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									                                                               5 August 2009

      Shrimp culture in Vietnam
    The ways to revise the activity
           y                      y

                      VIETNAM TEAM
                      Bangkok , 2009

Historical development
• Has been started over 100 years in Vietnam, but
    intensive shrimp culture has just been started in 1987
•   In 1970s, shrimp culture was still mostly extensive with
    low production and attributed by natural seed and
    without feeding
•   Since 1971, artificial breeding of several species
    including P. merguiensis, P. semisulcatus, P. japonicus
    was successfully studied but still faced difficulties in
•   1980s, P. monodon was successfully bred opening a new
    era of shrimp culture in Vietnam.

                                                      5 August 2009

Historical development
• Most of shrimp culture area in Vietnam is located
    in the Mekong delta, in the central coastal
    regions and the North of Vietnam.
•   Together with expanding the culture area,
    shrimp production increased dramatically from
•   Main shrimp species for cultures in Vietnam are
                       (P.      d ) Pacific hit
    Bl k tiger shrimp (P monodon), P ifi white
    Black ti     hi
    shrimp, White shrimp (P. vannamei). However,
    black tiger shrimp is the most important one,
    contributing the largest production.

                                Red River Delta

                                   Central part

                                Mekong River Delta

                                       5 August 2009

Shrimp culture area and production

Total yield production (1999 – 2006)

                                                                     5 August 2009

Shrimp production
• Improved extensive farming and semi-intensive farming are
    the most common cultivation methods
• Average productivity
    – Extensive system: about 300 kg/ha
    – Semi-intensive farming 1,500-2,000 kg/ha.
    – Intensive shrimp farming has reached 5-7 ton/ha/crop.
• In Northern Vietnam there is usually only one crop per year
    that can be harvested while in the South there are generally
            p p y
    two crops per year.
•   The enormous increase of the brackish-water aquaculture has
    some negative impacts, as the silting of the inland areas
    reach up to 10 km inland and in addition there is an important
    reduction of the mangrove area.

Shrimp production
• Monoculture shrimp (only
    P.       d
    P monodon or P   P.
•   Poly-culture (integrated
    with tilapia, crab and
•   The increase of shrimp
    culture in Vietnam can be
    done through
    intensification and by
    opening new land for

                                                    5 August 2009

    Shrimp culture: Technical aspect
    • Shrimp culture has been developed
       significantly over the last ten years
       towards more intensive farming.
    • The traditional extensive farming
       areas have been reduced and replaced
       the improved extensive farming
       systems, which have been
       supplemented with the artificial seed
       and food.
    • The semi-intensive and intensive
       farming systems have been introduced
       and applied. However, the expansion
       of those systems is carefully
       considered (environmental and natural
       resource impacts).

     Shrimp culture: Technical aspect
• Seed production of P. monodon and P.
    vanamei is available The number of
    hatcheries increased rapidly from 2,086 farms
    (6.6 million of PL15) in 1998 to 5,094 farms
    (26 billion of PL15) in 2004.

• The hatcheries are mainly in the central part
    of Vietnam and the South.

• The production of shrimp seed in the North
    just met only 14% of the need of this region;
    the rest have to be imported from the Central
    provinces or China.
•   Generally poor quality of seed and pathogen
    infection are the major problem effecting
    shrimp culture

                                                          5 August 2009

Shrimp culture: Socio-economic
• More profitable (5-11 times) than other agriculture
     d ti        i     d lt      d ti
  production as rice and salt production.
• Requires higher investment. A barrier for the poor or
  medium sized farmers to enter the shrimp farming
  industry. For improved extensive shrimp farming
  system requires the production cost of VND 23
  millions ($1.500) per hectare. It is 3 to 5 times for
  semi intensive and intensive system
  semi-intensive               system.
• Due to high investment in shrimp farming industry
  almost investors are people who have the ability to
  access credit from the bank or other capital sources
  and private private companies and cooperatives.

Shrimp culture: Socio-economic
• The poor mainly involve
  in extensive shrimp
  culture. However, they
  may benefit indirectly
  from shrimp industry
  through the employment
  opportunities that this
  sector creates for the
  local community, such as
  the part-time jobs during
  the production cycle or
  the seed and feed supply

                                                                        5 August 2009

  Shrimp culture: Market aspect
                                             D. Market
Farmers           Mid-                                       I.
                                                             I Market
 • The marketing of shrimp and other fisheries products in
     Vietnam is complex.
 •   There are various product forms, marketing channels and
     markets. It may be marketed alive from farmers or sold to
     middlemen who sell products in retail markets or assemble
     and sell to processing plants for export.
 •   Exported Shrimp: mainly in frozen and accounts for more
     than 50% to the total export value.
 •   Shrimp contributed about 52 % of total export value in 2004
     and it was 61% in 2005
 •   The major markets of Vietnam’s shrimp are Japan, America
     and the European Union.

  Shrimp culture: Market aspect
 • Shrimp farming is being influenced by several macro-level
     market related trends (food safety and quality standards
     market-related                                   standards,
     certification and traceability), importing country awareness of
     social and environmental issues in shrimp farming, vertical
     integration in the shrimp industry to control costs and risks
     and trends towards lower farm gate prices.
 •   All these issues need to be addressed and responded to in a
     proper manner in order to ensure the sustainable marketing
     of shrimp products.
 •                   export
     In addition to export, shrimp products are also consumed in
     domestic markets, mainly in big cities..
 •   Although shrimp price showed a steadily decreasing trend,
     shrimp farming continues to be attractive to local farmers,
     investors and the local government because of its high profit,
     and the high market demand.

