Shakespearean Sonnet by dandanhuanghuang


									       William Shakespeare

 born and raised in Stratford-upon-Avon

 an English poet and playwright

 widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English
  language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist

 often called England's national poet and the "Bard of
    Shakespeare’s Marriage

 At age 18, he married Anne Hathaway

 bore him three children: Susanna, and twins Hamnet
  and Judith
       Shakespeare’s Works

 surviving works, including some collaborations, consist
  of 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems,
  and several other poems

 plays have been translated into every major living
  language and are performed more often than those of
  any other playwright
            Works Continued

 produced most of his known work between 1589 and 1613
 early plays were mainly comedies and histories, genres he
  raised to the peak of sophistication and artistry by the end
  of the sixteenth century
 then wrote mainly tragedies until about 1608, including
  Hamlet, King Lear, and Macbeth, considered some of the
  finest works in the English language
 last phase, he wrote tragicomedies, also known as romances,
  and collaborated with other playwrights
          Works Continued

 between 1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in
  London as an actor, writer, and part owner of a
  playing company called the Lord Chamberlain's Men,
  later known as the King's Men

 appears to have retired to Stratford around 1613, where
  he died three years later

 was a respected poet and playwright in his own day
      Reputation As A Poet

 his reputation did not rise to its present heights until
  the nineteenth century
 twentieth century, his work was repeatedly adopted
  and rediscovered by new movements in scholarship
  and performance
 His plays remain highly popular today and are
  constantly studied, performed and reinterpreted in
  diverse cultural and political contexts throughout the
      Shakespeare’s Sonnets

 Published in 1609, the Sonnets were the last of
  Shakespeare's non-dramatic works to be printed

 Few analysts believe that the published collection
  follows Shakespeare's intended sequence

 seems to have planned two contrasting series: one
  about uncontrollable lust for a married woman of dark
  complexion (the "dark lady"), and one about conflicted
  love for a fair young man (the "fair youth”)
      Sonnets Continued

1609 edition was dedicated to a
 "Mr. W.H.", credited as "the only
 begetter" of the poems
Critics praise the Sonnets as a
 profound meditation on the nature
 of love, sexual passion, procreation,
 death, and time
    Facts About Sonnets

Four Parts:
 Three, four line sections
 One, two line section (couplet)
   GG (volta is in the couplet)
           Iambic Pentameter

•Iamb: a poetic foot with an unstressed syllable followed by a
    stressed syllable
•Pentameter: 5 poetic feet in a line of poetry
U    /    u      /     u    /    u
But soft! What light thru yon der
/    u     /
Win dow breaks?
      Iambic Pentameter

baBOOM / baBOOM / baBOOM /
  baBOOM / baBOOM.
Here is an example from a sonnet:
When I / do COUNT / the CLOCK /
 that TELLS / the TIME (Sonnet 12)
Sonnet XVIII (18)Addressed to the Young Man

Quatrain 1 (four-line stanza) 
 A Shall I compare thee to a summer's DAY?.....................If I
compared you to a summer day 
 B Thou art more lovely and more temperATE:....................I'd have to say you
are more beautiful and serene: 
 A Rough winds do shake the darling buds of MAY,.............By comparison,
summer is rough on budding life, 
 B And summer's lease hath all too short a DATE:..............And doesn't last
long either:

Quatrain 2 (four-line stanza) 
 C Sometime too hot the eye of heaven SHINES,................At
times the summer sun [heaven's eye] is too hot, 
 D And often is his gold complexion DIMM'D;.....................And
at other times clouds dim its brilliance; 
 C And every fair from fair sometime deCLINES,..................Everything
fair in nature becomes less fair from time to time, 
 D By chance or nature's changing course unTRIMM'D;.......No
one can change [trim] nature or chance; 

Quatrain 3 (four-line stanza)
 E But thy eternal summer shall not FADE.........................However, you yourself will not
 F Nor lose possession of that fair thou OWEST;................Nor lose ownership of your fairness; 
 E Nor
shall Death brag thou wander'st in his SHADE,..........Not even death will claim you, 
 F When in eternal lines to
time thou GROWEST:...............Because these lines I write will immortalize you: 

Couplet (two rhyming lines)

