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					Novel Microchannel Plate (MCP) X-ray Optics
   for Astronomy and Other Applications

                             G.W. Fraser
  Space Research Centre, Michael Atiyah Building, Department of Physics and
                     Astronomy, University of Leicester



  1. Basic Principles / State of the Art
  2. Applications in X-ray Astronomy, Planetary Science
     and Auroral Imaging
  3. Other Applications (neutron focusing, high
     intensity X-ray sources, X-ray lithography..)

               Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
              Acknowlegements

   J.Pearson, A.Martindale, C.Brown, H.Yates,
    and H.Su (University of Leicester, UK)
   E.Schyns and R. Fairbend (Photonis, France)
   M.Bavdaz and K.Wallace (ESA)
   M.Beiersbergen and M.Collon, (cosine
    Research, Netherlands)



          Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
 The need for novel X-ray mirror technologies
Conventional diamond-turned (Chandra) or replicated Nickel (XMM-Newton)
mirrors are heavy – a big disadvantage in space applications - and have limited
( ~1 degree) fields-of-view (FOVs)
MCP (micropore) optics can have a mass advantage of ~1000 times per unit effective
area and FOVs of ~3000 square degrees.




             Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
        Principles of a Lobster Eye X-ray Lens
                         Angel (1979) ; Wilkins et al. (1989) ; Fraser et al. (1993).
             X-rays




Diffuse           Double reflection (2-axes, true focus)
background
         Single reflection (1 axis, line focus)
                    Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
Technical Challenges
(from an MCP electron multiplier starting point)


1. MCP channel cross-section and figure
2. Surface roughness
3. Uniformity and straightness of fibre
4. Mechanical perfection of multifibres
5. Stacking of multifibres
6. Spherical slumping (0.1<R<10 m)
7. Channel coating (Ni, Ir..)
8. Aluminium filming of channels
                Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
      Mechanical Regularity I




   Multifibre boundary




Planar MCP size - 40 mm x 40 mm
 20 μm pores, 26 μm pitch ; L/D = 50:1 (1 mm thick) ;59% open area


                         Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
      MCP regularity II – multifibre scales




Manufacture of MCP optics industrialised by ESA
TRP funding at Photonis SAS (Brive-la-Gaillarde)
       Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
Current MCP
X-ray image
quality


Planar MCP
Point-to-Point
focusing, Cu L
X-rays
(0.93 keV)


2 arcminute
FWHM


                 Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
Uncoated                         Ir-coated


Demonstration of enhanced X-ray reflectivity at
2.5 keV for CVD Iridium-coated MCP optic


           Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
                      Comparison of bare, Ni-coated
                      and Ir-coated reflectivities at
                      3.1 keV. Daresbury SRS
                      Beamline 3.4




Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
X-ray results with planar, square-pore, square-packed MCP optics
2 arcminute FWHM focusing at ~ 1 keV ; ESTEC (Bavdaz et al ) measure ~15
arcsec on single multifibres.
Implied radius of curvature – 21.7m – mounting optics identified as critical


                  Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
                      0.0700
Surface Height (mm)



                      0.0525

                      0.0350

                      0.0175

                      0.0000
                           8.0000   10.0000   12.0000   14.0000   16.0000                        18.0000        20.0000     22.0000       24.0000      26.0000    28.0000
                                                                                                 X (mm)

                                                                                              35.0

Spherical Figure                                                                              30.0
                                                                                                         Principle axis 1
                                                                                                         Principle axis 2
measured by Contact                                                                           25.0

Profilometer                                                            Resolution (arcmin)
                                                                                              20.0


Nominal R = 75 cm                                                                             15.0


                                                                                              10.0
Measured R = 69 cm
                                                                                               5.0
(blue curve)
                                                                                               0.0
                                                                                                     0     10       20        30        40        50     60      70     80
                                                                                                                   Position (mm) arbitrary zero


                                              Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
Missions

Mission              Instrument              Partners
Kuafu                WFAI                    China
Lobster              ASM                     ESA/Russia
BepiColombo          IXS                     ESA
XNAV                 Multifocus telescope    LANL/DARPA

Jupiter-Europa       IXS/WFAI                ESA
LAD-C                Capture Cell            ESA




           Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
                      Lobster
The first imaging X-ray all-sky monitor
        • Fast X-ray transients
        • Gamma Ray Bursts & X-ray flashes
        • Cataclysmic Variables
        • Non-flaring coronal sources
        • X-ray bursts & superbursts
        • Supersoft sources
        • AGN time variability
        • Type II supernovae shock breakout
        • Novae
        • Flares from non-active galaxies
        • Black holes in X-ray binaries
        • Deep surveys
        • X-ray background mapping
        • X-ray emission in the solar system (cometary studies)

        Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
Variation of resolution with focal distance




  Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
Lobster-ISS (Phase A study 2000-4)




          Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
    The ISS as a platform for All Sky Monitoring

ISS Truss Length 178 m ; Module Length 74 m ; Mass 400 tons
                                                              Tilt: 30º forward of zenith
                                                              Total field: 162° x 22.5°
                     Zenith
                   30º
                                                              Field sweeps sky every 90
                                                              minute orbit.




