What is management?
Historically, management has been always been considered as an art as well as a science. In the
days of industrial revolution in Britain and 19th century it was more of an art. But since the dawn
of 20th century many theories discussing scientific aspects of Management came out. Initially it
was thought as Manage-Men-T (tactfully). Later on, it was defined as a process of getting things
done through the people. Essentially managing men was at the core of management. With the
passage of time, it started involving managing money, material and machinery as well. Several
authors have defined management differently. However, with every new definition, new
perspectives have kept on being added which reflects growing magnitude of Management.
Management is responsible for accomplishing organization’s missions and objectives effectively
and efficiently through the judicious use of resources at its disposal. It is also responsible for
development and execution of business’s policies and strategies. Primary motive of every
business is to earn profit. Management is the tool it uses to maximize its profits, reward its
stakeholders and producing the products and services for the customers. It works its way through
the internal and external complexities, thus resulting into the greater welfare of the organizations.
Management has also been measured as a function of five different activities necessary for
achieving organization’s objectives. These five functions include planning, organizing, directing,
staffing and controlling. Theoretically these functions still hold true in the basic definition of
management. But changing business scenarios coupled with globalization and liberalization has
kept on adding new dimensions to the concept of management. In last century, business
processes have changed a lot and this has triggered adopting customized management practices
befitting to organizations. Now, Management has been segregated into various branches like,
Human Resource Management, Strategic Management, Operations Management, Information
Technology Management, Marketing Management and Financial Management. Each of these is
specialized branch, focusing on separate things which eventually lead to management using its
resources in more effective and efficient way.
How management evolved?
Management has kept on redefining itself over the years. It has been on a continuously
reinventing spree. There are not enough literatures available to throw light on evolution of
management before 18th century. But it is assumed that, given the magnitude of earlier era’s
construction and hugely spread kingdom, there must have been elements of planning, organizing
and delegating authorities, all of which are essential elements of management. In fact,
management from being a personalized solitary concept to the boardrooms of corporate houses
has travelled long distance.
It all started with industrial revolution when businesses started growing in gargantuan
proportions. Industrial revolution signaled the arrival of increased scale of operations, growing
size and emergence of various elements within an organization. This also prompted recruitment
of managers for day to day activities who can handle planning and controlling part on their own.
With increasing global trade and requirements of efficient man power, management, which was
merely an art of getting things done through people, started encompassing other aspects of
business as well. Its functions were defined and new scientific aspects were added to
management’s overall meaning. apart from existing factors like economies of scale, increased
productivity and effective, efficient utilization of resources, technical aspects like quality control,
cost accounting etc were also included in its broadening perspective. Later on eminent
management thinkers like Henri Fayol, Elton Mayo, Chester Bernard, Peter Drucker added new
elements of psychological and sociological approaches.
In the last century, the biggest contribution from management’s evolution point of view came
from de facto humanization of management. From merely being a managing concept which was
concerned with rationale side of mind, management started ingraining emotional intelligence as
well. The concept of leadership gave itself a big push, working in collaboration with
management. Human Resource which was just one of the production tools started being taken as
the most important element of organization. More personalized relationships were started
between the management and employees. In fact, with changing times, we can safely say that the
evolution of management is still in process.
Effective management Tips
“The art of getting things done through people” is how we define management. In a constantly
changing global world, strategies and policies also keep changing. The dynamics of business
need to be in sync with outer world. The strategies which acted as panacea few years back need
not to be equally effective in today’s scenario. Previous theories held as revolutionary turn out to
be obsolete after some years.
So, smart management always tries to be ahead of its time. The ability to anticipate the upcoming
changes in the outer world go a long way in sustaining an organization. Many organizations who
fail to adopt with changing times find themselves vanished.
Similarly, anticipating changing customer preferences help businesses to diversify themselves
and thus retain and even expand their consumer base. It also gives them a first-mover advantage.
The classical examples are Microsoft in software industry and Coke in Beverage segment. They
accurately gauged what is going to be required next and no wonder they are still numero uno in
their respective segments. Good management never sits idle on its past laurels. It continuously
strives towards bettering its previous performance and stay ahead of emerging competition.
