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The Changa Pani Program is a pioneer program for the water and

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The Changa Pani Program is a pioneer program for the water and Powered By Docstoc
					                                                   Solution for Water

                                             BY MISS PHRA AKHTAR
Title

Integrated Water Supply and Sanitation Project Changa Pani Program

Contributor’s name

    1) Phra Akhtar project coordinator

738 Da Tanki no2 Ghulam Muhammad Abad Faisalabad

    2) Malik Nazir Ahmad Wattoo

Anjuman Samaji Behbood (ASB)
40-A, Main Bazar Dhuddiwala Faisalabad Punjab Pak

    3)   Urban Unit, WASA Lahore, ASB and UC 60



Name                           Designation                      Organization

Dr. Nasir Javed                Director                         Urban Unit

Manzoor Hussain Watto          President                        ASB

Waheed Gul                     President                        WASCO

Asghar Bhalli                  Director (Engineering)           WASA
Key contact institution

   1)  www.asb.org.pk
   2) Malik Nazir Ahmad Wattoo
Anjuman Samaji Behbood (ASB)
40-A, Main Bazar Dhuddiwala Faisalabad Punjab Pak

Contact number: 00923237441672

Solution type

Water Supply and Sanitation

Key words

Provide efficient, reliable, affordable and environmentally sustainable WATSAN system in poor Urban Area

Other categories

The federal and provincial Government has emphasized access to clean drinkable water,
provision of sanitation services of a minimum standard, community participation, and
integration of environmental aspect through the approval of relevant policies. The challenge remains in translating these polices at the
program level in cities with existing capacities of development agencies and service providers
Brief description

The Changa Pani means good water. The purpose is to design and implementation of integrated water supply and sanitation project for
poor unserved community. The project will provide efficient, reliable, affordable and environmentally sustainable . WATSAN system
in poor Urban Area of Badar Colony UC 60 Lahore. The Community is contributing 39% in the infrastructure and rest is being funded
by the Government of Punjab as an innovative project for policy learning and attainment of Millennium Development Goal. The
Changa Pani Program was designed to be based on the principles of the “Component Sharing Model”. It has three components,
namely, External, Internal, and Main System component. WASA designed the External and Internal components of the project; it was
responsible for the design, quality assurance and monitoring of these components, with the support of Urban Unit.1 According to the
model, Internal development refers to the community’s share of the job; the construction of toilets in houses, and pipe fitting for water
supply and sewage pipes from the houses to the main line, was completely funded by the community itself. The External Development
of Changa Pani was the responsibility of the Government. The Government of Punjab in the urban sector has endeavored to address
these issues by establishing the Urban Sector policy and Management Unit (the Urban Unit) in 2005 in the Planning and Development
Department. Simultaneously, affected individuals have taken it upon themselves to tackle the matter at a personal level by purchasing
drinking water or traveling to areas where water contamination is not as severe as in their own locality. On the other hand, if they fall
ill, they spend a significant portion of their earnings on treatment. All of which are temporary and expensive solutions. In light of the
magnitude of the problem there is a need to develop long term and cost effective solutions. A much wiser option would be to invest in
a permanent clean water supply and provision of a sewage system. In this context, Changa Pani Program was initiated as a strategic
initiative of the Government of Punjab, Pakistan in partnership with the local community, civil society and the water utility (Water &
Sanitation Agency (WASA)) in a peri-urban area of Lahore, UC 60. “Changa Pani” literally means “good/clean water” in Punjabi. The
purpose of the program was to learn from local and global initiatives, evaluate, develop and implement participatory planning
processes for an integrated water supply and sanitation system for deprived communities. CPP was initiated in view of the Chief
Minister’s directive for a water supply scheme in Badar colony UC-60 Lahore. The directive came to the Urban Unit which was
followed by a situational analysis of the area and the government took the lead in contextualizing and rolling out CPP with an urban
planning perspective for the public sector. The CPP model is based on the developmental philosophy of Dr. Hameed Khan's of Orangi
Pilot Project (OPP) which was adapted for the Punjab by Anjuman Samaji Behbood (ASB) with a focused goal of health promotion
and community mobilization. The program set itself apart from the rest by laying its foundations in collaborative the efforts and
utilizing community mobilization in an urban context to ensure its success2. It demanded strong community participation in laying
down the Water and Sewage System. In this manner, the Changa Pani programme aimed to solve the water and sanitation issue by
giving ownership to various stakeholders involved in Badar colony, Lahore.

