“Squirt Gun Botany” Fall Gardeni

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					    “Squirt Gun Botany”
   Pesticides & Gardening
  Master Gardener Seminar



Douglass E. Stevenson, Ph.D.
Extension Associate
Texas Cooperative Extension
    Chatmandu’s Common Sense Plant
              Care Cures

                              Have a Weight-Loss
                               Plan
   Provide a Good
    Home                      Avoid Overseasoning
   Prevention is Better      Wear Loose Clothing
    Than Cure                 Drink Plenty of
   Remember Your              Liquids
    Roots
                              Don’t Drink Too Much
   Provide Room to
    Grow
   Nature and Nurture
Dr. Treevorkian’s Rules for
    Squirt Gun Botany:

   If a little is good, then more is better.
   Spray for pay.
   One size fits all.
   Seen one label, seen ‘em all.
   There is something for
    everything.
        Assisted Herb-icide

Are you guilty of the seven deadly sins of
iatrogenicide?

     Poor Plant Selection
     Planting Too Deep
     Overmulching
     Overwatering
     Overfertilizing
     Overmowing
     Second Degree Girdling
     Nothing Controls Everything

Which one of these insecticides effectively
 controls all of the bugs commonly found
 in Ohio home landscapes:

A.   Carbaryl (e.g. Sevin)
B.   Malathion
C.   Chlorpyrifos (e.g. Dursban)
D.   None of the above.
Nothing Controls Everything

 “A picture of a dead bug on the
  label does not mean that the
        product killed it.”
Some Problems Have
   No Controls.

     “What do you sell your
 customers to control root rot of
            trees?”
Some Problems Have No
      Controls.

 “What pesticides do you
 sell for viral diseases?”
Some Problems Have No
      Controls.

“What insecticides do you
sell for shothole beetles on
         pine trees?”
Some Problems Have Iffy
      Controls.


“What sure-fire products do
you sell for repelling rabbits
   and other rodents?”
       The Label is History


“Do not apply to American Elm,
 Flowering Crabapple, Sugar Maple,
 Red Maple, Cottonwood, Redbud and
 Weigela as foliage injury may occur.”

             - Ortho’s Orthene Systemic
                        Insect Control
  Do Not Apply Products in a
          Vacuum.
“Do not seed or sod for four months
 following application. The crabgrass
 barrier prevents grass seed from
 sprouting.

              - Scott’s Crabgrass Preventer
                          Plus Lawn
 Fertilizer
        Timing is Everything.

When do fungal infections occur with
 these diseases?

A.   Black spot of roses.
B.   Cedar quince rust on hawthorn.
C.   Apple scab on crabapple.
D.   Diplodia (Sphaeropsis) tip blight of
           pine.
         The Label is Only the
              Beginning.
   Make sure diagnosis was correct.
   Share knowledge with peers in company
    training.
   Consult books and bulletins for their
    recommendations.
   Subscribe to the Buckeye
    Yard & Garden Line.
      Look for Results
      Not Just Products

“Our greatest chance for long-term
 success is for pesticide users to be
 successful gardeners.”

                  - Lisa Graf
                    Graf Growers Inc.
         Look for Results
        Not Just Products
Which is best?

 Fungicides to control apple scab on
  crabapple.
 Scab resistant crabapples.
     Truth or Fiction:

             T or F
     Fatty acid soaps are
recommended to control certain
            insects.
Insecticidal Soap Perspectives:
1. Fatty acid soaps can effectively suffocate
   insects.
2. Safer soaps and Ivory soap are fatty acid
   soaps.
3. One of the fatty acid soap isomers marketed
by
   Safer is insecticidal, and labeled as such.
4. One of the fatty acid soap isomers marketed
by
   Safer is herbicidal, and labeled as such.
5. Ivory soap is not labeled for use on plants.
     Truth or Fiction:

             T or F
 Labeled insecticidal soaps are
recommended to control certain
            insects.
  Truth or Fiction:

          T or F
Sevin is a good miticide.
 Truth or Fiction Facts:

A. There are many different
types
   of mites.
B. Sevin is ineffective in
   controlling spider mites.
C. Sevin is effective in
controlling
   certain eriophyid mites.
    Truth or Fiction:

           T or F
Sevin is a good miticide for
 eriophyid mites, but not
       spider mites.
   Truth or Fiction:

         T or F
Malathion is labeled as a
        miticide.
  Truth or Fiction:

         T or F
Malathion is an effective
        miticide.
   Truth or Fiction:

           T or F
Pruning paints should be
applied after pruning cuts.
     Truth or Fiction Facts:
A. OSU Extension once recommended
   paints to prevent insect invasion and
   decay.
B. Current research:
compartmentalization
   occurs best if oxygen is not
excluded.
C. OSU Extension currently does not
   recommend pruning paints.
       Truth or Fiction
              T or F

Pruning paints will never again be
recommended by OSU Extension.
        Truth or Fiction
               T or F