Similarly, fine-tuning itself within the organization is also very crucial. Recognizing the needs
and requirements of the employees and rewarding them for their efforts is the mantra behind
organization’s success. It has been observed that employee friendly companies tend to perform
better than its peers. Delegation of authority and bottom-down management approach is very
important in increasing employee’s self-esteem and productivity.
Good managements also empower its workers with decision making authority at appropriate
levels. Focussing on organizing frequent interactive workshop between senior and junior level
staffs helps in reducing communication gap which finally leads to improved effectiveness and
efficiency. Knowing that human resources are considered as most important aspects of an
organization, effective management also conducts regular communication skills workshop and
personality development programs for its workers. Successful management also aim to develop
leaders out of managers.
How MBA helps in learning management?
Education is of prime importance. Management is an important aspect of any industry. MBA as a
career option opens many doors for good career prospects in the field of management. MBA
helps one to achieve essential skills in managing an organization and running the business
effectively. Being a highly valued degree, MBA can really help an individual to climb his or her
career growth quickly. This is especially true in case of industries where management skills are
required. Depending upon the specializations, MBA provides many jobs in sectors of marketing,
finance, human resources, media etc. All these sectors need managers with keen business
management and organizational skills. Thus an MBA truly helps in learning the nuances of
There are many reputed and well known institutes in the world that offer good placements in
multinational companies. The fees that an individual invests in pursuing an MBA are thus
recovered soon. Hence MBA is indeed a good education investment towards a bright rewarding
career in the field of management. Not just that, MBA also shapes up your personality and
grooms ones communication skills which are required to be a good effective manager. To put it
in better words, MBA makes one a global citizen because in this time of globalization, the
geographical and cultural distance is fast becoming blurred.
However, what is important to note is that one’s growth in the field of management not just
depends on your potentials and qualifications but also on the institute that one passes out from.
This is not just because the students deserve it but also the goodwill and the credibility of the
institute also play an important role in the placement process.
Today most managers are qualified with MBA degree from reputed institutes across the world.
Because of the pay-offs and the returns MBA is indeed one of the most sought after careers
across the globe.
Stages in management
Careers in management
Management careers are one of the most sought after careers in the modern times. Due to
globalization and liberalization there are many companies that have started their operations
across the world and thus require world class managers and leaders to run their operations. This
has especially benefitted a lot of MBA graduates that look for management jobs in various
sectors like marketing, finance, HR etc.
A management career is quite vast in its entirety. There are many aspects and dimensions to this
term. A management career may mean different things for different people. Yet all managers
start with a common goal that is essentially to ‘manage’. Later depending on the interests and
the specializations managers choose to manage finance, product, operations, people, time, crisis
etc. Since there are so many career options that are available in the media field, it becomes
imperative for prospective and potential managers to realize and understand where their skills
sets and interests lie.
While one is considering a serious rewarding career in management, one should be ready to be
dedicated and work hard towards their goal. Though it seems easy and ‘common sensical’,
management is as much an art as it is a science. It requires immense amount of strategies, tactics,
Machiavellian skills, leadership qualities, strong communication skills, effective orator and
discipline to become a successful manager.
Some of the common careers in management are: Administrative Services Manager, Human
Resources Manager, sales manager, Asset Portfolio Manager, Media Manager, communication
manager, Computer Information Systems Managers, Construction Manager, Food Service
Managers, General Managers, Industrial Production Managers, Public Relations Managers,
Account managers in advertising agencies, Medical and Health Services Managers, Property and
Real Estate Managers, Purchasing Manager etc.
Skilled managers are indeed in great demand. All kinds of industries need managers. Hence it is
upon the individual to select their area of interest and apply their management skills and
techniques to work. To make a career in management the most common education that students
pursue and the industry recognizes is MBA. It makes it easy for an individual to get a job in
management area in case he or she is an MBA.
Though management seems a heavy word, it only means managing and controlling activities of
any organization. Management is one of the interesting careers that students can choose to
pursue. There are many types of management that students can select to specialize in.
Media management is the latest buzzword in the industry. Media management in simplistic terms
involves how should one plan and control media activities effectively to promote products and
services or entertain masses. This career is gaining more and more momentum simply because
media industry is growing and gaining importance. There are many institutions and colleges
which now offer media management as a full time course or a specialization that students can
select while they do their MBA. Other part time courses are also available across the country the
offer a one year media management programs.
Today, television industry, production houses, advertising agencies and corporate need
professional skilled employee force that can run the industry from the day they resume work.