Location

Punjab Pakistan
In UC 60, not boiling water or cooking food in the kitchen and storing food and water in proper place contributed to water related
diseases in adults and children. Doctors also agreed that most of the diseases were water borne along with allergies due to unhygienic
living conditions.3 Storage of food was unhygienic and demonstrated a lack of understanding of the need for safe and hygienic storage
and health issues associated with it which led to the increased risk of food contamination. Hussainy's (2007) survey revealed that 73%
of population did not boil drinking water before usage and only 5% was aware of the importance of boiling water. Babar, Anwar,
Khan and Hussain (2010) reported relatively better findings i.e. 35% of respondents consumed water. Respondents shared that the cost
of fuel/gas to boil the water was an extra burden on household expenses. The practice of cooking food in the community revealed that
the food was mostly cooked in the open (79% of households) and only 11% was cooked in the kitchen. This can be contributed to low
literacy rates, poverty and the fact that the majority of households do not have a kitchen. However, 20% store water in open container
which made the water prone to contamination. Consequently the food was vulnerable to environmental contamination and disease
transmission. Despite their unhygienic practices the attitude of the respondent about environmental cleanliness was positive as 68%
agreed that a clean house is related to good health and 63% related it to a healthy life Hussainy (2007). Hussainy (2007) reports that
respondents were aware of the benefits usage of toilets for good health, however, 21% felt that toilet is necessary but related to
affordability. The literacy and the exposure to the information and mobility are hindrance factors in the health and hygiene knowledge,
attitude and value development. In addition to education, access to information nodes are enabling and hindrance factors which shape
community behavior. In the absence of any formal community health program in the area the community relies on T.V. (53%) for the
information they receive. The other significant medium is family and friends (others 58%). Gender profiling of the respondent
suggests that the women have limited access to the information and exchange
Actors
Malik Nazeer Ahmed Watto initiated this project and he is also founder of Anjuman Samaji Bahbood (ASB) Faisalabad is a Civil
Society Organization (CSO) with considerable experience of working in low income communities for providing low cost sanitation
and water supply services. ASB, in partnership and help of Government, plans to make people self-reliant instead of dependent on
projects and has opened a way to build a sustainable, coordinated, and cohesive community, creating a sense of ownership. In the
context of Changa Pani, ASB brought with it its strengths in; participatory planning vital for the success of integrated water resources
and component sharing development project; technical support and help with sustainable development, and; its role as an activist in
the process of development. Malik Nazir Ahmad Wattoo initiated the programme what the contribution of local government,wasa and
local community.The responsibilities of ASB with regard to the Changa Pani Project included the facilitation of social mobilization
and capacity building of UC-60; mobilization of the community for Internal Component of water and sanitation; advice on mapping,
survey, data collection and documentation work for internal and external development; and support to UC 60 and community for
design, operation and maintenance of internal component.The steering committee was an institutional arrangement for the program.
The Terms of Reference for the steering committee included meeting on a regular basis for the planning and smooth execution of the
project. Specifically, the steering committee was involved in detailed design, decision making, and implementation arrangements
including conflict resolution for the project; MOU implementations; conflict resolution between the partners; and any other matters
related to the project and its scope. The steering committee consisted of:
     I. WASA – DMD (O &M)
    II. Urban Unit, P&D Department, Government of Punjab –Project Director
   III. UC 60 Lahore – UC Nazim
   IV. ASB – Coordinator Mr. Nazir Ahmed Wattoo
Managing Director of WASA, was later replaced by the Deputy Managing Director WASA. Urban Unit/WASA will act as a
secretariat for the Steering Committee. The Urban Unit will chair the steering committee.

STATE OF PROGRESS
" We will in the process of development, learn from each other and we will develop a model which IS sustainable, replicable in cities
of Punjab and other developing countries" to provide affordable Water and Sanitation services of good quality with partnership of
Community, WASA, Civil Society, Government of Punjab.

