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 Types:
  – Nomadism
      Pastoralnomadism/
       transhumance                          Y   Men

  – Migration
      Step                                            Women
      Chain

      Permanent/   Temporary
      Circular/ Return
      Seasonal                                   Z
  – Daily Activity Space                                   X
      Gender   differences
 X= Home   Y= Work    Z= Other Destination             Z
Why do people migrate?
 Push Factors                               Emigration and immigration
 Pull Factors
                                                Change in residence.
                                                Relative to origin and

 Major International Migration Patterns, Early 1990s
         Slide graphic courtesy of Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Hofstra University
    World Migration Routes Since 1700

African (slaves)

Majority of population descended from immigrants
                   Slide graphic courtesy of Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Hofstra University
        Historical migrations
 Out of Africa
 Jewish Diaspora
 Rise and Fall of Empires
 Waves across Europe
 Mongolian Conquests
 Spread of Islam
 European exploration and colonization
 Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
 Industrial Revolution migrations
 Rural- Urban migrations- currently the world’s
  largest migration stream
 Developing countries- developed countries
           Questions for discussion
 Do agricultural groups always dominate nomadic?
 Is settling the ‘natural course’ of development?
    – “There are numerous cases of nomadic societies conquering agricultural
      ones: the Hittites conquest of the ancient Middle East, the successive
      movements of Germanic people across Europe, the Aryan migration into
      India, the Seljuk Turks conquest of much of the Muslim world that began in
      the 11th century, and the vast Mongolian conquests of the 13th and 14th
 Why do some groups seem to be more mobile than
 How has transportation technology changed the
  migration experience?
 How has/ is globalization affecting migration?
  Other issues affecting Migration:
 Push and Pull factors
 Place Utility:
  – A particular area’s value, how the lifestyle there is
 Intervening   Opportunities:
  – Closer opportunities appear more attractive than
    further away
 Distance   Decay:
  – The further away something is, the less likely you
    are to have interaction with it
“Laws” of Migration: by E.G. Ravenstein
 Most migrants travel only a short distance.
 Migrants traveling long distances usually settle in
  urban areas.
 Most migration occurs in steps.

 Most migration is rural to urban.

 Each migration flow produces a movement in the
  opposite direction ("counterflow").
 Most migrants are adults.

 Most international migrants are young males, while
  more internal migrants are female.
  “The New Colossus” by
      Emma Lazarus
““Keep, ancient lands, your
  storied pomp!"” cries she
  With silent lips. “Give me
  your tired, your poor,
  Your huddled masses
  yearning to breathe free,
  The wretched refuse of your
  teeming shore.
  Send these, the homeless,
  tempest-tost to me,
  I lift my lamp beside the
  golden door!”
        The U.S. and immigration
   First migrants: ‘Native Americans’
    – New evidence points to multiple migrations- only one over the Bering
      Strait Land Bridge
   Then various exploring groups
    – Irish, Vikings, Phoenicians/ Carthaginians? Greeks and Romans?
           Lies My Teacher Told Me: James Loewen
   European explorers during the Renaissance
   English, Dutch, German follow
   Transatlantic slave trade
    – Largest forced migration in history
   Various waves of immigration follow: Northern Europe, the
    Irish, Southern and Eastern Europe, China, now Latin America
    – Each new group faced resentment from the already established ones
           NINA myth?
    – Concerns over union membership, job stealing, rising crime, etc.
always, that
all of us... are
-Franklin D.
            U.S. Immigration Policies
   1882, Bars Asian immigration for ten years (extended)
   1921, Quota Act - country by country quotas
   1924 National Origins Act - country by country quotas
   1965, Immigration Act - quotas for countries replaced,
    in 1968, with hemisphere quotas of 170, 000 for East
    and 120,000 for West
   1978, Immigration Act - global quota of 290, 000
   1980, Refugee Act - quotas do not apply to those
    seeking political asylum
   1986, Immigration Reform and Control Act admitted
    large numbers of former illegals.
   1990, Immigration Act raised global quotas to roughly
   1995, visas issued Preferentially:
          480,000 - to relatives of people here
          140,000 - to those with special skills and education
 Attributed to the LA Times, June 2002: Actually not.
   – 40% of all workers in L.A. County (pop. 10 million) are working
     for cash and not paying taxes. This was because they are
     predominantly illegal immigrants, working without a green card.
       Cash workers (including waiters) pay less in income tax, but they certainly
        are paying sales tax, property taxes, etc.
   – 95% of warrants for murder in Los Angeles are for illegal aliens.
       95%    of OUTSTANDING homicide warrants are for illegal, not the total
   – Over 2/3's of all births in Los Angeles County are to illegal alien
     Mexicans on Medi-Cal whose births were paid for by taxpayers.
       62.7%     of births list Hispanic as ethnicity- so all Hispanics = illegal?
   – Nearly 25% of all inmates in California detention centers are
     Mexican nationals here illegally.
       Actually,statistics say that 23% are deportable (including any foreign
        nationals, not just Mexicans)
   – Less than 2% of illegal aliens are picking our crops but 29% are
     on welfare. See...
       Illegal   aliens not eligible for welfare
   UNHCR:
    – A person who has a well-founded fear of being persecuted for
      reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a
      particular social group, or political opinion.”
   Characteristics of Refugees
    – Most move without any more tangible property than they can
      carry or transport with them.
    – Most take their first “step” on foot, by bicycle, wagon or open
    – Generally, they move without the official documents that
      accompany channeled migrations.
         H.J.   DeBlij: Human Geography: Culture Society and Space
   Can be either:
    – International or Intranational
    – Permanent or temporary

 Lesson   Ideas: Page 25, 26
 2008: essay question on domestic
  migration within U.S.
 2006: essay question on global migration
 2005: essay question on migration to U.S.
  over time
 2004: Essay question on urbanization
  included population pyramids
 2003: Essay question on Europe’s change
  from source of international migration to a
  destination (including use of DTM)
 First test given in 2001

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