Media industry is becoming more and more organized and most media organizations do not wish
to waste time in training an employee for its work. Media management courses have helped these
companies tremendously because such professionally trained manpower is in short supply in the
So one may question what exactly is included under media management? For advertising
agencies, media planning is essentially the sector that takes care of media management. For
corporates, media management will involve what kind of marketing and advertising strategies
should the firm employ and how PR activities can benefit the company. In television industry
too, media management skills has become essential in the marketing department.
Industry inputs are taken from educational institutions on how to make media management
courses more relevant that caters to the need of the industry. Though the number of institutions
offering this course are less, with increasing demand more and more institutions are likely to
come up that will offer this specialized course!
Crisis management is relatively a recent discovery in management arena. Crisis management is a
wonderful tool in the hands of management. It performs the function of anticipating and
forecasting crisis and the methods to deal with them. It prepares an organization in dealing with
unexpected crisis situation. It is also instrumental in helping organizations to categorize the
nature and cause of the crisis, take preventive measures, curtail damages and finally convalesce
as fast as possible.
Crisis is basically an unpredictable event which can cause damage to the organization. The
damage can be in form of monetary, perceptual or natural. In case of natural crisis, it can occur
in form of fire, some natural disaster, earthquake, explosions or violence among others. This is
also called as sudden crisis. In the event of sudden crisis, management focuses more on ensuring
minimal damages and speedy recovery.
Crisis management is more focused towards damages caused to the image of the organizations.
Often termed as perceptual crisis, this can be the worst form of crisis for any business. In this
case, management tackles the situations on various levels. The lead role is taken by the PR
department. It concentrates on rebuilding the brand image by assuring the public of the products
quality and consequent services. Crisis management also involves, preparing crisis contingency
plans, providing accurate information to the media, public and shareholders apart from making
fast moves for better long term results.
Like for example, it has been seen that often automobile majors have been forced to withdraw
their vehicles from all over the world because of malfunction of certain engine parts. While
doing this, the company image takes a huge beating not to forget the legal, political,
environmental and financial implications. Thereafter, it demands a huge exercise from the crisis
management team of the company to rebuild the brand image or else the company runs the risk
of losing its credibility. The complete build up towards contingency plan is difficult but
forecasting crisis and being prepared for it with credible solutions helps a lot in the long run.
Magical secrets of management
Magic deals with illusion and entertainment. Like a skilled magician that creates an unforeseen
reality which surprises and amuses the audience, a manager too should create and produce results
that satisfy all people connected to the organization including the customers. Managers should
actually combine creative, business, organizational, analytical and other skills to make the art of
management appear like a magic!
Management has always been an art as well as a science. Most of the people feel that managing
does require special skills and talents. People feel that some of the best managers in the world
actually apply some magical charismatic skills that they possess to smoothly run operations and
manage things at work with such phenomenal commendable capabilities.
Some of the effective magical secrets of management are as follows: it is important to lead and
not just manage. It is leaders who inspire people with vision in their mind of how things can be
An effective manager should learn to delegate. Remember: Managing less is managing better.
Communicate in a simple language simply because simple messages travel faster.
It is great to get your employees excited about their work. This is indeed the key to being a great
A manager should be able to adapt to change- willingness to change is a big strength.
New ideas should never be discouraged. A good manager will encourage all kinds of new ideas.
Follow-up is one of the key measures of success for a business. Successful managers must
believe in following up.
A manager should build a team and focus of the softer values like idea generation, loyalty and
commitment to work rather than sales figures and achievement of targets.
A skillful manager will make sure that he or she involves all kinds of people.
With these magical tips on effective management, any potential manager would learn the subtle
nuances of this art!
Different styles of management
Management styles differ from company to company and country to country. It is largely
influenced by culture prevalent in the organization. Management styles are also subject to
whether it's a family run organization or professionally run. There are two contrasting styles of
First one is authoritarian and totally opposite of it is participative style. Both run on entirely
different philosophies. In the authoritarian style of management managers are supposed to do
what they are told. It's basically a top-down approach where transmitting orders are in vogue.
Here decision making is done at the top. Many people also term it as military type of
organization where there is a chain of command at all levels. At the core of this style of
leadership, lies an inherent belief that people are not willing to work and in order to achieve
organizational objectives people are needed to be forced to work. That's why; controllable
conditions are needed to extract the best out of employees.