                                         5 August 2009

  Shrimp culture: Market aspect

  Shrimp culture: Environmental
  and Disease aspects
• Shrimp aquaculture farmers in
  Vietnam have experienced serious
  disease outbreaks, which were
  concluded to be related to
  environmental factors.

• More intensification in shrimp
  farming development always goes
  together with using higher amount of
  shrimp feed, drugs, and other

• In addition, the risk of disease
  contamination is always threatening
  the economic efficiency of the

                                                          5 August 2009

   Shrimp culture: Environmental
   and Disease aspects
 • In 2001 and and 2002, the shrimp
     diseases caused great damages to
     farmers in the Mekong delta.
 •   Therefore, diseases and
     environmental pollution are the
     main threats to the success and
     sustainability of the shrimp industry
     in Vietmam.
 •   Limitations to the expansion of
     shrimp culture areas include:
     • Unplanned development and poor
     design of pond systems of shrimp
     culture areas.
     • Excessive use of chemicals and
     pharmaceuticals in shrimp ponds.

   Shrimp culture: Environmental
   and Disease aspects
• Organic wastes that accumulate
   at the bottom of shrimp ponds
   also create problems for
   cultured species, especially
   when they decompose under
   anaerobic conditions in bottom

      What are the solutions to address the environment
   issues emerging from shrimp farming?

                                            5 August 2009

 Shrimp culture: Food supply
• The pellet food market for shrimp in
  Vietnam is strongly competitive
  among the many private companies
  from China and Taiwan, Thailand, the
  United States, and Vietnam.

• All of these companies supply both
  the pellet shrimp diets for
  aquaculture and feed for the cattle
               industries Nevertheless,
  and poultry industries. Nevertheless
  the price of shrimp feed is still high,
  and this has a direct impact on
  production costs and returns and the
  financial sustainability of the shrimp
  farming industry.

 Shrimp culture: Infrastructure
• The physical infrastructure for
  shrimp pond culture includes
  irrigation systems, electricity,
  roads, etc.

• Irrigation systems in shrimp
  culture areas, however, are still
  poorly developed throughout the
  country. Almost all of the areas
  used for shrimp aquaculture use
  existing forms of irrigation
  intended for agriculture; therefore,
  they do not meet the technical
  requirements of most aquaculture

                                                              5 August 2009

 Shrimp culture: Infrastructure
• Infrastructure development
    for shrimp and other kinds of
    aquaculture is still open for
    investment and is
    encouraged by the
•   Conflicts in water supply and
    discharge between
    agriculture and aquaculture
•   The conflicts are rising as the
    water shortage become more
    severe in many agriculture
    areas (during the dry season)
    and threaten the
    sustainability of the coastal
    shrimp farming systems.

    Planning has lagged behind the rapid pace of
    aquaculture development

    Insufficient government investment for construction of
    aquaculture infrastructure, especially for water supply
    and discharge canals, and protection dikes

    Many research results have been applied in the field.
    However science and technology have not fully met the
    requirements of current shrimp culture development

                                                                5 August 2009


Training and extension services are unable to meet demand.
Many farmers practise aquaculture with inadequate
knowledge a d e pe e ce
  o edge and experience
Environmental pollution occurred in some intensive culture
areas due to insufficient treatment of pond effluent and
The National Environmental and Disease Warning and
           g y           y        y
Monitoring System was only recently established and is not
yet fully operational
Shrimp seed quality is regulated and PCR labs are available,
but insufficient monitoring and control gives varying quality

  Future Trends
  • Gradual move from extensive and semi-intensive
  systems towards intensive culture, with priority given to
               g         p            p
  culture of high value species for export markets

  • Sustainable, effective, optimal use of water resources
  rather than expansion of culutre area

  • Application of GAP (Good Aquaculture Practices), and
  CoC (Code of Conduct for Responsible Aquaculture)
      b d       h        bl              f lf l h
  combined with a traceability system to fulfil the
  standards of both international and domestic markets

                                                                5 August 2009

Future Action

Planning: Priority will be given to complete aquaculture
planning, with increased focus on pond culture

Infrastructure Support for shrimp culture:
I f    t   t    S        tf    h i       lt
Stimulate shrimp culture by supplying support services

Water supply and drainage for shrimp culture, particularly in
the Mekong River Delta

Sc e ce and technology, extension:
Science a d tec o ogy, e te s o
Dissemination of high quality seed and SPF seend from
improved broodstock resources

Future Action

Feed and medicines:

Promotion of safe feed production using locally available
ingredients, at reduced feed production cost

Increased control of inputs (materials, chemicals, feed) and
product quality through traceability systems

Assured product quality for both export and domestic markets
through the application of GAP and CoC

                                                                  5 August 2009

 Future Action

 Other issues
 Management of aquaculture areas based on community
 p      p
 Implement and improve the Environmental and Disease Warning
 and Monitoring System
 Continuouly study on seed selection and SPF seed. Promotion of
 using SPF seed in shrimp culture through out the country

Future Action

Develop and introduce Bio-security practices for shrimp culture

Disseminate effluent treatment technologies and regulate
effluent treatment from all farming systems

Disseminate research results through extension

Evaluate advanced aquaculture models developed by farmers
and disseminate widely when appropriate

Strengthen relationships between producers and consumers

Routinely update and disseminate information on technologies
and markets

                            5 August 2009

      Cám ơn!
THANK YOU!        ขอบคุณ

             terima kasih



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