Ortho Rose Pride Orthonex Insect and
  Disease Control “gives systemic
  protection for up to two weeks.” -
            Product label.
     Truth or Fiction Facts:
A. The acephate (orthene) insecticide in
   Orthonex has such system action.
B. The fungicide (Triforine), though mildly
   systemic, does not.
C. The label in fact says: “Controls insect
   pests and prevents insect
reinfestation
   for up to two weeks. Also controls
rose
   black spot, rust and powdery mildew.”
   (7-10 day intervals, used as protective)
       Truth or Fiction

             T or F

You should always read the entire
      label of a pesticide.
Truth or Fiction

      T or F

All ideas are equal.
Some quotes from USA Today,
      August 23, 1999
The Article: “Experts Muddy ‘Master
Gardener,’ ” about ‘America’s Master
      Gardener, Jerry Baker.
  “Most of the criticism has
come from people with vested
     interests, who are the
  traditional experts.” - Alan
  Foster, VP for fundraising,
              PBS.
   “The redwood trees grew just fine
  before we had garden centers and
  people with academic certificates. I
can’t worry about the competition . . .
They do their thing and I do mine. I do
it sincerely and I get hugs and kisses
 from people when I’m done.” - Jerry
                 Baker
  “Baker is a successful
    fundraiser and his
appearances illustrate the
network’s diversity.” - Alan
          Foster
  “To kill suckers growing on trees,
 Baker recommends using ‘any good
  weed killer’ with dish soap, vinegar
    and gin. Although the last three
   ingredients are irrevelant, many
   herbicides, including the popular
  Roundup, could harm or even kill a
tree, experts say.” - Dennis Couchon,
               USA Today
    “After pruning flowering trees, Baker
recommends sealing the wounds with latex
     pain, antiseptic mouthwash and an
 insecticide such as Sevin or Dursban. Jim
 Chatfield, a landscape specialist with Ohio
   State says the use of such insecticides
 without regard to the type of tree or insect
               is irresponsible.”
        -Dennis Couchon, USA Today

(Both of the last two examples came from a Jerry
 Baker gardening calendar and was cited in the
       original ‘Buckeye’ article in 1966.)
 “The California Environmental Protection
Agency wrote KVIE-TV, the PBS affiliate in
    Sacremento, a two-page letter in 1996
     criticizing Baker’s advice to mix them
  (home-brewed pesticides) in bottles and
 cans usually used for food. ‘It is not only
   illegal under state and federal law to do
this, it is also highly dangerous.’” - Dennis
               Couchon, USA Today
"A station affiliated with Ohio State
 should be using and airing good
 horticultural information, not the
 misinformation that Baker pours
     out," says Jane Martin, an
extension agent in Franklin County,
  home of Ohio State. "Every time
 he's on, we get flooded with calls
asking for Jerry Baker recipes, and
  we have to say, 'Well, that's not
 such a good idea.' " - USA Today
 (Regarding Jerry Baker’s product line):
“…rather than the mix of beer, ammonia,
         baby shampoo or molasses
  recommended on TV as an ‘all-season
green up tonic,’ his fertilizers contain the
  typical blends of nitrogen, phosphates
and potash found at every garden center.
   . . The company’s top-selling item is
 Jerry Baker’s dog and cat repellent: ‘my
      unique formula’ as his catalogue
       describes it. Actually it’s methyl
 nonylketone, the same ingredient found
     in other dog repellents …the only
  difference is price.”- Dennis Couchon,
                 USA Today
   “There is no other door to
knowledge than the door Nature
  opens; and there is no truth
except the truths we discover in
   Nature.” - Luther Burbank
     Ten-Step Program for Healthy
                Plants
   Provide a good           Avoid
    home                      overseasoning
   Preventive medicine      Have a weight-loss
   Remember your             plan
    roots                    Wear loose clothing
   Provide room to          Don’t drink too
    grow                      much
   Nature and nurture       Drink plenty
                               of fluids
      Provide a good home

(Select the right plant for the site.)
     Preventive medicine

(Select trees with good genetic
 pest and disease resistance.)
     Remember your roots

 (Do not raise or lower soil levels
  around trees when planting or
doing construction around trees.)
     Provide room to grow

(Provide adequate room for future
root development when planting.)
       Nature and nurture

 (Plant in sites with proper soil
pH and other soil characteristics
         for the species.)
    Avoid overseasoning

(Do not overfertilize; protect
sensitive species from road
           salts.)
   Have a weight-loss plan

(Always prune with a purpose
          in mind.)
     Wear loose clothing

(Remove girdling wires, twines
     and rubber hoses.)
   Don’t drink too much

(Plant in well-drained soils;
    avoid overwatering.)
 Drink plenty of fluids

(Avoid underwatering.)
 Which of the following are
   acid-loving plants?

A. River birch
B. Pin oak
C. Red maple
D. Pachysandra
E. Rhododendron and other
   ericaceous plants
F. All of the above
“The true voyage of discovery lies
not in finding new landscapes, but
        in having new eyes.”

