ACTIVE CITY ADMINISTRATION
Six Month Industrial Training
INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT
1.1 Introduction to Java
Java is a programming language created by James Gosling from Sun Microsystems in 1991. This
language was initially called “Oak” but was renamed “Java” in 1995. Between the initial
implementation of Oak in the fall of 1992 and the public announcement of Java in the spring of
1995, many more people contributed to the design and evolution of the language. The first public
available version of Java (Java 1.0) was released 1995. Over time several version of Java were
released which enhanced the language and its libraries. The Java programming language consists
out of a Java compiler, the Java virtual machine, and the Java class libraries.
1.2 Characteristics of Java
1. Platform independent: Java programs use the Java virtual machine as abstraction and do
not access the operating system directly. This makes Java programs highly portable. A Java
program which is standard complaint and follows certain rules can run unmodified all
several platforms, e.g. Windows or Linux.
2. Object-orientated programming language: In object-oriented programs data is
represented by objects. Objects have two sections, fields and methods. These fields and
methods are closely tied to the object's real world characteristics and behavior. When a
program is run messages are passed back and forth between objects. When an object
receives a message it responds accordingly as defined by its methods. Except the primitive
data types, all elements in Java are objects.
3. Strongly-typed programming language: Java is strongly-typed, e.g. the types of the used
variables must be pre-defined and conversion to other objects is relatively strict, e.g. must
be done in most cases by the programmer.
4. Interpreted and compiled language: Java source code is transferred into byte-code which
does not depend on the target platform. This byte-code will be interpreted by the Java
Virtual machine (JVM). The JVM contains a so called Hotspot-Compiler which translates
critical byte-code into native code.
5. Automatic memory management: Java manages the memory allocation and de-allocation
for creating new objects. The program does not have direct access to the memory. The so-
called garbage collector deletes automatically object to which no active pointer exists. You
do not need to explicitly allocate or deallocate memory in Java.
1.3 Java Virtual Machine
The key that allows Java to solve both the security and the portability problems just described is
that the output of a java Compiler is not executable code. Rather, it is byte code. Byte code is a
highly optimized set of instructions designed to be executed by the java run time system, which is
called the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). The Java virtual machine (JVM) is a software
implementation of a computer that executes programs like a real machine. The Java compiler
translates Java coding into so-called byte-code. The Java virtual machine interprets this byte-code
and runs the program. So, JVM is an interpreter of byte code. The Java virtual machine is written
specifically for a specific operating system.
Java Java Virtual
Program Compiler Machine
Byte Java Machine
Code Interpreter Code
1.4 Introduction to Project
In Active city administration:
1. We create a user-friendly online interface for citizens to communicate with administrative
body and, reduce the distance and time barrier between citizens and administration.
2. Online platforms where people can share ideas, issue complaints, create
suggestion/petitions for improvement of city administration.
3. To encourage the citizens to actively participate in city administration to bring transparency
and flexibility in system.
Users of the System
1. Citizens of city:
a) Users will be able to create new account, log-in to their existing accounts which will
give them the authority to use the services provided by the system.
b) Authenticated users will be able to issue complaints, check complaint status, submit
c) Authenticated users will be able to create suggestions; other users can support or
make suggestions for petitions; forward petitions to corresponding authority for
2. Local municipal authorities:
a) Municipal authorities can log-in to their accounts as created by administrator.
b) Authorities can access all the complaints, suggestions from users.
c) Invoke proper activity in response to valid complaints, or redirect inappropriate
complaints to the administrator.
d) Give response to complaints with activity reports.
a) Create and monitor accounts of authorities.
b) Handle complaints about improper response by municipal authorities.
a) NGO can form user groups similar to other users.
b) NGO's can publicize their social causes on the site.
DESIGN OF SOLUTION
2.1 DESIGN OF PROJECT
2.1.1 DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS: DFD’s have the purpose of clarifying system requirements
and identifying major transformations that will become programs in system design. A DFD is also
known as “Bubble chart” has the purpose of clarifying system requirements and identifying major
transformations that will become programs in system design.