In participative style of management the collaboration and co-ordination between the different
hierarchies of management is of paramount importance. Here work is delegated. The
communication channels are more open and camaraderie between manager and subordinates is
based upon mutual trust and responsiveness. There is an active participation in decision making
process at all levels. In participative style of management the emphasis is on learning by working
as a team where managers are instrumental in removing obstacles out of path of subordinate.
This way, people can find satisfaction in their work. Participative style also promotes leadership
qualities in the workers.
It has been concluded that larger participation in the decision making of the workers and
delegating authority to the subordinates increases productivity by 20-30 percent. It also enhances
the level of satisfaction and contentment felt by the employees.
Functions of management
Performance of management is necessarily a subject to its functions. Earlier management was
segregated into five functions which were-
• Directing and
With changing times and increasing business complexities, the functions of management also
increased and functions like reporting, co-ordinating, budgeting etc. was identified. Primarily,
this step was taken to ensure departmentalization of management functions so that effectiveness
and efficiency could be enhanced. However, different management thinkers differ on the
numbers of functions. Essentially a creative problem solving methodology, the purpose of
management is achieved through these functions. The basic objective of these functions is
maximum utilization of resources available at company’s disposal so that organization’s mission
and policies could be achieved in the best possible way.
As we delve deeper in every function, planning is the first function which is basically a logical
thinking process that decides what needs to be done in order to achieve organization’s goals and
objectives. It focuses on the broader perspective of the business as well as taking into
consideration, the tactical methods to get the desired results.
Organizing is about setting up and maintaining the internal organizational structure in
accordance with objectives mentioned in planning stage. It also involves assigning tasks to
various individuals for the larger goal of organization’s missions and objectives.
Staffing is the process of choosing right people for organization. It can be associated with human
resource management and involves recruitment, hiring, training and compensating the
Directing is guiding people in the organization through the means of counselling, instructing,
motivating and various other modes of communication. It helps in channelizing the activities and
conduct of employees so that organizational goals can be accomplished.
Controlling is the sum total of process which ensures all the plans are executed and implemented
in the desired way. It also decides about whether some corrective and preventive methods need
to be taken. It is meant to ascertain problem areas and remedial measures.
Apart from these, minor functions include reporting, budgeting and co-ordinating which are
designed to perform specific functions.
Books on management
There are many books that are available in the market today. Management is best explained in
these books in simple and lucid language that most of the students are comfortable with. Some of
the best books on management are as follows:
A book titled ‘First, Break all the rules’ which is by Gallup's Marcus Buckingham and Curt
This book summarizes the results of the in-depth study of great managers. As the title says, the
book talks about how one should not hesitate to break any rule that conventional wisdom
There is yet another book which is called ‘Business: The Ultimate Resource’. It is a detailed
business resource book and it extremely useful in understanding the application of management
to various business sectors.
Philip Kotler, a well known author, who has written several books on management especially
marketing management, advertising, human resource etc is a must read for all management
students. This book is prescribed to most management students across the world. The book has
some excellent current scenario examples that teach the students the realistic world of business
‘Communicate with Confidence!’ is also a book that potential managers and management
students must read. The book teaches people how to communicate more effectively, at work, at
home, in any situation.
A book titled ‘One-Minute Manager’ written by Spencer Johnson and Kenneth H. Blanchard
gives the most universal and timeless management lessons to people. The text is brief and to the
point. Fundamental management principles are best explained here.
‘Now discover your strengths’ is yet another great book by Marcus that makes you understand
your own strengths and weaknesses better. This in turn helps business managers to know what
the areas that they need to improve on are.
Customer relationship management (CRM)
Success of every business depends upon how good a relationship it has with customers. This
basic fact has catapulted the concept of customer relationship management to the forefront of
many businesses’ strategic planning. With increasing competition, companies are forced to
deploy new strategies and think over the old ones.
The dimension of business has changed over the years. In earlier times, customers did not have
many choices and they had to choose whatever companies use to offer. But now-a-days, the
number of products has increased and there is not much difference in the quality of same
category products offered by companies. Customers being the king today, it becomes quite easier
for them to look for other options in case they are not satisfied with the services offered.
