Name(s) of Word Recognition Stage: Emergent Reader/Speller by 2Ocf6D

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									              Early Reader:     Pre K – Middle Grade 1


Name(s) of Word Recognition Stage:
Emergent/Prealphabetic/Prephonetic /Logographic
Assessments: PALS, Wright Group Phonological Awareness Assessment,
P.A.S.S.
Developmental and reading characteristics observed:
 Uses logographic cues – does not understand alphabetic principle.
 During this stage, develops aural phonological awareness-rhyming
   alliteration, segmenting/blending at sentence, syllable, onset-
   rime, phonemic level
 No connection between letters and sounds
 Aware that words not pictures represent “reading”
 Develops sense of left to right directionality
 Hear + identify sounds + patterns pretend reading/writing
 Visually identify letters + numbers as letters + numbers
Spelling/writing characteristics:
Stages: Scribble, letter-like forms, random letters, in late stage
maybe a correct sound out of order Example: V = elevator
Over this stage begin “writing” left to right.
No connection between sounds + symbols until very end of stage
Know difference between drawing + writing.
In late emergent stage may “use but confuse” consonant sounds
Core understandings and processes to master at this stage:
 Phonological Awareness—this is done orally (Rhyming, segment
   sentences into words, segment words into syllables, segment words
   into onset – rimes, segment words into sounds + blend sounds back
   into words.)
 Print awareness, directionality
 Hear differences in sounds at beginning and end of words
 Vocabulary + concept growth
 Concepts of print –understand terms “sentence, word, letter,
   number”
 By end of the stage know all letter names + sounds (consonant,
   short vowel sounds)
 By end of stage understand alphabetic principle; one-to-one letter
   sound correspondence
Language to explain and scaffold core processes and understandings:
Explicit instruction in rhyming, segmenting, print concepts, sounds
“Break word into parts” “Sounds like”
“Stretch out the sound”
“Rhyme means sounds the same at the end”
“/F-f-f/ is the sound at the beginning of fffoot”
“I’ll put the dog picture under /d/.
Logographic word identification: “look” is a word with two eyes in
the middle.
“Let’s pull a chip for each sound.”
“I see a word that starts with /b/. Listen for the /b/ sound.
Berry, bush, bear. Can you think of another word that starts with
this sound?”
Yes, _____ has # letters. Can you name the letters? (Late stage)
Explicit distinction between letter, word, sentence (reverse).
Instructional activities:
Big Books/sentence strips
Play with speech + language Ex: Jingles, poems, rhythm games, Hink –
Pink
Think alouds
Story retelling
Oral segmenting games with words, syllables, onset-rimes, Ex: “Be the
Sentence”
Alphabet activities
Picture sorts: Beginning and rhyming sounds
Move it + say it, Elkonin boxes without letters
“Journaling” “reading”
Daily News
Identify # of letters # of sounds in words
Language Experience Stories: Interactive, Shared reading + writing “
Share the Pen”
Humpty-Dumpty names
Movement to track syllable/segmentation
         substitution
         play with sounds
         segment/blend
Rich language/experience immersion
Characteristics of and possible adaptations for struggling readers:
 Lack of progress through stages
 Limited alphabetic principle knowledge
 Assess where reader is in this stage
 Offer consistent instruction + activities to address each core
   process in stage from most basic/simple to more complex.
 May need more explicit instruction, modeling, practice/repetition.
        For example, intense move-it, say it Example: Road to the
code (Blachman + Ball)
 One-on-one instruction
 Small group
 Resource teacher help
 Further diagnosis
Literature/reading material to support literacy at this stage:
Nursery rhymes                                         Big books
Rich vocabulary literature                           Simple
predictable books
Poetry, songs                                            Word play,
rhyming
Concept books                                           Children’s own
books
      Beginning Reader:       Kindergarten to mid–second grade

