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EE 3317 Matlab Tutorial - Fall 09 1) What is Matlab? MATLAB is a technical computing environment for high-performance numeric computation and visualization. MATLAB integrates numerical analysis, matrix computation, signal processing, and graphics in an easy-to-use environment where problems and solutions are expressed just as they are written mathematically - without traditional programming. MATLAB is an interactive system whose basic data element is a matrix that does not require dimensioning. This allows you to solve many numerical problems in a fraction of the time it would take to write a program in a language such as Fortran, Basic, or C. MATLAB also features a family of application-specific solutions called toolboxes. Toolboxes are collections of MATLAB functions (M-files) that extend the MATLAB environment in order to solve particular classes of problems. 2) Getting help in Matlab MATLAB has an extensive help system built into it, containing detailed documentation and help information on all of the commands and functions of MATLAB. This help system is extremely useful for beginners to MATLAB, but even after becoming an expert at MATLAB, you will still use the help system to learn about other MATLAB functionalities that you have not yet used before. There are three main functions that you can use to obtain help on a given function: help helpwin doc or using the MATLAB help browser. 3) File Management Commands Type cd : show the present directory dir : show the files in the present directory cd dir: changes the directory. type filename: list all the contents of filename which filename: displays the path of file name. This can be very useful to know if a file is part of standard Matlab package what: list the .m files that are in directory who : list all variables in the workspace whos : list all variables in the workspace along with size in bytes, array dimensions, and object type clear : removes all variables from the workspace, it is very helpful to type it at the beginning of each M-file in order to clear the space every time you rerun the same program clear x: removes just the variable x. clc: clean the command window 4) Load and save data and results To load data, you need the data to be an ascii file, that does not contain any label or date, just columns of number. It is very easy if you have your data in an excel file, then cancel the column of the date and the first rows that usually just contains the name of the variables, and save them in txt format. Then to load the matrix of data, type: load specify path where data file is\ filename.txt; Example : load c:\Stefania\nonpar\return.txt; To save data or matrix of results, type: save path that specify where you want to save the file\ new filename matrix_name -ascii Example: save d:\Das\beta betaf -ascii; 5) Arithmetic operaters Operators are the usual: * : multiplication; / : division; +: addition; -: subtraction; ^: exponentiation ‘: transposition for non complex matrices Remember when you multiply two matrices A and B they must be dimensionally correct. It is often useful to perform operation element by element. To do this, we add a period before the operator: .* : multiply element-by-element ./ : divide element-by-element .^: Raise elements to powers Example to square each element of a matrix A, we have to use A.^2. 6) Matlab Punctuation % It denotes a comment line. To write comments inside the program that can be useful (to yourself or to other people who read the program) to keep track of what you are doing use: % at the beginning of the comment and % at the end of it. This allows the comment to be ignored and not to interfere with the commands of the program. , A comma tells Matlab to display the results. A blank space works in the same way. It also concatenates array element along a row. Example type: >> a=[1 2 3, 4 5 6] a= 1 2 3 4 5 6 the numbers have been concatenated in a unique row. ; A semi-colon suppresses printing the contents of the variable to the screen, for this reason it is very important to terminate each command with semi-colon. It also concatenates array elements along a column. Example type: >> A=[1 2 3; 4 5 6] A= 1 2 3 4 5 6 … Three periods denotes the continuation of a statement. If a command is too long and you want to continue typing in the line below, then use it. A = [ ... 16.0 3.0 2.0 13.0 5.0 10.0 11.0 8.0 9.0 6.0 7.0 12.0 4.0 15.0 14.0 1.0 ]; : The colon specifies a range of numbers. You will use it accessing elements of arrays. Example type: >>b=A(:,1) % using the A matrix defined above, it means that b will take ALL THE ROWS in A and the first column, i.e. b accesses the first column of matrix A%. b= 16 5 9 4 Instead if we type: >>c=A(1,:) % we select the first row and of course all columns% c= 16 3 2 13 . The period before an operator as we said before implies that we perform the corresponding operation on each element of the array. 