 G So long as men can breathe or eyes can SEE,.............Your beauty will last as long as men
breathe and see, 
 G So long lives this and this gives life to THEE..................As Long as this sonnet lives and gives
you life.
    Possible Identities of Muse
    The Young Man
         Henry Wriothesley, Third Earl of Southampton (1573-1624): Patron of writers and favorite at
          the court of Queen Elizabeth I. Shakespeare dedicated Venus and Adonis and The Rape of
          Lucrece to Wriothesley. Wriothesley married Elizabeth Vernon, one of the queen's attendants,
          in 1598. Supporters of Wriothesley as the young man of the sonnets note that his initials, H.W.,
          are the reverse of the W.H. to whom the sonnets are dedicated.
         William Herbert, Third Earl of Pembroke (1580-1630): Nephew of the writer Sir Philip
          Sidney and student of poet Samuel Daniel. He became a privy councilor of England in 1611
          and served as chancellor of Oxford University from 1617 until the time of his death. When
          Shakespeare's friends compiled the First Folio of his plays in 1623, they dedicated it to Herbert
          and his brother.
         William Hughes: A boy actor. The Irish playwright Oscar Wilde (1854-1900) championed a
          theory that Hughes was the young man. However, no records are available to establish that
          Hughes was an actor in Shakespeare's time.
         William Harte: Nephew of Shakespeare.
         William Hatcliffe: A Lord of Misrule. The Lord of Misrule managed Christmas celebrations
          at the court of the monarch, at the homes of favored nobles, and at the universities of Oxford
          and Cambridge.
         William Hammond: A literary patron.
         William Holgate: A little-known poet.
           Identities Continued
   The Dark Lady
        Mary Fitton (1578-1647): Woman of dark complexion who enjoyed a place in the court of Queen
         Elizabeth I and was married and widowed twice. She gave birth to three illegitimate children fathered
         by three men.
        Anne Whateley (or Whiteley): Resident of Temple Grafton, near Stratford, who may have been a
         girlfriend of Shakespeare. Evidence suggests that Shakespeare at one time intended to marry her but
         broke off his relationship to marry Anne Hathaway, who was pregnant with Shakespeare's child.
        Jane Davenant: Wife of the owner of The Crown Inn on Cornmarket Street in at Oxford. (The inn still
         exists.) Supposedly, Shakespeare stopped at the inn on trips between Stratford and
         London. Shakespeare was the godfather of her child, William Davenant (1606-1668), a playwright and
         poet of some renown in his day. In 1638, Davenant became poet laureate of England after the death of
         Ben Jonson. Rumors abounded that Davenant was not only Shakespeare's godson but also his
         biological son. According to some accounts, Davenant once owned the famous Chandos portrait of
         William Shakespeare.
        Emilia Bassano Lanier (1570-1640s): Daughter of Baptista Bassano of Venice. After she moved to
         England, she was the mistress of Henry Carey, a patron known to Shakespeare. She married Alphonse
         Lanier, a court musician. Shakespeare created characters named Emilia in three of his plays: Othello,
         The Comedy of Errors, and The Two Noble Kinsmen.
        Elizabeth I (1533-1603): Queen of England from 1558 to 1603 and a supporter of stage plays.
        Lucy Morgan: A black woman said to be a prostitute.
        Marie Mountjoy: A London landlord who rented lodging to Shakespeare.
           Identities Continued
   The Rival Poet
         Michael Drayton (1563-1631): poet of considerable talent who wrote sonnets, odes (after the
          manner of the Roman poet Horace), and heroic poems.
         Samuel Daniel (1562-1619): poet, playwright, writer of masques, sonneteer (Delia, 1592),
          author of a verse history of the War of the Roses and a prose history of England.
         George Chapman (1559-1634): playwright and translator of ancient literature, including highly
          praised translations of Homer's Iliad and Odyssey.
         Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593): Elizabethan playwright of the first rank who helped
          popularize the strengths of blank verse. Marlowe's most famous plays are The Tragical History
          of Doctor Faustus (1588), The Jew of Malta (1589), and Tamburlaine the Great (1587).
          Marlowe also wrote distinguished poetry and, like Chapman, translated ancient literary works.
         Ben Jonson (1572-1637): Poet and playwright of the first rank who advocated adherence to the
          drama rules (unity of time, place, and action) established by the ancient Greeks . Shakespeare
          acted in Jonson's first play, Every Man in His Humour, in 1598. Among Jonson's best plays are
          Volpone (1606) and The Alchemist (1610). Jonson also wrote masques and excellent poetry. He
          was a friend of Shakespeare who met frequently with him and other writers at the Mermaid
          Tavern in London.
         Edmund Spenser (1552-1599): Poet of the first rank. He is most famous for his monumental
          epic poem, The Faerie Queene. His wedding poem, "Epithalamion," is one of the finest works
          of its type ever written.
          “Writerly Moves”

 Shakespeare chose to follow the idiomatic rhyme
  scheme used by Philip Sidney in his Astrophel and Stella
  where the rhymes are interlaced in two pairs of
  couplets to make the quatrain

 Only three of Shakespeare's 154 sonnets do not
  conform to this structure: Sonnet 99, which has 15
  lines; Sonnet 126, which has 12 lines; and Sonnet 145,
  which is written in iambic tetrameter
                    Literary Devices
   Metaphor- a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is
    not literally applicable

   Imagery- visually descriptive or figurative language, esp. in a literary work

   Symbol- a thing that represents or stands for something else, esp. a material object representing
    something abstract

   Motif- a distinctive feature or dominant idea in an artistic or literary composition

   Enjambment- the continuation of a sentence without a pause beyond the end of a line, couplet, or

   Volta- closing or answer to a question presented within a piece of poetry, the poet’s solution

   Personification- the attribution of a personal nature or human characteristics to something nonhuman,
    or the representation of an abstract quality in human form

   Allusion- an expression designed to call something to mind without mentioning it explicitly; an
    indirect or passing reference

   “Poetic Contract”- explains or tells the reader what the poem will be about

   Volta- shift in the poem’s subject matter (begins with 3rd quatrain)
                       Sonnet 18
A    Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?
B   Thou art more lovely and more temperate:
A    Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
B   And summer’s lease hath all too shorts a date:
C   Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,
D   And often is his gold complexion dimm’d;
C   And every fair from fair sometime declines,
D   By chance or nature’s changing course untrimm’d;
E   But thy eternal sunshine shall not fade
F   Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest;
E   Nor shall Death brag thou wander’st in his shade,
F   When in eternal lines to time thou growest:
G   So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,
G   So long lives this and this gives life to thee.
          Themes & Motifs

 Destructive power of time and age

 Power of the speaker’s poem to defy time and last
  forever, carrying the beauty of the beloved down to the
  future generations

 Beauty changes with time
 Why I Chose This Poem…

 I love Shakespeare!

 Use of imagery is exquisite

 The concept of trying to conceal the memory of a person
  within a piece of literature is timeless (just as people reserve
  memories of loved ones in journals or within pictures)

 Reminds me of Romeo & Juliet (one of my favorite books)

 Comparison of the course of love to nature

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