Air Pollution II Air Pollution in Hong Kong by ert554898

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									            Air Pollution II:
      Air Pollution in Hong Kong
  1. Major sources of air pollution
     in Hong Kong
  2. Air Quality Objectives and
     Air Pollution Index (API)
  3. Indoor Air Quality Objectives

According to the World Health Organization, two-thirds
    of the 800,000 premature deaths caused by air
            pollution globally occur in Asia.
  Adapted from Time Magazine:
  Choking on Growth, Rapid economic development has led to filthy air. The good news:
  this is a mess that can be cleaned up
  BY BRYAN WALSH
1. Major sources of air
     pollution in Hong Kong
1. Power Station Emissions
2. Vehicle Emissions (fuel powered
     vehicles)
3.   Incinerator Emissions (from chemical
     waste treatment plant, hospitals,
     industrial buildings, cement factory)
4.   Chimney Emissions (food industry)
5.   Landfill Gas (from waste treatment
     landfill sites)
6.   Air conditioning emissions
                    Air Pollution

Green house Gas Emissions have not been reduced
due to the use of coal for electric power production.
           Major point sources of air pollution in
           Hong Kong: Power Plants and
           Chemical Waste Treatment Plant
Castle
Peak
Power
Stations          Tsing Yi Chemical
                  Waste Treatment
                  Plant




    Air Port
                               Lamma Island
                               Power Stations
Fish Farms in                    North
Mainland China

                                         Residential
                                         Area in Lamma
South                                    Island.


Lamma Island Power Station, Hong Kong Electric Co.
Ltd. Coal fired plants equipped with flue gas
desulphurization (removing 90% of SO2 emission), and
clean burners with low Nox.
Power Station Gas Clean Up

Selection of Power Plant Fuels
  Coal
  Diesel Oil
  Natural Gas
  Nuclear power
  Wind power!

CLP Castle Peak B Station has been using low NOx
Coal burner since 1991.
Solutions to reduce air
pollution from power stations
 Electroprecipitation
 New Burner (low NOx)

 FGD (flue gas desulphurization
    (removing 90% of SO2 emission)
   Restricted in South-western part of Hong Kong
   Develop nuclear power (Di Ya Bay Nuclear Power
    Plant)
   IMPROVE ENERGY EFFICIENCY, e.g. use energy
    saving devices!!
   Wind Power.
Major Sources: Power Station




                   Adapted from EPD, 1994.
Adapted from EPD, 1994.
Adapted from Hong Kong SAR Government (2006). Government’s
Environmental Policy for the Power Sector.
Renewable Energy for the future??




What can we do to reduce local production of air pollutants??
[1] Set targets for renewable energy utilization. One turbine
only equal to just less than 0.1% of power supply. Our
power consumption is greater than any normal European
country! [2] SAVE Energy could reduce pollution too.
 Air Pollution from diesel vehicles
Adapted from EPD, 1998.




          Tunnel Effects trap Air Pollutants between buildings
    Can lead to severe impact of vehicle emissions on health!
1. Lowered the limit of benzene
   content in petrol from 5% to
   1% in April, 2000.
2. ULSD (ultra low sulphur
   diesel introduced in July,
   2000.
3. LPG taxis to replace diesel
   taxis.
4. Particulate trap retrofitting
   program to reduce emissions.
5. Include emission test as part
   of the roadworthiness test for
   petrol vehicles.
         (Adapted from EPD, 2001.)
Adapted from “Improving the Air Quality in Hong Kong- A
Progress Report November 2005” by EPD,
Adapted     Particulate trap in
from EPD,   small diesel
2000.       vehicles, e.g. Taxis.




                       Catalytic converter in heavy
                       vehicles, e.g. light buses to
                       huge buses.
Adapted from EPD, 2000.
Mass Transit Railway to reduce pollution from vehicles?




         Adapted from a KCRC poster.
                          跨境污染
Adapted from EPD, 1999.
Cross Boundary Air Pollution is Serious!!
From Air Emissions (Power plants and Factories) in Guangdong Province
and vehicles in Hong Kong fueled by gases from mainland China




 Adapted from “Improving the Air Quality in Hong Kong- A
 Progress Report November 2005” by EPD,
Accumulated      Pollutant
Air pollutants   Sources

                 Mountains

                    Wind




                 East
                 Bound
                 Wind
Air Pollution Control Strategies Initiated by HKEPD

Enhanced Air Pollution Control Measures in Hong Kong

                Emission      Emission      Changes in   Reduction
                Level in      Level in      Emission     Target for
                1997 (tonnes) 2003 (tonnes) Level during 2010
                                            1997-2003