Name(s) of Word Recognition Stage:
Beginning /Phonetic (Partial Alphabetic)Reader/Letter Name Alphabetic
(Speller)
Assessments: *Dr. Seuss Words (other assessments broader), Power
Pattern, Names Test, TOWRE,
Developmental and reading characteristics observed:
Uses alphabetic principle              40-60 WPM
Recognizes letters/sounds              Low comprehension (because of
Word-by-word reading                   attention to decoding)
Read aloud to selves                   SOUND BY SOUND READING
Concept of word, sentence
Uses most prominent sound
Corresponding spelling/writing stage and characteristics:
Uses alphabetic principle
Letter names used to represent sounds (UR GRAT) at beginning
Semi phonetic, consonants at beginning
Middle – final consonants, common short vowels, some blends, digraphs
Late – same as middle, use but confuse some long vowels, pre
consonantal nasals
Uses beginning/most prominent sound at beginning of stage, represent
all sounds by end
Spelling – hold students responsible for sounds covered
Core understandings and processes to master at this stage:
Phoneme/grapheme correspondence        Can decode beginning + final
Words are chain of sounds-can segment consonants
+ blend                                Short vowels, blends, digraphs
Each syllable has vowel, vowels +      Preconsonantal nasals, lump
consonants                             VC CVC, CCVC, CCVCC patterns
Sight vocabulary (200)                 Full analysis of words for
Phonic generalizations through         accuracy
explicit instruction, word sorts,
modeling language
Closed/short vowel word families
Language to explain and scaffold core processes and understandings:
Stretch it out, blend back together    “one little vowel squished in
Does it make sense?                    the middle”
Do you see a part you know?            terminology consonants /
Think alouds – modeling                vowels
Explicit instruction                   “cut it off”
                                       count the sounds
Instructional activities:
-*Explicit instruction      -vocabulary building    -coupon sorter,
-rime family (pocket        Wide reading /          letter
charts)                     writing                 tray, tiles,
-making words               Dictation + reread      blocks,
-word sorts                 stories                 magnetic letters
-Elkonin boxes, Say-it      Group experience        Letter land™
Move It                     stories
-Word banks, See It, Say
It, spell It
Characteristics of and Possible adaptations for struggling readers:
Do not reach same benchmarks (core understandings) on master
processes
More intense, frequent, focused, individualized instruction with same
techniques
Literature/reading material to support literacy at this stage:
Alphabet Books (more complex         *Book levels for read alouds
concepts)                            should be 4 years above child’s
Rich vocabulary                      reading level
Decodable Text for guided /
independent reading
High frequency controlled readers
Predictable books for one-to-one
word correspond
     Transitional Reader:        Late First – Early Fourth Grade

Stages of Word Learning: Characteristics, Processes, and Instruction
Name(s) of Word Recognition Stage: Within Word Pattern Stage
(Confirmation & Fluency, Orthographic, consolidated Alphabetic,
Automatic Word Recogntion)
Assessments:   Previously named assessments plus Phonics Patterns
(Fry), El Paso Phonics Survey or Up-And-Out (Fry), 10 Minute Write
(Clay), Gentry Spelling, Bear Spelling Inventory, sight word lists,
San Diego Quick Assessment, Running Record, QRI-4
Developmental and reading characteristics observed:
    Reading more independently and more silently
    Phrase-by-phrase reading with greater expression
    Able to decode single syllable words with greater ease
Corresponding spelling/writing stage characteristics:
    Movement from letter-sound units into patterns or chunks (single
     syllable)
    Regular patterns are internalized (phonograms)
    Increased sight word recognition
    Writing speed increases significantly because less attentional
     resources are devoted to spelling and the physical act of forming
     letters
Core understanding and processes to master at this stage:
    Decoding for polysyllabic words
    More complex vowel study (in sequential order)
    Visual memory for orthographies
    Metacognitive strategies for self-checking
    Continued fluency with high-frequency words
Language to explain and scaffold core processes and understandings:
“If I can (read/spell) ___, then I can (read/spell) ___.”
(Cunningham)
“I see the beginning is gl- and the vowel pattern says –ad. Let’s put
that together. gl- ad. Glad.” (onset-rime manipulation) “What looks
‘right’?”
Instructional activities:
    discussion and response, small group instruction
    increased independent reading time
    reading aloud more complex books with opportunities to model
     fluency
    word study notebooks
    teach patterns over “rules” and exceptions “oddballs”
    more complex making words activities
    word sorts by sight and sound
    introduce “key words” or “helping hand words”
    “Give it a Try” invented spelling
Characteristics of and adaptations for delayed readers at this stage:
    still “use but confuse” (especially vowels) far longer than other
     students
    difficulty w/digraphs & blends, long vowel patterns
    small bank of sight words, “forget” previously learned sight
     words
    require systematic, sequential word study
    scaffold, model, & encourage
    use more closed sorts than open sorts (require more guidance)
    explicitly teach words for sorting (must be able to read the
     words)
    useful tools such as word banks, personal word walls, sound
     board, etc.
    repeated reading (Samuels)
Literature/reading material to support literacy at this stage:
    “leveled” materials
    longer patterned or predictable text, poems
    reader’s theater scripts
    chapter books and genre exposure
    informational text

								
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