In DFD, there are four symbols.
A SQUARE defines the originator or the destination of the system data.
An ARROW identifies the data flows in motion. It’s a pipeline thru which information flows.
A CIRCLE or a BUBBLE represents the process that transforms incoming data flow(s) into
outgoing data flow(s).
An OPEN RECTANGLE is a data store-data at rest, or a temporary repository of data.
Input Active City Output Efficient Online
USER Administration User Friendly
Level 0 DFD
0 Ngo Admin
Login to User Complaint to Admin
Home Page Municipal 0.4
Creation of Get Complaint to
User Accounts Complaints Administrator
Get member See NGO’s
Handle Improper Add
Complaints to Admin
Get Posted Add and
Suggestions Post Events
PLANNING OF WORK
3.1 PLANNING OF WORK
3.1.1 Module Specification:
This module is used so that the users can login to their home page and new users would be able to
create new accounts and there is facility of password recovery in case that the user forgot his/her
a) LOGIN: Old users would be able to login to their home page.
b) CREATE NEW ACCOUNTS: New users would be able to create their new user
c) PASSWORD RECOVERY: In case the user forgot his/her password then he woulb be
able to recover his/her password.
This module is used so that the administrator can create and monitor accounts of other authorities
and handle complaints about improper response by municipal authorities.
a) MONITOR: Administrator would be able to monitor the accounts of other authorities.
b) HANDLE COMPLAINTS: Administrator would be able to see the complaints posted by
citizens and would response over those and he would also be able to handle the
inappropriate complaints that are directed by municipal administrator.
This module is used so that citizens can post their complaints to municipal authorities or to
administrator and they can see the details of events that are going to be held by NGO and they can
also give suggestions to NGOs.
a) POST COMPLAINTS: Citizens would be able to post their complaints to municipal
authorities or to administrator.
b) SEE DETAILS OF EVENTS HELD BY NGO: Citizens would be able to see the details
of events that are going to be held by NGO.
c) GIVE SUGGESTIONS: Citizens would be able to give their suggestions to NGOs.
4. NGO’S ADMINISTRATOR:
This module is used so that the NGO’S administrator can add and post the events that are going to
be held and also he can see the posted suggestions.
a) ADD AND POST EVENTS: NGO’S administrator would be able to add and post the
events that are going to be held.
b) SEE POSTED SUGGESTIONS: NGO’S administrator would be able to see the posted
5. MUNICIPAL ADMINISTRATOR:
This module is used so that municipal administrator can see the complaints posted by citizens and
get data about all complaints and he has the authority to redirect inappropriate complaints to main
a) SEE COMPLAINTS: Municipal administrator would be able to see the complaints posted
b) GET DATA ABOUT COMPLAINTS: Municipal administrator would be able to get data
about all complaints.
c) REDIRECT THE INAPPROPRIATE COMPLAINTS TO ADMINISTRATOR:
Municipal administrator would be able to redirect inappropriate complaints to main
FACILITIES REQUIRED FOR PROPOSED WORK
4.1 SYSTEM SPECIFICATION
4.1.1 HARDWARE CONFIGURATION
The hardware used for the development of the project is:
PROCESSOR: Pentium-II upwards
RAM: 512 MB (min)
HARD DISK: 40 GB(min)
4.1.2 SOFTWARE CONFIGURATION
The software used for the development of the project is:
OPERATING SYSTEM: Windows XP Professional
TECHNOLOGY: JSP, Servlets,Struts
WEB SERVER: Tomcat Server
The following books are being used to fulfill the requirements of the proposed project and
are helpful in the understanding, development and the maintenance of the project:
1. Software Engineering Roger S. Pressman
2. java K.A. Mugal
3. Database System Concepts Henry F. Korth
4. Structured Query Language Ivan Bayros