PROBLEM TO RESOLVE

Changa Pani Program was an initiative of the Government of Punjab through Urban Unit Planning and Development Department, in
partnership with City District Government Lahore, WASA Lahore ( Water utility) , and Anjuman Samaji Bahbood(ASB) a civil
society organization. The project aimed to provide efficient, reliable, affordable and an environmentally sustainable water and
sanitation system in Badar Colony, UC 60 Lahore.The Changa Pani Program (CPP), an initiative taken to improve the provision of
water and sanitation services to residents of a peri-urban center of Lahore, Punjab. The study will be a resource for developing
countries including; governments, academics and development practitioners, especially in the water and sanitation sector for
"initiating a policy to program approach for change and sustainable development4 The project has reached its completion and it is
essential to document the processes, successes and key challenges to feed into future initiatives in the sector. The overall policy
context and the development of CPP within it, is included in the discussion that follows in the next two sections of this study. The
learning in the process of designing and implementing the process of an innovative program with the government as a lead player
along with other key stakeholders is important and thus highlighted.

Added value and cost effectiveness

Changa Pani applied an integrated approach of water, sanitation and health. However, providing clean water was not the extent of the
benefit received from Changa Pani. Since the capacity of the community was built while implementing CPP, the WASCO office has
become a community center of sorts and a free dispensary has been established within the WASCO building. Besides this the
WASCO management has just inaugurated a vocational center for women. In addition, it regularly arranges co-curricular activities for
the community youth. It is pertinent to note that the management of WASCO undertakes fundraising activities for all projects aside for
water and sanitation service provision for which it acquired the funding from the community as a monthly fee. The residents of the
community indicate that the need for the dispensary to be open 24 hours and service provision enhanced. Furthermore a need for the
establishment of more dispensaries was also indicated because not many healthcare facilities were available in the region. Demands
for a local college and park for recreational activities are also coming to WASCO.5 Although WASCO is thriving currently, for it to
continue in this manner, it is essential that the democratic nature of the organization be maintained. Regular elections need to be held
so that certain groups or individuals do not develop a stronghold on leadership positions.




Strategy /monitoring The approach adopted to for the research was qualitative with the dual aim of documenting the processes,
challenges and successes during the program and to a lesser degree assessing the success of the program. The strength of qualitative
research is that it provides descriptions of how people experience a research issue.6

   1. Key Informant Interviews – of individuals who played key role from the design stage to completion.
   2. Focus Group Discussion (FGD) – of community members, to gauge extent of the impact of the project
In this context, Changa Pani Program was initiated as a strategic initiative of the Government of Punjab, Pakistan in partnership with
the local community, civil society and the water utility (Water & Sanitation Agency (WASA)) in a peri-urban area of Lahore, UC 60.
“Changa Pani” literally means “good/clean water” in Punjabi. The purpose of the program was to learn from local and global
initiatives, evaluate, develop and implement participatory planning processes for an integrated water supply and sanitation system for
deprived communities. CPP was initiated in view of the Chief Minister’s directive for a water supply scheme in Badar colony UC-60
Lahore. The directive came to the Urban Unit which was followed by a situational analysis of the area and the government took the
lead in contextualizing and rolling out CPP with an urban planning perspective for the public sector..7
The CPP model is based on the developmental philosophy of Dr. Hameed Khan's of Orangi Pilot Project (OPP) which was adapted for
the Punjab by Anjuman Samaji Behbood (ASB) with a focused goal of health promotion and community mobilization. The program
set itself apart from the rest by laying its foundations in collaborative the efforts and utilizing community mobilization in an urban
context to ensure its success
Implementation