                - Marcel Proust
Choose the best pesticide.
         Selecting a Pesticide

   Labeled for the pest

   Produces desired level of control

   Minimal disruption to the environment
Phytotoxicity
         Selecting a Pesticide

   Not phytotoxic
   Compatible with plant management
    strategies
     “Friendly”   to beneficials

   Acceptable to the public, customers
     Complex    issue
Many pesticide choices.
      Classifications of
         Pesticides
Classification   Targeted Pest
•Insecticide     Insects
•Acaricide       Mites, ticks
•Miticide        Mites
•Fungicide       Fungi
•Bactericide     Bacteria
Classifications of Pesticides
 Classification   Targeted Pest
 •Herbicide       Weeds
 •Aquacide        Aquatic weeds
 •Molluscicide    Snails and slugs
 •Rodenticide     Mice, rats, rodents
             Signal Word

 Toxicity   Categories
                     “Danger” =
  Danger    (I)     most toxic
  Warning    (II)
  Caution   (III)
  Caution   (IV)
Select “caution” pesticides
when possible and avoid
RUP’s!
      Pesticide Mode of Action

   Broad spectrum
   Residual pesticide
   Protectant
   Systemic
   Contact
   Pesticides
    are
    manufacture
    d in many
    formulations.
   PESTICIDE
 FORMULATIONS
 Applying Pesticides Correctly-EPA
Core Manual-Unit 3 (formulations)
       Pesticide Formulations

   Formulation
     Application   method
     Risk   when handling
     Riskof moving off
     target
     Advantages

     Disadvantages
Application
equipment
should reflect
the target
plant, pest,
and pesticide
formulation.
     Some
pesticides
        are
 formulate
       d as
injections.
      PESTICIDE FORMULATIONS

   Pesticides are usually formulated prior to
    use
     Consist     of:
        Active  ingredient
        Inert ingredient



     Makeit safer, more effective, easier to
      measure, mix, apply, convenient to handle
      PESTICIDE FORMULATIONS

   Manufactured as technical grade then
    formulated

   Formulation is the form sold for use

   Sold as a brand name
         LIQUID FORMULATIONS
    EMULSIFIABLE CONCENTRATES (EC or E)
   Consists of:
     Activeingredient (AI) insoluble in water
     Solvent
             - usually poor (acetone & alcohols)
        Polar

        Nonpolar - usually good (xylene & kerosene)
                   EMULSIFIABLE
   Emulsifiers CONCENTRATES (Con't)
        Allow the formulation to be mixed with water to form an emulsion (oil in
         water)




   Each gallon of EC may contain 25 to 75% AI (2 to 8 lbs)
   Used under a wide range of conditions
          EMULSIFIABLE
       CONCENTRATES (Con't)
   Advantages
     Easy   to handle, transport & store
     Little agitation required
     Not abrasive
     Will not plug screens or nozzles
     Little visible residue on treated surfaces
          EMULSIFIABLE
       CONCENTRATES (Con't)
   Disadvantages
     Easy  to over or under dose
     May cause unwanted harm to plants
     Easily absorbed through skin
     Cause rubber & plastic to deteriorate
     Harm painted surfaces
     Flammable
     Corrosive
     LIQUID FORMULATIONS
               SOLUTIONS

 Dissolve readily in a liquid solvent such as
  water or petroleum-based solvent
 Will not settle out or separate
 Contain AI, solvent and one or more other
  ingredients
 Used in most sprayers, indoors or
  outdoors
        SOLUTIONS (Con't)
         READY-TO-USE (RTU)

 Contain correct amount of solvent
 No further dilution required
 Usually contain small amounts of AI (1%
  or less)
            SOLUTIONS (Con't)
         CONCENTRATE SOLUTIONS (C or LC)

   Concentrates that require dilution with solvent
   Solvent is occasionally water, more often it is
    petroleum-based
   Some uses of solutions
     Structural& institutional pest control
     Household pests
     Livestock & poultry pests
     Space sprays in barns and warehouses
     Tree pests
     Mosquito control
             SOLUTIONS (Con't)
      CONCENTRATE SOLUTIONS (C or LC)

   Advantages
     No   agitation required


   Disadvantages
     Limited   number of formulations available
       LIQUID FORMULATIONS
           ULTRA-LOW-VOLUME (ULV)

 Approach 100% AI
 Use as is or with small amounts of water
  (1/2 gal or less)
 Used mostly in outdoor applications
     Agricultural
     Forestry
     Ornamental
     Mosquito
     ULTRA-LOW-VOLUME (ULV)
             (Con't)
   Advantages
     Easy   to handle, transport & store
     Little agitation required
     Not abrasive
     Will not clog screens or nozzles
     Little visible residue on treated surfaces



   Disadvantages
     High drift hazard
     Need special application equipment
     Solvents can deteriorate rubber and plastic
     LIQUID FORMULATIONS
           FLOWABLES (F or L)

 Are insoluble solids
 Finely ground AI mixed with a liquid plus
  inert ingredient to form a suspension
 Mixed with water for application
     FLOWABLES (F or L) (Con't)