7) Creating and Manipulating Matrices You can create matrices explicitly putting each row on a separate line A=[ 13 3 10 2 3*pi 9] or putting a semicolon between rows: A=[13 3 10; 2 3*pi 9] You can load matrices from a text file Special Matrices zeros: This builds arrays containing all 0’s. Example type: >> A=zeros(2,2) A= 0 0 0 0 ones: This builds arrays containing all 1’s. Example type: >> A=ones(2,2) A= 1 1 1 1 eye: This creates an identity matrix. Example type: >> A=eye(2,2) A= 1 0 0 1 magic: M = magic(n) returns an n-by-n matrix constructed from the integers 1 through n^2 with equal row and column sums. The order n must be a scalar greater than or equal to 3. >>magic(n) transpose: Return the nonconjugate transpose of an object >>transpose(A) ctranspose: Return the complex conjugate transpose of an object >>ctranspose(A) 8) Graph XY Plots Simple xy-plot, all the points are connected by lines: plot(xdata,ydata); Plot with control over the drawing parameters: plot(xdata,ydata,S) where S is a string (enclosed in single quotes) specifying the drawing format. Options include: y yellow . point m magenta o circle c cyan x x-mark r red + plus g green - solid b blue * star w white : dotted k black -. dashdot -- dashed For example, PLOT(X,Y,'c+') plots a cyan plus at each data point. To plot more than one set of data on the same set of axes, you can either do: plot(xdata1,ydata1,S1,xdata12,ydata2,S2,...) where the S parameters are still optional, or plot(xdata1,ydata1,S1) hold on (this prevents the next plot command from erasing the figure window) plot(xdata2,ydata2,S1) Titles and labels Titles: title('title_text') Labels: xlabel('label_text'); ylabel('label_text') Text at location x,y: text(x,y,'string') Text placed with mouse: gtext('string') 9) M-files Matlab Programs are saved in M-files. These are text files that contain Matlab commands, and they are saved with .m extension. Any text editor can be used to create them, but that one that comes with Matlab is recommended. When the .m files are executed, the commands are implemented as if you typed them directly!!!! An .m file can contain and call other .m files. For example in one .m file you have programmed the objective function that you want to minimize or maximize, and then in another .m file where you have loaded the data and write down the command to implement the optimization you can call the .m file that contains the objective function. To execute the .m simply type the name of the file at the command line. It is important to note that .m that contain function have a special syntax for the first line. function [out1,…outN] = func_name (inp1,….,inpN) Example: function f = kb4_gum(param) in this case I have only one output f and only one imput param. The function corresponding to the above syntax should be saved in a file called func_name.m. Hence in the above example, the file containing that first line has to be saved as kb4_gum.m. 10) Output form While all computations in MATLAB are performed in double precision, the format of the displayed output can be controlled by the following command. format short fixed point with 4 decimal places(the default) format long fixed point with 14 decimal places format short e scientific notation with 4 decimal places format long e scientific notation with 15 decimal places format hex hexadecimal format format bank dollars and cents format rat approximate integer ratio format + +,-,and blank 11) Workspace workspace displays the Workspace browser, a graphical user interface that allows you to view and manage the contents of the workspace in MATLAB. It provides a graphical representation of the whos display, and allows you to perform the equivalent of the clear, load, open, and save functions. The Workspace browser also displays and automatically updates statistical calculations for each variable, which you can choose to show or hide. 12) Useful function in solving #HW 1 residue ezplot dsolve References: Some useful link to check for Matlab: 1. http://www.engin.umich.edu/group/ctm/basic/basic.html 2. http://www.mathworks.com/academia/student_center/tutorials/launchpad.html (official site for Math Works) 3. http://www.math.ufl.edu/help/matlab-tutorial/matlab-tutorial.html 4. http://web.mit.edu/vchudnov/www/matlab.html Or books in UTA library: 5. Signals and systems [electronic resource] : with MATLAB applications / Steven T. Karris. 6. Getting started with MATLAB : a quick introduction for scientists and engineers / Rudra Pratap. 7. Elementary mathematical and computational tools for electrical and computer engineers using MATLAB [electronic resource] / Jamal T. Manassah.
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