• Testing
• History and other sources


                                                 21
            Role of the clinician
• Clinicians must integrate a wide range of
  data and bring into focus diverse areas of
  knowledge.
• Reports should be:
•   accurate
•   effective
•   concise
•   highly valued by the recipient

                                               22
      Assessment best practices
• Assessment is good only if:
  –   Competence
  –   Privacy
  –   Informed consent
  –   Appropriateness
  –   Feedback



                                  23
     Feedback and assessment
• What happens if we
  give feedback to
  patients?
• Do they give us
  feedback?




                               24
       Computer aspects of class
• First assignment send
  me an e-mail
• Psy631 on subject line
• Sign the e-mail
• Submit reports as Word
  files attached to e-mail



                                   25
               Three texts
• Assessment important
  and the texts are all
  references




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    Handbook of Psychological
          Assessment
• Reference book
• Instructional text
• Organized along the sequence followed
  when performing an evaluation--practical in
  nature.
• Goal: a realistic appreciation of the assets
  and limitations of assessment.

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               DSM-IV-TR
• Official nomenclature
• Designed first to be a helpful guide to
  clinical practice.
  – Brief
  – clear
  – explicit
• Also designed to further research and
  support teaching.
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              DSM-IV-TR
• Used by different practitioners:
  psychiatrists, other physicians,
  psychologists, social workers, nurses, OT
  and RT, counselors
• Used by clinicians and researchers with
  different orientations: behavioral,
  biological, psychodynamic, cognitive and
  family systems.
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             DSM-IV-TR
• The work of a hierarchical committee.
• Input from 60 organizations
• 13 work groups reported to 27 members of
  the task force.




                                             30
 MMPI-2 Assessing Personality
   and Psychopathology
• Textbook for graduate courses and also a
  reference guide for professionals.
• The guiding principle in the book is
  presenting the material in a way that
  enhances learning and clinical use of the
  most widely used personality inventory.


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 Evaluating Psychological Tests
• Mental Measurements yearbook
• Theoretical orientation
  – the construct being tested
• Practical considerations
  – cost
  – reading level, time to administer
  – training needed

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 Evaluating Psychological Tests
• Standardization
   – adequate norms
   – administration
• Reliability
• Validity
• If you choose the test it is unethical not to
  evaluate it.
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                 Reliability
• Measurement error is always present
• Goal of test instruction is to minimize
  measurement error
• Reliability is the extent to which the test
  measures consistently
• If the test is not reliable it cannot be valid or
  useful.

                                                  34
                   Reliability
•   Test-retest
•   Alternate form
•   split-half
•   interscorer reliability




                                 35
                  Validity
• Does the test measure what it purports to
  measure?
• More difficult to determine than reliability
• Generally involves inference




                                                 36
                 Validity
• Content validity-does it cover the entire
  construct?
• Face validity- does it appear to measure
  what it purports to measure. Not essential
• Criterion validity
  – concurrent
  – predictive
• Construct Validity
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    Validity in Clinical Practice
• Incremental Validity-what does this test
  add?
• Conceptual Validity-
• Collect data
• Form many hypotheses
• Look for consistent trends

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     Improving clinical accuracy
•   Use structured interviews
•   Consider disconfirming evidence
•   Use DSM-IV-TR specific criteria
•   Take notes
•   attend to base rates
•   seek feedback
•   read the literature
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    Phases in Clinical Assessment
•   Evaluating the referral question
•   Consider the content of the problem
•   Data collection
•   Interpreting the data




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                          Initial Data Collection
                                  Phase 1


                       Developoment of Inference
                               Phase 2


Reject Inferences          Modify Inferences           Accept Inferences
    Phase 3                    Phase 3                     Phase 3


                    Develop and Integrate Hypothesis
                               Phase 4


                       Dynamic Model of Person
                              Phase 5


                          Situational Variables
                                 Phase 6


                         Prediction of Behavior
                                Phase 7                              41
     DSM-IV-TR introduction
• We diagnose disorders not people
• a schizophrenic
• an individual with schizophrenia




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           mental disorder
• Not mere deviance




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             mental disorder
• A clinically significant behavioral or
  psychological syndrome that is associated
  with present distress or disability
  (impairment in social or occupational
  functioning) or with a significant risk of
  suffering death, pain, disability or important
  loss of freedom.
• Not culturally sanctioned (i.e. bereavement)
                                               44
   Classify disorders not people
• DSM-IV: What are being classified are
  disorders not people.




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          Enforcement push
• FBI
• Sampling of records
  – many lacked sufficient documentation of
    medical necessity
• If it isn’t documented it didn’t happen
• Practitioners should aim for meticulous
  compliance

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Type I and Type II errors




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               Type I error
• If we reject Ho when in fact Ho is true.




                                             48
              Type II Error
• If we fail to reject Ho when in fact Ho is
  false




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      Employee Polygraph
     Protection Act of 1988
• An employer … cannot, in any manner or for
  any reason, have an employee or prospective
  employee submit to a polygraph test
• The act does not apply to the federal
  government who may use the polygraph in
  the interests of national security for counter-
  intelligence purposes.

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The
End




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