Social Mobilization8
The major and strategic aspect of the Changa Pani programme was mobilization of the communities including the women, men and
the elderly; community awareness of health and hygiene education and financing of the internal component was undertaken. 9 It was
endeavored to use gender analysis to assess levels of participation of men and women in the planning process. 10
ASB was responsible for social mobilization of the community; with communities being mobilized on each lane or street. 11 Each street
formed its own water committee, and from each water committee a representative was selected to become a member of the Mohallla
committee. The Mohalla committee consisted of nominated president, secretary and treasurer. In the design Women Water Groups
were planned with 2 of each Women Water Groups members a part of the Mohalla committee, and the Changa Pani UC 60
Development committee. The Changa Pani UC 60 Development Committee was formed at the program level with the President of the
Mohalla committee a member.12
Capacity Building13
In the context of improving the current water and sanitation facilities and utilities in the area, a training workshop was conducted to
facilitate trainers and social mobilizers to create awareness among the people of the area UC 60. The workshop of field staff of
Changa Pani and WASA, Lahore, was jointly organized by Urban Unit, P&D Department, and ASB.
Health and Environmental Education14
Hussainy's research (2007) concludes there is an association between community health, environment and health behavior. The
gendered nature of health and hygiene issues identified in the survey conducted with UC 60's inhabitants clearly required a health and
hygiene strategy which addressed women, their low literacy and means of communication to make an intervention of water and
sanitation a success. International experience also suggested that the provision of water and sanitation will not improve community
health and well being. There is a need of health and hygiene programme as well as change of behavior of community for water use so
they can conserve it. Keeping in view the research findings and the need of the project Health and Hygiene and Environmental
conservation program were also included in the project.
Health and environmental education was undertaken in 18 public and private schools; these were selected based on project identified
indicators such as teacher's awareness about cleanliness, availability of clean drinking water, and toilet maintenance; and this was
assessed before the start of the initiative. The capacity building and sensitization for this education, was done by Behavioral Change
Educational Program for Health and Hygiene and Water Conservation, Gender Sensitive Community Mobilization and Environmental
Education and Education for Sustainable Development.15

Furthermore Environmental Education Framework was used to design the teaching and learning strategies in the 18 schools and
community. Environmental Education across-the curriculum, is an approach to learning, which helps individuals and groups to
understand the environment with the ultimate aim of developing caring and committed attitudes that will foster the desire and ability
to act responsibly in the environment; specific teaching aid was designed for schools as environmental education. 16 17
Teacher Training18
Teachers play an important role in information dissemination but health education is poorly integrated in the national curriculum and
textbooks and therefore a vital source of learning is loses impact in influencing behavior of the community. Therefore, the program
included a three day teacher training program, conducted at WASA Training Academy in July 2009. The training provided an
opportunity for teachers to reflect on their current practices and approaches regarding their community’s situation and incorporate the
environmental and health education in their teaching and learning.
During the workshop the teachers were exposed to group work, role play and use of reference material to use at their schools for
teaching children; hence they are now integrating health messages in their instruction and implementing Health Action Plans in their
schools.

Policy learning and research
As this project aims to be developed as a policy learning model the documentation of the process, capacity building of the staff and
WASA including partners are essential. This will help in the replication of the project in other parts of Punjab and elsewhere in
Pakistan.
The Urban Unit has established the international networking with the VSO, an international Volunteering Organization who will
provide an international volunteer to work on this project. The international volunteer will document the process as well as introduce
international best practices to the stakeholders.
International Networking is being established with the WSP- Pakistan who will facilitate the knowledge sharing for the best practice
of the urban water and sanitation project in the region. The learning also involves an exposure visit to OPP project Karachi of the
project staff, WASA and steering committee members.
Another networking is being established with Freshwater Action Network. This is a global network of environmental and
developmental Non-Governmental and Community Based Organizations working to strengthen civil society’ s participation in
international water policy formulation.
The Urban Unit and the University of London also plan to explore the possibility of a Masters Degree in Research on Environmental
communication, with a WSS specialist as a researcher; and also other research on water, health and hygiene and poverty.