   Advantages
     Seldom  clog nozzles
     Easy to handle and apply



   Disadvantages
     Require moderate agitation
     May leave a visible residue
     May separate
     May cake in container or sprayer
       LIQUID FORMULATIONS
                 AEROSOLS (A)

 Contain one or more AI and a solvent
 Usually contain a low percentage of AI
 Two types
     Ready-to-use
     Smoke   or fog generators
      AEROSOLS (A) (Con't)
      READY-TO-USE AEROSOLS

 Small, self-contained units
 Release pesticide when nozzle valve is
  triggered
 Commercial models hold 5 to 10 lbs and
  are refillable
          AEROSOLS (A) (Con't)
        READY-TO-USE AEROSOLS (Con't)

   Advantages
     Ready  to use
     Easily stored
     Convenient
     Long shelf life



   Disadvantages
     Limited  uses
     Inhalation risk
     Container is under pressure
     Drift
        AEROSOLS (A) (Con't)
      SMOKE OR FOG GENERATORS
 Machines break the liquid into a fine mist
  or fog
 Use a rapidly whirling disk or heated
  surface
 Used mainly for insect control in:
     Greenhouses
     Warehouses
     Outdoor   control of mosquitoes and biting flies
          AEROSOLS (A) (Con't)
       SMOKE OR FOG GENERATORS
   Advantages
     Easy  to fill large, enclosed spaces with pesticide
     Pesticide is not under pressure



   Disadvantages
     Requires    specialized equipment
     Drift
     May     require respiratory protection when applying
        LIQUID FORMULATIONS
               INVERT EMULSIONS
   Water soluble pesticide dispersed in an oil carrier




   Form large droplets which reduce drift
   Used in vegetation control along rights-of-ways
   Require special equipment, expensive, reduced
    coverage
           DRY FORMULATIONS
                      DUSTS (D)
   Most are ready-to-use
   Most contain low amounts of AI (0.5 to 10%)
   Also contain a very fine dry inert carrier (talc,
    chalk, clay etc.)
   Used to control pests:
     Inag applications
     On livestock and pets
     Seed treatment
     Flowers & vegetable gardens
           DRY FORMULATIONS
                  DUSTS (D) (con’t)
   Advantages
     No  mixing
     Can use where a spray may cause damage
     Use simple equipment
     Effective in hard-to-reach indoor areas



   Disadvantages
     Drift
     May irritate skin, eyes, nose, throat
     Poor adhesion to surfaces
     Poor distribution of particles on surfaces
         DRY FORMULATIONS
                        BAITS (B)
 AI mixed with food or other pest attractant
 Pests killed by eating pesticide
  contaminated bait
 AI is usually low (<5%)
 Used inside to control:
     ants,   roaches, flies, other insects, rodents
   Used outside to control:
     snails,   slugs, insects, vertebrate pests
         DRY FORMULATIONS
                BAITS (B) (con’t)

   Advantages
     Ready  to use
     Only need to treat small area
     Controls pests that move in and out of an area
         DRY FORMULATIONS
                BAITS (B) (con’t)

   Disadvantages
     May  be attractive to pets and children
     May kill non-target animals
     Pest may not eat bait
     Dead pest may cause odor problems
     Secondary poisoning of non-target animals
     Can serve as pest food supply if AI becomes
      ineffective
         DRY FORMULATIONS
                   GRANULES (G)
 Similar to dust formulations, larger &
  heavier
 Made from adsorptive materials
     Clay,   corn cobs, walnut shells
 AI coats outside of granule or is absorbed
 AI is usually low (1 to 20%)
 Usually applied to soil to control weeds,
  nematodes, & insects
         DRY FORMULATIONS
              GRANULES (G) (con’t)

   Advantages
     Ready  to use
     Low drift hazard
     Penetrate dense foliage
     Usually requires simple application equipment
     *Usually the safest formulation to handle
         DRY FORMULATIONS
             GRANULES (G) (con’t)

   Disadvantages
         not stick to target (may move with rain)
     Will
     May need to incorporate into soil
     May need moisture to activate

      May be hazardous to birds
        DRY FORMULATIONS
             PELLETS (P or PS)

 Similar to granular formulations
 All are same size and weight
 Some fumigants are pellets
     Aluminum   phosphide
       DRY FORMULATIONS
          WETTABLE POWDERS
 (WP or W) Dry, finely ground look like
  dusts
 Usually mixed with water
 Applied as a spray
 5 to 95% AI
 Do not dissolve in water
 Will settle out unless constant agitation is
  used
         DRY FORMULATIONS
        WETTABLE POWDERS (con’t)

   Advantages
     Easy  to store, transport & handle
     Less phytotoxic than EC
     Less skin & eye absorption
     Less odor
     Method of applying insoluble pesticides as a
      spray
         DRY FORMULATIONS
        WETTABLE POWDERS (con’t)

   Disadvantages
     Inhalationhazard while mixing
     Requires constant agitation
     Often clog nozzles and screens
     Abrasive
     May be difficult to mix and measure
     May leave white deposit on surfaces
       DRY FORMULATIONS
    SOLUBLE POWDERS (SP or WSP)

