How is diaper rash prevented and treated?
The key to preventing and treating diaper rash is to keep your baby’s diaper area
clean, cool and dry.
Change your baby’s diaper often, and let him or her go without a diaper when
possible to let the air dry his or her skin.
Try placing your baby on an open cloth diaper during nap time. Check the diaper
shortly after your baby falls asleep and replace it if it’s wet. Babies often urinate right
after falling asleep.
FRIDAY, juLY 16, 2010
J&J to submit plan to fix Tylenol quality problems
NEW YORK: Johnson & Johnson were ex- process and will need to go back to the FDA
pected to outline for US regulators on Thurs- toward the end of the year and request an in-
day a strategy to fix quality-control problems spection,” Jonas said.
that have led to repeated recalls of Tylenol and It behooves J&J to include sweeping
other consumer medicines since last year. Ana- changes in the action plan that will satisfy FDA
lysts say the so-called action plan could give concerns, although the agency and drugmaker
clues to whether J&J can resume full produc- may need to negotiate and fine-tune the terms
tion by early 2011 of its vast array of affected in coming months, said Mayank Gandhi, an
consumer products, as Wall Street now expects, analyst with Cowen and Co.
or whether it might take significantly longer. “But in these situations companies have
The document, which J&J promised in late very little negotiating power - the FDA gets
May to provide the US Food and Drug Admin- what it wants,” said Gandhi. “J&J needs to
istration, could also shed greater light on the convince the FDA this is a top priority for the
magnitude of its problems. firm and that senior management are on top of
J&J has issued four major product recalls it -- and that they have the appropriate controls
in the past year, and a number of smaller re- and organizational structure to resolve these is-
calls related to them that have bewildered the sues and prevent them from happening in the
public, tarnished the company’s reputation and future.”
allowed rival brands to fill the vacuum. They Gandhi predicted J&J will keep most terms
have also sparked a congressional investigation of the action plan confidential, although it
and intense FDA scrutiny. might reveal broad terms to industry analysts
In one of the biggest recalls, on April 30, when the company reports second-quarter
J&J took 40 widely used children’s medica- earnings on July 20. J&J spokeswoman Bonnie
tions off the market, saying some may have Jacobs declined Reuters’ requests to comment
a higher concentration of their active ingre- on the action plan.
dients, while others were contaminated. They The most recent J&J recalls, on July 8 and
included painkillers Tylenol and Motrin and al- June 15, involved a total of 3 million bottles
lergy treatments Benadryl and Zyrtec. of products - including Tylenol for children
In a damning FDA report, inspectors said and adults and several forms of Benadryl and
they found thick dust, grime and contaminated Motrin. The actions, small in relation to others
ingredients at the J&J plant in Fort Washington, in the past year, were related to J&J’s recall
Pennsylvania that produces the medicines. FILE - Tylenol is one of the drugs in which J&J are expected to fix its quality problems. on Jan. 15 of 53 million bottles of widely used
J&J shut the plant and has said it is unlikely products due to musty or moldy odors.
to reopen before the end of the year, as com- mid-2011 if the FDA needs that long to con- have annual sales of about $650 million, only J&J is well along in implementing some of Shares of J&J have fallen 6.8 percent since
pany executives and consultants attempt to fix duct a full inspection and approve changes” at about 1 percent of total annual company sales, the measures that will appear in its action plan, the January 15 recall, less than a 9.7 percent
the problems. “It is possible for it to reopen in the factory, said Jeff Jonas, an analyst with Ga- and therefore pose a far bigger ongoing risk to Jonas said. decline for the ARCA Pharmaceutical Index of
early 2011, but that could be pushed back to belli & Co. He said products sold at the plant J&J’s reputation than to its earnings. “They’re somewhere in the middle of the large US and European drugmakers. -Reuters
Woolly mammoth Scientists create
hunters helped change climate improved CO2-absorbing crystals HONG KONG: Chemists in South
Korea and the United States have im-
MOF-177 to produce two new versions -
MOF-200 and MOF-210 - that can store
5,000 square meters, Yaghi said. “If I take
a gram of MOF-200 and unravel it, it will
proved the design of a type of artificial twice the volume of gases. “Porosity is a cover many football fields, and that is the
crystal, doubling the amount of carbon- way to do a lot with little,” said Yaghi, a space you have for gases to assemble,”
dioxide they can absorb and store. chemistry and biochemistry professor, in Yaghi said. “It’s like magic. Forty tons of
Called metal-organic frameworks a statement. “Instead of having only the MOFs is equal to the entire surface area
(MOFs), the metallic crystals are porous, outside surface of a particle, we drill small of California.” In an email exchange with
stable structures that can absorb and com- holes to dramatically increase the surface Reuters, Kim said he saw many uses for
press gases into very small spaces. area.” The improved crystals were de- these crystals. “They can be used for the
Scientists are hoping such materials scribed in a paper published in the online short-term storage of CO2 (carbon diox-
can lead to cleaner energy and help cap- edition of the journal Science. ide) or fuel gas storage. I think it is practi-
ture heat-trapping carbon dioxide emis- Jaheon Kim, a chemistry professor cally possible,” said Kim, adding that hy-
sions before they reach the atmosphere at Seoul’s Soongsil University, helped drogen could also be stored.
and contribute to global warming, rising design the MOF-210. He described one MOFs can be made from low-cost in-
sea levels and ocean acidity. gram of MOFs as being about the size of gredients, such as zinc oxide, a common
Led by Omar Yaghi at UCLA’s Cali- four sugar tablets. ingredient in sunscreen, and terephtha-
fornia NanoSystems Institute, the team When flattened, each gram of these late, which is found in plastic soda bottles.