NOx             110 000         96 600         -12%            -20%
RSP             11 200          7 380          -34%            -55%
VOC             54 500          41 900         -23%            -55%

 Implement the following emission reduction measures with a view to fully
     achieving the emission reduction targets set by Hong Kong and
     Guangdong by 2010.
 1. tighten the motor petrol standard to Euro IV
 2. negotiate with power companies measures to further reduce
     emissions and increase the use of natural gas in electricity generation
 3. launched a consultation exercise in the last quarter of 2004 on a
     scheme to control VOC emissions from paints, printing and selected
     consumer products. .
2. Air Quality Objectives
 Odour
 Smoke, Dust, Coking Fumes, Paint, etc.
 Complaints about dark smoke emission,
 prosecution is not effective in my
 opinion
 Our air quality is getting worse and not
 only handicap our international image
 as financial centre, but also affect our
 health.
                    Air Pollution Monitoring Station: roof-top
                   design to reflect true air quality in the area
                                                      in general.
Adapted from EPD, 1999.
  General Considerations
  Concentrations per cubic
  meter
  Smaller particles go deeper
  into your lung
  Time of Exposure:
Sampling Duration (collected for
  how long)
Sampling Time (Diurnal Change)
  Location of sampling sites,
  height of sampling
  Computer extrapolation or
  estimation
  Review of objectives
Objectives for the following seven
substances:
 Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)
 Total suspended particulates (TSP)
 Respirable suspended particulates (RSP)
 Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)
 Carbon Monoxide (CO)
 Ozone (O3)
 Lead (Pb)

 Adapted from EPD, 1994.
Pollutant                             Health effects of pollutant at elevated ambient levels

                                      Respiratory illness; reduced 1ung function; morbidity and
SO2

           Adapted from EPD website
                                      mortality rates increase at higher levels.

                                      Respirable fraction has effects on health.
TSP
                                      Respiratory illness; reduced lung function; cancer risk for
RSP                                   certain particles; morbidity and mortality rates increase at
                                      higher levels.
                                      Respiratory irritation; increased susceptibility to
NO2                                   respiratory infection; lung development impairment.

                                      Impairment of co-ordination; deleterious to pregnant
CO                                    women and those with heart and circulatory conditions.

Photochemical                         Eye irritation; cough; reduced athletic performance;
Oxidant                               possible chromosome damage.
e.g. O3
                                      Affects cell and body processes; likely neuro-
                                      psychological effects, particularly in children; likely
Pb                                    effects on rates of incidence of heart attacks, strokes and
                                      hypertension.
AQO limits (permissible guidelines)
 SO2:
  1 hour: 800ug/m3 (<3 times per year)
  24 hour: 350ug/m3 (< 1 per year)
  Annual: 80 ug/m3
 TSP
  24 hour: 260ug/m3 (<1 per year)
  Annual: 80 ug/m3
 RSP (PM10, 10 micron particulate)
  24 hour: 180 ug/m3 (< 1 per year)
  Annual: 55 ug/m3
AQO limits
 NO2
  1 hour: 300 ug/m3 (<3 per year)
  24 hour: 150 ug/m3 (<1 per year)
  Annual: 80 ug/m3
 CO
  1 hour: 30,000 ug/m3 (< 3 per year)
  8 hour: 10,000 ug/m3 (<1 per year)
 O3
  1 hour: 240 ug/m3 (<3 per year)
 Lead: 3 months 1.5 ug/m3
                         Concentration in micrograms per cubic
                                       metre (i)
Pollutant                            Average Time

                         1 hr       8 hrs      24 hrs     3 mths       1 yr
                         (ii)       (iii)       (iii)      (iv)        (iv)
Sulphur Dioxide          800                   350                    80
TSP (v)                                        260                    80

RSP (v)                                        180                    55

Nitrogen Dioxide          300                  150                    80
Carbon Monoxide         30000      10000
Ozone (vi)                240

Lead                                                        1.5
(i)   Measured at 298K (25C) and 101.325 kPa (one atmosphere).
(ii) Not to be exceeded more than three times per year.
(iii) Not to be exceeded more than once per year.
(iv) Arithmetic means.
(v) Respirable suspended particulates means suspended particles in air with a
nominal aerodynamic diameter of 10 micrometres and smaller.
空氣污染監測站點 (Air Pollution Monitoring Stations)