 Look like WP
 Require initial agitation
 Dissolve easily
 Form a true solution in water
 AI ranges from 15 to 95%
 Have all advantages of WP
 Inhalation hazard while mixing
         DRY FORMULATIONS
    WATER-DISPERSIBLE GRANULES (WDG) or DRY
                FLOWABLES (DF)


 Are like WP
 AI is prepared as granule-sized particle
 Must be mixed with water
 Require constant agitation
 Same advantages & disadvantages as WP
 More easily measured & mixed than WP
 Cause less inhalation hazard than WP
     OTHER FORMULATIONS
     MICROENCAPSULATED PESTICIDES (M)

 May be liquid or dry surrounded by plastic
  coating
 Mixed with water & applied as a spray
 Capsule slowly releases pesticide
 Provides a timed release of pesticide
       OTHER FORMULATIONS
        MICROENCAPSULATED PESTICIDES (M) (con’t)


   Advantages
     Increased applicator safety
     Easy to mix, handle & apply
     Timed release


   Disadvantages
     Require constant agitation
     Bees take capsules back to hive
     OTHER FORMULATIONS
              FUMIGANTS

 Form poisonous gas when applied
 Some are liquid under pressure, change to
  gas when released
 Some are liquid & change to gas when
  exposed to air
 Some are solid & change to gas when
  exposed to water or high humidity
       OTHER FORMULATIONS
                FUMIGANTS (con’t)
   Advantages
     Toxic to wide range of pests
     Penetrate cracks, wood, soil, grain
     Single treatment kills most pests



   Disadvantages
     Sitemust be enclosed or covered
     Highly toxic
     Require special safety & application equipment
             ADJUVANTS

 Added to formulations to increase
  effectiveness
 Include: surfactants, wetting agents,
  emulsifiers, spreaders, stickers,
  penetrants, safeners, etc.
Application Equipment
Types of Spray Equipment



      Hand sprayer



                      Knapsack (LOK)
              Battery powered
      Pesticide Application
           Equipment


   Manual sprayers
     Compressed      air sprayers
       Pressuredrop off, settling, limited
       pressure & volume
     Backpack     sprayers
     Wick   applicators
       “Targeted”   application
      Pesticide Application
           Equipment


   Power Sprayers
     Rotary (disk) nozzle sprayers
     Mist blowers
       Light   weight, less water, drift?
Power Sprayers
      Pesticide Application
           Equipment


   Power Sprayers
     Smallpower sprayers
     Hydraulic sprayers
       Widelyused for ornamentals, variable
       pressure, volume, drift?
          Low pressure hydraulic



          High pressure

            ULV




Chemigation or injection
All Sprayers Should Be:

 Durable
 Convenient  to fill
 Convenient to operate
 Easy to clean
    Pesticide Application Tree
      Injection Equipment


   Injection and implantation
     Possible      tree injury
     Cost

     Limited      materials
     No   drift
     Reduced injury to non-target
      organisms
To Enhance Safety and
Benefits and to Get the Most
From Any Sprayer:
 Select  the right equipment.
 Set it up correctly.
 Use proper operation procedures.
 Perform proper maintenance.
Reference Materials

 The   pesticide label

 Spray   equipment

 Extension   guidelines
Three Basic Functions of a
Sprayer:
 Distribution


 Metering


 Storage   and transport
Three Functions of a Nozzle

 Metering


 Atomization


 Pattern   dispersal
Flow Rate is Dependent On:

 Nozzle   size

 Pressure


 Fluid   Characteristics
            Components

 Tank - mostly plastic, size varies
 Pump - various
 Filter - 50 or 100 mesh
 Nozzles - flat fan, cone, flood
 Regulator - regulate pressure
              Tanks


 Fiberglass
 Stainlesssteel
 Galvanized steel
 Aluminum
 Polyethylene
Pumps Must Provide

    Gallons per minute (GPM)
     required by all nozzles

    Tank agitation (6% of tank
     volume)

    Twenty percent (20%) reserve for
     wear
           Backpack or Hand

   Pumping action
    from moving a
    flexible diaphragm

   Fairly resistant,
    moderately priced
                 Roller Pump

   Widely used
   Cheap, effective,
    and flexible
   Rolling action of
    rollers force liquid
    through outlet
                Gear Pump

   Used on early
    sprayers
   Wear easily
   Cannot be repaired
            Centrifugal Pump

   Good for abrasive
    materials
   Not self-priming
   High capacity
              Piston Pump

   Positive
    displacement
   Low output
   Expensive
   Good for WP
                Nozzles

 Flat fan - herbicides
 Cone - insecticide, fungicide
 Floods - herbicide, fertilizer
 Sizes - 01, 02, 03 or 3, 5, 10
 Angles (fan) - 80, 110
        Nozzle Materials

 Ceramic
 Hardened  stainless steel
 Stainless steel
 Nylon
 Brass
 Nozzles: Wear vs Cost