Customer relationship management, which is essentially directed towards maximizing
profitability, by adopting customer centric strategies, helps organization to differentiate
themselves amongst its peers. CRM is the sum total of all the employed methodologies
encompassing all the functions of business including sales, marketing, human resource
management, customer service etc. It is instrumental in coagulating consumer’s loyalty, reducing
overall costs, increasing revenue, improved cross-selling opportunities and streamlining inter-
related business process by having a holistic approach. People, process and technology are prime
constituents of customer relationship initiatives. These constituents help in identifying
consumers’ needs and behaviour which in turn leads to better relationship between customers
and companies. Right execution and implementation of CRM gives organizations a huge
competitive advantage. Even a minor shift in the consumers’ perception about how companies
are treating them, makes a big difference to the business’ money flow.
Today, consumers want to have an experience while shopping. They are the active participants in
the process of selling and buying and they prefer to return back with happy experiences. Various
researches show that one satisfied customer manages to bring five new customers whereas one
unsatisfied customer takes away nine existing and potential customers. This fact makes it very
imperative for organizations to provide high quality pre-sales and after sales services. Another
observation is that, it’s easier to retain an existing customer compared to make a new one which
also helps companies to devise new ways to serve customers.
Organizational Behaviour is one of the most crucial elements of management studies. This
subject has been greatly researched upon and many great management thinkers have come up
with separate theories which give us a fair idea about the nitty-gritty of this term. Organizational
behaviour, as the name suggests, is the study of how individuals, people and various groups
function in an organization. By adopting system approach methodology which focuses on the
dynamics between people and organization in its entirety, it manages to create improved
relationship within the organization. Organizational behaviour encompasses multitude of human
dimensions including leadership, human behaviour, human psychology, motivation, change,
culture which all combine together to achieve humans and organizational objectives.
Organizational behaviour uses some scientific means to understand the dynamics of individuals
and group within the organization. It also seeks to study the structures and strategies guiding the
motives of employees and organizations. It seeks to explain what motivates the individuals in an
organization. Many eminent authors have presented their versions of organization behaviour.
Among them, Chester Barnard, Frederick Herzberg, Henri Fayol, David McClelland, Abraham
Maslow and Victor Vroom have presented interesting facets of the factors associated with
organizational behaviour. Organizational behaviour as a subject was explored in detail by the
Frederick Taylor, propagator of scientific management. He used the concept of goal settings and
resultant rewards which culminated in better productivity. This study was followed by famous
Hawthorne experiment conducted by Elton Mayo.
Thereafter, one after another theory started pouring in. All of them tried to explain human
motives. Like theory X & Y, Maslow’s motivational theory and others. According to them, for
individuals’ motivation differ from person to person. For some workers its monetary
compensations whereas for others, social and affiliation needs are more important. Employees
also tend to be more productive in a friendly working environment. People from different race
and continent have different working habits and needs. All these experimentations and
discoveries helped organization in aligning their strategies and structures with various set of
needs and requirements.
Management as a Career
A man without education is almost like a toy without a battery. Education is gaining prime
importance in today’s competitive scenario. Management is one of the most popular career
choices that students make to pursue their post graduation studies. MBA is the common
abbreviation used for Masters of Business Administration which students opt for to pursue a
career in management. MBA is one of the most common career choices amongst the youth in the
world today. This is purely because of the benefits that the course offers. More and more MBA
schools and management institutes are coming up. There are more than thousand institutes all
across the country that offers full time residential MBAs. To add to the list, distance learning
MBA, online MBA and part time executive MBAs are also gaining momentum.
With the growing needs of the industry for world class managers, the institutes offering
management studies has also gone up in the last few years.
Most of the B-schools world over offer specialization like finance, human resources, marketing,
operation etc. However, niche management specializations like MBA in communication, hotel
management, fashion technology etc are also available. Salaries in management not just depend
upon the student but also on the credibility and the goodwill of the institute. One can extensively
search the internet for loads of information available on different management institutions and
MBA colleges around the world.