Lesson to learn
A major challenge during program implementation was the lack of strategic planning.
“Our problem is strategic planning, we are weak in this area, we need to re design the strategies and only strategic planning will help
us to solve our problems.” Interview Dr. Nasir Javed, Program Director, he Urban Unit
One example of the lack of strategic planning is the challenges the program faced in the functioning of the steering committee.
During the life of the program MD also changed, the MD at the start of project implementation was proactive and attended Steering
Committee Meetings and actively followed up on decisions made. However, on his leaving the new MD took time in settling in
coming on board due to which he could not regularly attend the meetings. Had adequate provision been made from the planning phase
taking into account these realities the project impact could have been enhanced. “PC1 has a gap: the finances were not handled well,
as a result the funds dried up before the lanes were properly rebuilt after laying the sewerage.”Another issue that needs to be dealt
strategically is the release of funds from the finance department; the procedural challenges hamper the program finances. This was a
challenge for CPP despite the Leadership interest and support to the program.
A proper monitoring and evaluation system was also a need identified for the programs success.
“Proper monitoring and evaluation system should be part of the project”     Interview – Asghar Bhalli, Director (Engg.), WASA

Another issue which points to the need for enhanced strategic planning is the lack of installation of meters to date. The water and
sanitation system installed was to be done through proper metering the community; however WASA has still not initiated the
installation of meters.
“…have give money to WASA for the meters, but meters have not been installed …”            FGD Participant
If planned more carefully, the program would have the capacity to deal with unforeseen challenges such as low water pressure in the
water supply in addition to those mentioned above.
 “Proper planning for operation and maintenance is a major gap in the project; MOU should explain the roles and duties of each
stakeholder separately.”     Interview – Asghar Bhalli, Director (Engg.), WASA
Existing comments
The Changa Pani Program is a pioneer program for the water and sanitation in urban and peri-
urban areas of Pakistan. The program is based on the philosophy of the Orangi Pilot Project as
adopted by ASB in Faisalabad and it has been replicated and applied to UC 60 in Lahore. The
population of Badar Colony in UC 60 belongs to the low income group and the conditions prior
to the Changa Pani Program were poor. The health profile indicated significant waterborne
diseases and skin allergies in the community, especially in the young and elderly due to unsafe
and unclean drinking water and lack of sanitation. As a result of the deficiency of health and
hygiene education and the inaccessibility to healthcare services the practices of the community
were also unhealthy and unhygienic.
The Changa Pani Program is a partnership of WASA Lahore, ASB, Urban Unit, and the City
District Government. The program targeted Badar Colony with a sustainable community based
model for water and sanitation. Mobilization of the community was successful after leaders from
within the community were recruited as WASCO members. The project consisted of three
components: the external, internal, and main system component. Under the “Component Sharing
Model”, the external component and main component was under the supervision of WASA, as it
provided the technical support and was responsible for the design, quality assurance and
monitoring of these components, with the support of Urban Unit in the streets of UC 60; the
internal component that is the construction of toilets in houses, and pipe fitting for water supply
and sewage pipes from the houses to the main line, was the responsibility of the community
itself. The community financed the internal component itself.
After the establishment of a proper water and sanitation system and the completion of the
project, the conditions of the community considerably improved. This project presents an
opportunity for demonstrating methods for improving the urban water and sanitation services in
a sustainable manner within the current institutional limitations and in the light of the latest
National Sanitation Policy.
This study was undertaken to learn from the process of the implementation of the Changa Pani
Program to a larger extent and to a smaller extent its impact. It is important to note that Changa
Pani Program was an innovative project of the Government and therefore its documentation is
essential for learning from it. Furthermore, this study recommends that a baseline survey is
essential to access the program’s accurate impact.
The Changa Pani Program proved to be a successful intervention in terms of providing a
sustainable and effective model of water and sanitation provision. The success of the program
can be attributed to the effective mobilization of their community, its active participation and
ownership of the Changa Pani. The dedicated leadership of the respective partners as well as the
community leaders who ultimately became the WASCO team also played a very important role
in leading the program to success. The partnership model of the program led to capacity building
of all partners, especially WASA, by providing them with the opportunity to go through the
learning process from planning to completion.
Scaling up and replications of the program requires that bottlenecks and issues identified in this
and other studies be dealt through strategic planning for enhanced impact. The study finds that
roles and responsibilities of project partners were not clearly defined which at times caused
confusion in terms of work completion.
Appropriate and adequate documentation needs to be undertaken for policy learning.
Dissemination of best practices and learning from the program should also be appropriately done
for the Demonstration Effect

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