  Nozzle   Life in   Cost per
   Type    Hours      Hour
Brass       100      $0.013
Nylon       400      $0.003
SS          500      $0.008
HSS        1500      $0.001
Ceramic    2000      $0.0005
                    Flat fan

   Broadcast
   Tapered edges
   Must overlap
               Even flat fan

   Rectangular pattern
   Banding
   Ex: 8002E
   More Flat Fans

Flat fan - extended range




 Twin flat fan - good for
 dense foliage

     Flooding flat fan
                    Cones

   Circular pattern
   Smaller particles
   Good foliage
    penetration
               Flood nozzles

   Fertilizer and
    herbicide
   Large droplet
               Multi-pattern

   Hand-held
   Select pattern by
    turning nozzle body
             Strainers

 Tank   opening (16-20 mesh)

 In-line   (20-50 mesh)

 Nozzle    screen (none - 100
 mesh)
              Hoses
 Correct size
 Flexible (non-collapsible if
  suction hose)
 Durable
 Resistant (sunlight, oil,
  chemicals, abrasion, twisting)
 Sufficient Pressure Rating
          ULV or Mist Blowers

   Use a fan or whirling
    disc
   Low volume
   Save time and labor
   Calibration critical
   Concentrated
    pesticide
                 Spreaders

   Drop spreader
   Uniform pattern
   Low drift
                  Spreaders

   Centrifugal or rotary
    spreader
   Wider swath
   Non-uniform pattern
Drift
     Why Minimize Drift?
To Avoid:
 Spotty pest control
 Wasted chemicals
 Off-target damage
 Environmental impact
 Public concerns
 Problems in
  populated areas
Factors that Affect Droplet Size
         Spray
          pressure
         Spray angle
         Nozzle type
         Orifice size
   To enlarge droplet size:


 Operate  at lower end of
  recommended pressure range
 Use nozzles with larger orifice
 Use special nozzles to reduce
  the portion of small droplets
 Environmental Conditions
Best conditions occur early or late in
  day:
 wind more likely in 3-to-10 mph
  range
 temperature is lower
 relative humidity is higher
 WARNING:     watch for
 inversions
               Maintenance

   Cleaning: hoses,
    nozzles, pumps,
    tanks, and hoppers
   Clean with water
    and/or detergent
   Use soft brush on
    nozzles
          Cleaning agents

 Insecticides/fungicides - powder
  detergent - agitate, flush and rinse
 Hormone herbicides (salt or amine) -
  ammonia or washing soda- agitate,
  flush, let stand overnight, flush and
  rinse
 Other herbicides - powder detergent -
  agitate, flush and rinse
Suggested Calibration Tools


  Measuring tape(s) - 100 ft tape
   and yardstick
  A watch capable of measuring
   seconds - stopwatch works best
  Measuring container marked in
   ounces - one quart works for
   most applications
        Ground Speed


 Linear   relationship

 Doubling   speed cuts rate in
 half

        speed in half
 Cutting
 doubles rate
To Increase Rate:

 Slow down
 Use larger nozzle
 Increase pressure
 Decrease nozzle spacing
To Decrease Rate:

 Speed  up
 Use smaller nozzle
 Decrease pressure
 Increase nozzle spacing
Spray Application Techniques



   Select correct equipment
   Adjust nozzles, pressure, etc.
   Apply to where pests are located
   Obtain thorough coverage
         Spray Application Tips

   Do NOT spray into or with the wind
   Use larger droplets in windy conditions
   Thoroughly coat treatment area
   For tall trees:
     Use thin stream at top, changing to fan at bottom,
      apply from inside out, top to bottom
   Protect people, pets, wildlife, homes, etc.
    Pesticide Record Keeping

 Name of applicator
 Address of application
 Name and concentration of pesticide
 Amount of pesticide
 Target pest
 Method and rate of application
Pesticide Record Keeping
     Keep records for at least one
     year on general use pesticide
     applications. Keep RUP records
     for three years. Check with
     MDA for current regulations.
The Pesticide Label
     The Pesticide Label
    What You Need To Ask!
The right chemical for the job?
  Correct conditions for safe
            application?
 Will it control the target pest?
     The Pesticide Label
    What You Need To Ask!
 Do I have the proper
 protective equipment
 (PPE)?
 How much should I use?
  Questions the label doesn’t
      answer directly...
 What does all of this
 information really mean?
 Why    should I really care?
     a legal document
 It’s
 Misuse could cause various
  problems
        Why should I really care?
 The   label is a legal document
 Applying a pesticide in a manner
  inconsistent with the label is illegal
 “I didn’t know it said that”
    not a good defense if you misuse a
    pesticide
It is a violation of Federal
law to use this pesticide in
a manner inconsistent with
its labeling.
                   Common
   I’m an          excuses
experienced
applicator…          for not
                    reading
                   the label

                      I’ve used
   I’m too busy…    this product
                     for years…
Labels Change!
                       I’ve used
                     this product
                      for years…
Re-registration
of products under
the Food Quality Protection
Act (FQPA)
   Problems caused by not
reading and following the label