More and more students are opting for management as a career option because of the dynamism
and the power that management offer! There is tremendous growth after MBA. Since an MBA
equips you with so many skill sets and abilities that one becomes a pro at managing and
organizing activities in an organization. They actually teach you time management and multi-
tasking skills that make your career growth graph worth a watch! Your communication and
negotiation techniques are fully honed and thus most companies are readily to pay high salary
packages to deserving MBA students. Research itself shows that MBA students are able to
deliver and perform than students without the MBA degree. Also, the significance of MBA in
today’s world has grown simply because of the intense competition that each company faces. It
is purely due to this significance that more and more B-schools are offering varied kinds of MBA
with different electives and specializations!
MBA is the common abbreviation used for Masters of Business Administration. This course is
pursued after graduation and is usually conducted over a span of two years. However, executive
MBA as a career choice is also available which lasts for a year. MBA is one of the most common
career choices amongst the youth in India today. This is purely because of the benefits that the
course offers. An MBA can surely help individuals who want to move up in their respective
careers. Management has become important in every industry today.
With the growing needs of the industry for world class managers, the institutes offering MBAs
has also gone up in the last few years. MBA across the world has become a highly attractive
phenomenon. Across all the continents, one year and two year residential MBAs are coming up
to serve the needs of the industry. Since businesses are spreading far and wide and boundaries
seem to have disappeared, the need for world class managers has also gone up considerably.
Most of the B-schools offer specialization like finance, human resources, marketing, operation
etc. However, niche MBAs like MBA in communication, hotel management, fashion technology
etc are also available. MBA salary in these B schools purely depends on the credibility and the
goodwill of the institute. One can extensively search the internet for loads of information
available on different MBA colleges.
Thanks to globalization and liberalization, education especially MBA is gaining great
momentum. MBA with specializations in international business and management are also
available in so many countries. To get the opportunity to study in a diverse country, not only
helps to learn the business skills but also teaches you to respect different cultures.
Types of MBA Courses
MBA is now a vocabulary for a common man as well. With the advent of technology and
communication there are many types of MBA programs that are available worldwide:
Residential MBAs, Executive MBAs, Distance learning MBAs, online MBAs etc. Executive
MBAs are for those who already have more than three years of work experience. This type of
MBA helps management executives to take a year’s break and pursue their education. Since
these students already have so much of industry experience and possession of requisite skill sets,
they do not need intensive two year training. Hence most of the executive MBAs globally are for
Online MBA degree programs are offered by a plethora of institutes all over the world. The
benefits of an online MBA program is that one can actually study while one works. It helps one
to save on time and cost that is spent on a regular MBA program. However the credibility of a
full time two year MBA program is much more than an online MBA program.
There are so many B-schools and institutes that offer MBA distance education. Most of the
curriculum that distance learning MBA offers is same as a traditional MBA. The only difference
being that one does not have to actually attend classes and lectures. Distance learning MBA
offers the advantage of acquiring an MBA degree sitting at home. This is done with the help of
internet where you could actually take help from online teachers who have an industry
experience. There are many students that pursue their MBA from foreign universities. The
significance of MBA in today’s world has grown simply because of the intense competition that
each company faces. It is purely due to this significance that more and more B-schools are
offering varied kinds of MBA with different electives and specializations!
Scope of MBA
MBA stands for Masters of Business Administration and it offers a post graduate degree. There
is tremendous significance of MBA in today’s world. With increasing business and
communication due to globalization, liberalization and privatization, more and more companies
sought after world class equipped knowledgeable managers that have full hands on experience
before they enter an organization. This is purely because companies do not want to waste their
time training individuals. They want managers who can contribute to the organization directly
from day one. An MBA program offers all these benefits and hence it deserves its due
All the B-schools give you requisite knowledge about business and its related administration. As
an entry level MBA student, one learns so much about business strategies, various types of
industries, their functioning techniques and operations that one can actually feel the difference
An MBA involves many hands on project experiences, assignments, internships etc. Due to this a
student is fully equipped with all the necessary skills that a manager should possess. These skills
helps one to become an expert in one own field and can help him or her to become a leader.
Because one requires some kind of competency to be able to perform on these entrance tests and
interviews, there are many coaching classes that offer specialized coaching for MBA
Research itself shows that MBA students are able to deliver and perform than students without
the MBA degree. Also, the significance of MBA in today’s world has grown simply because of
the intense competition that each company faces. With increasing salary packages, the
expectations from an employee have also increased across all industries.
It is purely due to this significance that more and more B-schools are offering varied kinds of
MBA with different electives and specializations! The scope of MBA is indeed vivid!