Social Investing to Enhance and Sustain Rural Sanitation Coverage
on Achieving Performance while being responsible
Revolving Loan Fund for Sanitation
in Tamil Nadu
Director - SCOPE
March 22nd 23rd, 2011 New Delhi
• Lack of awareness to public
• Importance of IEC not realized.
• Poor maintenance of infrastructure facilities
in public toilets
• No location specified technology options.
3/31/2012 SCOPE-Trichy 2
Communities' perception of sanitation:
Building a toilet very expensive.
o An early morning stroll and open defecation is considered
inexpensive and easy.
o A toilet close to house is unhygienic and gives bad odor
o When there is no proper house to dwell, water for drinking
why worry about toilet.
• High infant mortality and under-nutrition due to open
defecation and water borne diseases.
• People ignorant of close link between sanitation and
SCOPE’s initiative : 1995
A baseline survey results in Musiri Block, Trichy
• Many houses had no toilets.
• Most toilets constructed not used due to poor
quality and lack of privacy. (No Doors)
• About 80% of the people have spent part of their
earnings for medical care and hospitalization,
losing their wages also.
Action plan :
• Intensive awareness generation
• Close links with Government, Primary school
teachers, Parents, Community , women’s groups
• Sanitary mart for supply of materials to house
• Making available trained masons to house
Need of Revolving Loan Fund
• Government incentive for sanitation (Rs. 500 to 2,200)
• IEC for motivation to demand toilet.
• Banks unwilling to advance loans.
• Only alternative NGO funding.
• NGOs have very limited funds and funding agents advance funds
under very strict conditions and only small quantity.
SCOPE’ solution :
• Revolving fund with limited money given by funding agencies,
Water Aid, UK based NGO and Raskhtria Mahila Kosh, New Delhi.
• Effective use of fund for giving loans to motivated families,
insisting on family’s contribution, full support for construction,
close monitoring of usage of toilet and repayment of loans, no
interest / very low interest
• So that next batch of beneficiaries could be given loans.
• Sanitation funding SHOULD NOT BE just as a business venture.
• It should have a social goal.
• Secret of success of SCOPE programmes.
• The good will earned is continued even for Ecosan toilet
Strategies for RLF for toilet construction
in Kattukkulam (1997 – 98)
Selection of beneficiaries:
• Meeting of community beneficiaries
organized to explain the functioning of
RLF and selection of beneficiaries.
• The beneficiary should be a member
of a self help group, youth group or
• As per the desire of the families toilet
cum bath room were promoted. (total
96 – 100% village coverage) – NGP
• Repayment period TEN months.
• SHG animator and SCOPE staff work closely
for toilet construction from site selection
to usage after construction.
• Total cost for toilet construction Rs. 2,500
• Deciding 500, for new toilet Rs. 1,000) for
each family after discussion with the
• Signing the agreement with family
• Flexibility in putting additional funds helped families to
plan for raising banana and other fruits which were
useful to them and even helped sale to repay the loan.
• All constructed toilet cum bathrooms, used them fully
and repayment of loans was 100%.
SCOPE constructed total of 20,000 pour
flush pit toilets between 1995 and 2003.
Of this 12,000 were constructed under the
Pre-Implementation Implementation Post Construction
Sustained advocacy through SCOPE received RLF funds Ensures that the loan amount
participatory process and from Water Aid is properly used.
small group discussion, films Received loan application Continue health and
and wall paintings from beneficiaries sanitation advocacy
Other sanitation The beneficiary is identified Continued Monitoring by
intervention –maternal and by the SHG or SHG, SCOPE
child health, school President/ward member of
sanitation etc. the village.
On their recommendation
the loan amount is
Received repayments from
beneficiaries promptly and
fund available for giving new
IMPACT of RLF
• In Eight years period the number of original loan beneficiaries increased
from 7,000 in 1995 to 12,000 in 2003 because of the RLF.
• Re payment 100%. Repayment period TEN months.
• All the houses in 30 villages are having 100% toilet-bathroom coverage.
• The sense of ownership created, ensures that all the toilets are used and
are in good condition.
• Kitchen garden/green cover maintained, thereby income earned.
• The social status of the beneficiaries enhanced.
• Occurrence of diseases reduced.
• Attracted visitors from various places.
Waste Venture Fund (WVF)
• WVF deposited in Indian bank as security deposit in
the form of fixed time deposit which treat as
revolving loan funds, an pay loans to beneficiaries at
Ten percent interest.
• With this facility, advanced loans to 1437 toilets and
repay is very satisfactory.
• Of this 25 are toilets linked bio gas units.
Hollow block production centre
• Two block production center with the
loan amount of Rs. 3 lakhs.
• One loan fully paid, and the second
60 percent repaid as per the schedule.
• Ceramic pan three-in-one model
production initiated in Vridhachalam and
Gujarat at cost of Rs. 30,000/-
• FRP pan production with the support of
WVF fund of Rs. 16,000 for making
• FIBRO Industries, Bangalore who have
produced over 1,000 pans for
distribution in many parts of country.
• Research on urine application : From WVF Rs. 4.63 lakhs
to Tamilnadu agriculture university for paddy research.
• Impact : Ecosan toilet scaling up research promoted and
• Funds for other research programme from other funding
• All these helped for inclusion of Ecosan as one of a
Total Sanitation Campaign rules of the government of
India in 2010.