 Crop  loss
 Fish kills
 Near fatal exposures
 Fatal exposures
 Fire and explosions
Use Classification Statement


 Two   types of classification
        Restricted
          Use



                     General Use
Use Classification Statement


 Restricted   Use:
     For sale to, and for use only by,
      certified applicators or
      applicators under the direct
      supervision of a certified
      applicator
          Net Contents


 Frontpanel of labels shows
 how much product is in
 container
 Liquidformulations may list
 the pounds of active
 ingredient per gallon of
 product
   Ingredient Statement


 Active   Ingredients:

 Inert   Ingredients:
Ingredient Statement
    Ingredient Statement


Inert Ingredients
  Listed as total percentage
  in the product
   Ingredient Statement


Active Ingredients

  The part of the product that
  actually controls the pest(s)
  Ingredient Statement

 Active   Ingredient:
 Each    active ingredient must
   be listed by individual
   percentage
    Active Ingredients


 Many active ingredients are
 given a common name

 Onlycommon names
 accepted by the EPA may be
 used on the label
     Active Ingredients


         common name is
 Official
 usually followed by the
 chemical name in the list of
 active ingredients
        Trade, Brand,
      or Product Names
 Companies  register trade
  names as a trademark
 The same active ingredient
  may be sold under different
  trade names
  Trade or Brand Names
Be careful, some products with:
Different brand names may have
   the same active ingredients
Example: Metsulfuron methyl is
   the active ingredient in:
   Ally   Escort    Cimarron
  Does this mean that I
  can substitute these
products for each other ?

  Only if the label
       allows!
  Does this mean that I
  can substitute these
products for each other ?
 Only if the label allows:
  Poison Hemlock in non-
        crop areas?
       Only Escort
     Can I substitute these
   products for each other to
    control aquatic weeds ?
Same active ingredient: Glyphosate
Same active ingredient: ??
      Glyphosate
     Same active ingredient
         Glyphosate



Environmental Hazards:
Do not apply directly water,
Do not apply directly toto water, or areas where
surface water is present, or intertidal areas
below the mean high water mark. Do not
contaminate water when cleaning equipment or
disposing of equipment wash water.
          Trade, Brand,
        or Product Names
 Brand   Name can often include:
 The percent of active ingredient
  incorporated into the product
  name
 Type of pesticide
   The following pesticide
applications are considered off
label and therefore are illegal:
  Applying above the highest
  dose rate
  Applying more frequently than
  the label allows
  Applying without using PPE
  Applying to a site that is not on
   the label
          Signal Words


 The word on the label that
 tells the potential hazards of
 the product
    Danger Poison
     w/ skull & Crossbones
  Danger
  Warning
  Caution
        Signal Words


 DANGER-POISON
 with a skull and crossbones
 symbol
  Peligro  (Spanish for “danger”
    must also appear on the label)
 Indicates the product is highly
  toxic by any route of entry
      Signal Words


 DANGER
 Indicates that the product has
  a high potential to irritate skin
  and eyes
      Signal Words


 WARNING
 Product    is moderately toxic
 Can also cause slight eye or
  skin
  irritation
      Signal Words


 CAUTION
 Harmful   if swallowed or
  inhaled
 May irritate eyes, nose, throat,
  and skin
       EPA Registration Number


 Ifa product contains an active
  ingredient on EPA’s 25B list, no
  EPA registration number is
  required
 25B list contains 31 active
  ingredients that are “non-toxic”
      i.e., Mint oil, dried blood, citronella
 EPA Establishment Number


     where that product was
 Tells
 made
  Importantif it is ever
   necessary to recall the product
 Includes   abbreviation of state
 of origin
   Emergency Number


Contact number in the event
 of human exposure, spill,
 accident, or environmental
 exposure
Emergency Number

    New national
poison center number
Personal Protective Equipment

   Tells applicators what Personal Protective
    Equipment (PPE) should be worn to
    minimize exposure
   Often different for different tasks
    Precautionary Statements

 Other precautions that should be
  followed when handling the product
 Common sense practices to
  minimize exposure to applicators,
  the environment and others who may
  come in contact with the treated area
User Safety Recommendations:
Users should wash hands before eating,
drinking, chewing gum, using tobacco or
using the toilet
Users should remove clothing immediately if
pesticide gets inside.
Then wash thoroughly and put on clean
clothing.
Users should remove PPE immediately after
handling this product. Wash the outside of
gloves before removing. As soon as
possible, wash thoroughly and change into
clean clothing.
        Chemical Hazards

 Combustible
    Do not store near heat or open
     flame.
 Highly corrosive
 Oxidizer
        Chemical Hazards

 Incompatibilities
  Do not mix, store, or apply this
   product or spray solutions of this
   product in galvanized steel or
   unlined steel (except stainless
   steel)
    Storage and Disposal
                           O
Storage: Store above 10 F
    o
(12 C) to keep product from
crystallizing. Crystals will settle to
the bottom. If allowed to
crystallize, place in a warm room
    o        o
(68 F or 20 C) for several days to
allow crystals to redissolve, then
shake before using.
    Directions for Use


 Guidelines   for use of the
  product
 What pests it will control
 What crops it can be used on
    Directions for Use


 Annual  Maximum Rate
 Precautions and restrictions
 Mixing instructions
 Calibration
 Worker Protection Standards
           (WPS)
Within the Agricultural Use
Requirements box you will find
  Restricted entry
  interval (REI)
  Early entry PPE
  requirements
  Worker notification
Agricultural Use Requirements
Use this product in accordance with its labeling and with
the Worker Protection Standard, 40 CFR part 170.