                                                               Rotation Axis




  Direction of Motion


                         Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
Lobster-ISS Baseline Configuration
                                        Sun sensor




                               Optic
                               Module



 Star
 Tracker




           Front                                     Back

           Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
             eRosita          ART
                                                            Sun




          Lobster-SRG
Accommodation of Lobster (5 x 30deg x 30deg scan modules,
plus co-aligned eRosita module) on Navigator platform


           Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
View towards +Z




           Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
Lobster-ISS Effective Area versus X-ray Energy




         Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
                          Lobster and XMM-Newton

                                      Instrument Grasp
                                      (Aeff x field of view)



                                                               Lobster-ISS
Aeff x FOV (cm2 deg2)




                                                               XMM-Newton




                        Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
Planetary IXRF - X-ray Remote Sensing




                  Fluorescent
                  X-rays

                                           Solar X-rays




        Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
                                  Al/Si ratio of the
                                  lunar equatorial
                                  region from
                                  Apollos 15 and 16
                                  (C.G. Andre et al.
                                  (Science 197 (1977) 986)



                                    Surface resolution -
                                    30 km
                                    Surface coverage -
                                    10%




Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
Mariner 10 image of south polar region
(Typical crater size in Mercury highlands ~120 km)




Science with BepiColombo MIXS
We aim to :
• Map the elemental composition of the planetary surface on global, regional
and local scales, to help elucidate the origin and evolution of Mercury,
its anomalously high density, its cratering and volcanism
• Measure the line and continuum X-ray emissions from the dynamic
                   solar Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
interaction of the Third wind with the surface, exosphere and magnetosphere
    Square-pore,
Radially-packed MCP
  Wolter I Optics
  (Willingale and
    Fraser, 1993)




          Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
Wolter Type 1 for BepiColombo MIXS-T




    Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
Status of MCP optics for MIXS-T
Measured X-ray focusing with planar radially-packed optic LB001-R-2:
“point to point” focusing mode at Leicester
Space research centre




            (a)                       (b)                               (c)


Idealised ray trace model: in   Ray trace model including the   Measured X-ray image,
focus along the optical axis.   effects of out-of-focus shift   linear intensity scale
                                along the optical axis.


                        Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
   Log intensity re-scaled X-ray image from the prototype radial optic. Note “double arc”
   indicative of out-of-focus. The axes are marked in pixels (1pixel = 76microns)




Cut in Azimuth                                                     Radial Cut




                  Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
IXRFS Laboratory System :
BepiColombo MIXS-T in miniature



       Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
Fiducial Marks and Resolution
Estimation using 0.25 mm
diameter copper wire
Minimal effect of PSF

            Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
Garnetiferous Anorthosite:
CCD Spectrum




Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
Overlaid Optical and X-ray Images


      Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
                                Mg/Si
                                                       Na/Ca
 Al/Si



Element ratios


         Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
  KuaFu
                                  KuaFu-A          KuaFu-B1&2
  (2012-2015)
                                  at L1            polar orbit




SOHO image




                Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
UV Auroral Imagery
 Global imaging of magnetospheric
       dynamics from space




  DE
                                                  IMAGE FUV
                       Polar UVI


             Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
 Ultraviolet/Optical Focusing with MCPs of ~7 cm
 Radius of Curvature




Talysurf Profilometer measurements

              Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
Wide Field Auroral Imager for KuaFu B




      Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
Season’s Greetings/ Joyeux Noel




Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006
                  Dust detection using filmed MCPs
Microchannel Plates bearing 60nm thick Al film thermal barriers were exposed
on the Russian PIRS module to the external ISS environment for 734 days
The impacts reveal the presence of a high density of previously unobservable nanoscale
particles either debris or natural dust
The films are ~ a factor of 10 more sensitive to impacts than previously flown foils




Nanoparticle Impacts
(J.Carpenter et al.) at
J.Geophys.Res.(2005)


                          Third Symposium on Large TPCs, Paris, 11th December 2006

				
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