                   Adapted from EPD website.
Adapted from EPD, 1998.
Maximum Annual Pollutant Concentrations
       and Objectives in 2006
   API and Concentrations of Pollutants (g/m3, except CO)
                        TSP         RSP       SO2       CO      O3     NO2
  API value            (24h)       (24h)     (24h)     (8h,    (1h)    (1h)
                                                      mg/m3)
                 500       1000     600      2620      27.5    1200    3750

                 400       875      500      2100       46     1000    3000

                 300       625      420      1600       34      800    2260

                 200       375      350       800       17      400    1130

              100(b)       260      180       350       10      240    300
AQO                                (150)     (365)             (235)
                                   50 (EU)
Annual AQO    50(b)        80        55       80         5      120     -
                                    (50)
                   0        0        0         0         0      0       -


   * (   )   v a l u e s     o f   A P I     i n    U . S .
Air Pollution Index
 How the API is calculated?
 Standards are outdated. E.g. PM2.5 is used in
 US as 65 mg/m3, or 35 mg/m3 in EU. They are
 considering to use PM1.
 What to do when the API exceeds 100? Hiding
 at home? Stop vehicle to run on the street?
 Just health warning?
 There are clinical evidence to show that air
 pollution caused higher emergency ward
 mortality.
 Geographic coverage of API: Road-side, Urban,
 New Development and Industrial. Each district
 want to have its own API !!
摘自明報

Potentially Toxic Emission (Dioxins, PCBs??)
from Waste Treatment Plant ???
?? Other incinerator in Hong Kong ??
        Toxic Chemicals in Local Air
汽油粒子物質           Diesel particulate matter   柴油車輛

丁二烯三             1, 3-Butadiene              汽油車輛、塑膠製造

苯                Benzene                     汽油車輛、油站、電力工程
                                             金屬工業、焚化爐、報紙印刷
六價鉻              Hexavalent chromium         電鍍工廠、油漆

鎘                Cadmium                     金屬工業、焚化爐
                                             醫療廢物焚化爐、電力工程
鎳                Nickel                      金屬工業、電力工程

全氯乙烯             Perchloroethylene           乾洗、成衣製造、修理汽車

甲醛               Formaldehyde                電力工程

乙烯基氯             Vinyl chloride              塑膠製造

2,3,7,8 – 四氯氧芴 2,3,7,8 –                     汽油車輛、金屬工業、焚化爐
               Tetrachlorodibenzofuran
鉛              Lead                          醫療廢物焚化爐、油漆、電力
                                             工程
4. Indoor Air Quality Objectives
 Air flow
 Bacteria
 Carbon monoxide and dioxide (CO and CO2)
 Formaldehyde (HCHO)
 Nitrogen dioxide
 Ozone (O3)
 Radon
 Relative humidity
 Respirable particulates (RSP)
 Toal volatile organic carbon (TVOC)
Results of 1995 survey
(data from Indoor Air Quality Consultation Paper, 1999).

   Investigated 40 offices and 38 public
   area from cinema, restaurants, to
   shopping malls.
   32% of these premises are sick
   buildings, 1/3 of people interviewed
   said that they were not satisfied with
   the air quality indoor.
   80% of restaurants, 60% of cinemas,
   and 37.5% of shopping malls had
   exceeded limits of carbon dioxide.
   Many detected with various
   chemicals such as ozone,
   formaldehyde, RSP, benzene,
   bacteria, etc, exceeded the limits or
   objectives proposed by EPD.
Proposed Indoor Air Quality Objectives
Parameters           Unit    8h averaged values (at 25C/101.325 kPa)
                               Class I      Class II       Class III
CO2                  ppm       < 800         < 1,000       < 5,000
CO                  g/m3     < 2,000       < 10,000       < 29,000
RSP                 g/m3       < 20          < 180           ---
NO2                 g/m3       < 40          < 150        < 5,600
O3                  g/m3       < 50          < 120         < 200
HCHO                g/m3       < 30          < 100         < 370
TVOC                g/m3      < 200          < 600           ---
Rn                  Bq/m3      < 150          < 200           ---
Bacteria            cfu/m3     < 500         < 1,000          ---
Temp                  C     20 – 25.5       < 25.5           ---
Relative humidity     %       40 – 70         < 70            ---
Air Flow             m/s        < 0.2         < 0.3           ---
REVISION EXERCISES
1. List chemicals included in calculation of API.
2. List chemicals included in indoor air objectives.
3. Discuss how API can help improving air
   quality in Hong Kong. What are the limitations
   of API.
4. Discuss possible health effects of air pollution
   in Hong Kong.
5. Review current air pollution problem in Hong
   Kong based on API data from last year, write
   a proposal to the Director of EPD to address
   these problem.

								
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