This standard contains requirements for the protection of
agricultural workers on farms, forests, nurseries, and
greenhouses, and handlers of agricultural pesticides. It
contains requirements for training, decontamination,
notification and emergency assistance. It also contains
specific instructions and exceptions pertaining to the
statements of this label about personal protective
equipment and restricted entry interval. The requirements
in this box only apply to uses of this product that are
covered by the Worker Protection Standard.
Agricultural Use Requirements
Do not enter or allow worker entry into treated areas
during the restricted-entry interval (REI) of 4 hours.

PPE required for early entry to treated areas that is
permitted under the Worker Protection Standard and that
involves contact with anything that has been treated,
such as plants, soil, or water, is: coveralls, chemical
resistant gloves Category A, shoes plus socks.

Notify workers of the application by warning them orally
and by posting warning signs at entrances to treated
areas.
Trade Name




             Review
Ingredient
Statement




             Review
WPS




      Review
EPA Reg.
   and
 Est. No.



            Review
           Review
  Net
Contents
    Signal Word




Review
   Emergency
      Info.




Review
     Storage
       and
     Disposal



Review
Pesticide Applications
PROTECTING YOU AND
 THE ENVIRONMENT
I. Pesticide Mixing and
Loading Sites
II. PPE - Personal Protective
Equipment
III. Pesticide Container
Disposal
I. MIXING AND LOADING SITES

   HAZARDS TO CONSIDER
  •Water Contamination
  •Drains
  •Backflow Protection
  •Mix on site
DO NOT Mix or Load Next
     To or Above:

•Wells
•Creeks
•Ponds
•Water Sources
  When Mixing, Loading, or
Cleaning Pesticide Equipment
    Over or Near Drains:

   KNOW WHERE THE DRAIN
         EMPTIES!
Proper Mixing and Loading Area
 Use Backflow Protection



•Air Gap
•Backflow Preventer
II. PPE - Personal Protective
          Equipment

 •Need for PPE
 •Knowing How to Use PPE
PPE Protects You From Exposure
 When Working With Pesticides

      TYPES OF EXPOSURE
     •Inhalation
     •Oral
     •Dermal
     •Ocular
      Personal Protective Equipment
                  (PPE)
   Label specific
   May include:
     • gloves
     • boots or shoe covers
     • coveralls
     • hood or wide-brimmed hat
     • apron
     • protective eyewear
     • respirator
   Review The Label For PPE
         Information
If Label Does Not Refer To PPE Use a
   Minimum of Protection Such As:
   •Long Sleeve Shirt
   •Long Pants
   •Shoes and Socks
   •Chemical Resistant Gloves
   PROPER STORAGE AND
MAINTENANCE OF PPE SHOULD
         INCLUDE
•NEVER Store With Pesticides
•Respirator and Respirator Cartridges should
be Stored Separately
•Clean Respirator after Each Use
•Clothes Used While Applying Pesticides
Should be Washed Separately From Other
Laundry
 III. Proper Pesticide Container
             Disposal

•Dispose of Pesticide Containers In a
Manner Which Will Not Contaminate Any
Aspect of the Environment
•Pesticide Labels Have Specific
Instructions on Proper Disposal
Procedures
 Proper Disposal of Pesticide
    Containers Includes:
•Triple Rinsing or Pressure Rinsing
•Offer for Recycling Where Available
•If Not…. Puncture and Place In Landfill
Steps for Proper Triple Rinsing

•Let Container Drain or Drip Into Spray Tank
For At Least 30 Seconds
•Fill Container 1/3 Full of Water
•Replace Cap On Container and Rotate or
Shake to Rinse ALL Sides
•Drain Rinse Mixture From Container Into
Spray Tank
•Repeat Steps 2-4 Twice More Before
Disposal of Pesticide Container
Steps for Correct Pressure Rinsing

  •Let Container Drain or Drip Into Spray
  Tank For At Least 30 Seconds
  •Insert Tip of P/N Through Side of
  Pesticide Container Near Base
  •Spray Inside Container for 30 Seconds
  While Holding Over Tank
  •Drain all Rinse Water from Container into
  Spray Tank
Offer For Recycling
 IF YOUR COUNTY DOES NOT
OFFER PESTICIDE CONTAINER
    RECYCLING, CONSULT
 FEDERAL, STATE, OR LOCAL
AUTHORITIES FOR APPROVED
ALTERNATIVE PROCEDURES.

				
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