improved upon an earlier crystal named improved crystals could spread over -Reuters
Brightest star explosion seen blinds satellite
WASHINGTON: The brightest explosion of a star ever “Just when we were beginning to think that we had seen
seen temporarily blinded a satellite set up to watch such everything that gamma-ray bursts could throw at us, this
events, astronomers said on Wednesday. burst came along to challenge our assumptions about how
The gamma-ray burst and explosion of X-rays that fol- powerful their X-ray emissions can be,” Gehrels said.
lowed came from a star that died 5 billion years ago, far be- “The burst was so bright when it first erupted that our
yond our own Milky Way galaxy, NASA and British scientists data-analysis software shut down,” said Phil Evans of Brit-
said. It took this long for the radiation to reach the Swift ain’s University of Leicester, who discovered the burst when
orbiting observatory. he was going through some recorded data from Swift.
The bright X-ray burst blinded Swift on June 21, and the “So many photons were bombarding the detector each
FILE - Ancient hunters who stalked the world’s last woolly mammoths likely helped warm the Earth’s far northern latitudes observatory’s software ignored it as if it were an anomaly, the second that it just couldn’t count them quickly enough. It
thousands of years before humans began burning fossil fuels. astronomers said. was like trying to use a rain gauge and a bucket to measure
“The intensity of these X-rays was unexpected and un- the flow rate of a tsunami.”
ANCHORAGE, Alaska: Ancient hunters who ago helped warm the Arctic and boreal regions in what precedented,” Neil Gehrels, Swift’s principal investigator at When a star explodes, radiation travels at the speed of
stalked the world’s last woolly mammoths likely is now Siberia and North America by 0.2 degrees Cel- NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, said in a light in all directions. Gamma rays reach Earth first, followed
helped warm the Earth’s far northern latitudes thou- sius over a period of several centuries, though certain statement. by X-rays.
sands of years before humans began burning fos- spots saw a temperature rise of up to 1 degree Celsius, Gehrels said the burst, named GRB 100621A, is the This particular one was 140 times brighter than the
sil fuels, according to a study of prehistoric climate the study found. brightest X-ray source that Swift has detected since it started brightest continuous X-ray source in the sky - a nearby neu-
change. Ancient human-caused warming was tiny com- looking for them in 2005. tron star. -Reuters
The demise of the leaf-chomping woolly mam- pared to modern-day warming, in which the Earth’s
moths contributed to a proliferation of dwarf birch temperature has risen about 0.74 degrees Celsius
trees in and around the Arctic, darkening a largely (1.33 degrees F) since the start of the 20th century,
barren, reflective landscape and accelerating a rise in with temperatures rising at least twice as fast in the
temperatures across the polar north, researchers at Arctic, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on
the Carnegie Institution for Science concluded. Climate Change.
The northward march of vegetation affected the The research attributes about a fourth of the Arc-
climate because of the “albedo effect,” in which re- tic’s vegetation-driven warming to the decline of the
placement of white snow and ice with darker land woolly mammoth. If human hunters helped kill off
surfaces absorbs more sunlight and creates a self-re- the large mammals, they bear some responsibility for
peating warming cycle, the study found. warming the climate, the scientists concluded.
The end of the last Ice Age, marked by a world- “We’re not saying this was a big effect,” Field said.
wide rise in temperatures and the dramatic retreat “The point of the paper isn’t that this is a big effect.
of glaciers that once covered much of the Northern But it’s a human effect.”
Hemisphere, was already under way when the extinc- The study analyzed pollen records in sediments of
tion of woolly mammoths began. lakes in Alaska, Siberia and Canada’s Yukon Territory.
But the latest findings, scheduled to be published Through those records, scientists were able to recon-
in the Geophysical Research Letters journal, suggest struct forest growth in what was once woolly mam-
human activity played a role in altering Earth’s cli- moth habitat.
mate long before mankind began burning coal and oil The scientists also analyzed behavior of African
for energy, though the effects of prehistoric hunting elephants, the modern analog to the woolly mam-
were minute by comparison. moth, which knock down trees as they dine on the
leaves that they prefer to less-nutritious grasses.
First Human Impact on Climate The Earth already was warming at the time when
If mammoth hunters helped hasten Arctic warm- mammoths were disappearing, but there is evidence
ing, that would potentially be the first such human that dramatic growth of vegetation in the far North
impact on climate, preceding that caused by ancient followed the large animals’ demise rather than pre-
farmers, Chris Field, director of the Carnegie Institu- ceded it, Field said. “What we tried to do was say how
tion’s Department of Global Ecology and a co-author much of the tree increase was due to the extinction of
of the study, said on Tuesday. mammoths,” he said.
With the advent of agriculture about 7,000 years It was not possible, however, to quantify how
ago at more southern latitudes, humans are believed much of the extinction was due to human hunting, he
to have modified the climate through deforestation said. Whether hunters ultimately pushed mammoths
and cultivation of new plants, he said. over the brink remains a subject of scientific debate,
A Syrian worker puts the finishing touches on the largest mosaic made of oriental sweets in Damascus, July 14, 2010.
The earlier climate consequences of declining he said.
The mosaic, measuring 135.12 meters, entered the Guinness Book of Records. It was designed by Al-Sultan sweets
mammoth populations were extremely subtle. If humans did kill off the mammoths, “I’m sure
The flourishing of plant life as the voracious, veg- they didn’t have anything but a very local picture of
etarian beasts were disappearing about 15,000 years what they were doing,” Field said. -Reuters