ROMANIA – Renewable Energy Fact Sheet by dandanhuanghuang

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									ROMANIA – Renewable Energy Fact Sheet


 Policy Background
 A European energy policy must pursue the objective of a sustainable, competitive and secure
 supply of energy. If the EU continues on its present course, this key objective will not be
 attained. In January 2007, the European Commission adopted an energy policy for Europe.
 This was supported by several documents on different aspects of energy and included an
 action plan to meet the major energy challenges Europe faces. Each European citizen must
 be informed of these challenges and the role they should play in meeting them.
 Renewable energies help combat climate change while increasing security of supply.

 Key Issues
 In terms of RES of gross electricity consumption, Romania is on target. In 2004, the majority
 of all RES-E was generated through large-scale hydro power. To a large extent, the high
 potential of small-scale hydro power has remained untouched. Between 1997 and 2004, both
 the level of production, and the growth rate of most RES have been stable. Provisions for
 public support are in place, but renewable energy projects have so far not been financed.

 Current national RES target
 In Romania, the RES target to be achieved is 11% of gross energy in 2010.
 The RES-E target that was set is 33% of gross electricity consumption in 2010.

 Progress towards meeting national targets
 The RES-E share of gross electricity consumption has shrunken from 31.3% in 1997 to
 29.87% in 2004.

 Main supporting policies
 Romania introduced the following measures to promote RES-E:
     o   A quota system with tradable green certificates (TGC) for new RES-E has been in
         place since 2004. The mandatory quota increase from 0.7% in 2005 to 8.3% in 2010.
         TGCs are issued to electricity production from wind, solar, biomass or hydro power
         generated in plants with less than 10 MW capacity.
     o   Mandatory dispatching and priority trade of electricity produced from RES since 2004.
 . Legislation on biofuels was transposed into national legislation in December 2005.
 The list of priorities of the Romanian Energy Efficiency Fund (2002) include the use of RES
 for heating.

 Key renewable energy statistics
 Electricity from RES: In Romania, the total amount of RES-E has decreased from 17,520
 GWh in 1997 to 16,518 GWh in 2004. Nearly all RES-E in is generated from hydro power.
 Production from large-scale hydro power totalled 15,855 GWh in 2004. The share taken up by
 small-scale hydro power is moderate, with 658 GWh in 2004. The average growth rate of
 hydro power is small (on average 5% per year between 1997 and 2004), despite a large
 potential (6 TWh smaller than 10 MW). The Romanian state programme includes a resolution
 to install wind power with a total capacity of 120 MW until 2010. In 2004, Romanian wind
 farms generated 2 GWh.




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ROMANIA – Renewable Energy Fact Sheet

 Electricity generation from renewable energy sources by type (GWh)

                                      20,000     Biogas              Solid biomass
                                                 Biowaste            Geothermal
                                      18,000     Hydro small-scale   Hydro large-scale
                                                 PV                  Wind onshore
  Electricity generation [GWh/year]




                                      16,000     Wind offshore

                                      14,000

                                      12,000

                                      10,000

                                       8,000

                                       6,000

                                       4,000

                                       2,000

                                          0
                                          1991     1992   1993   1994   1995   1996      1997   1998   1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004
 Source: European Commission
 http://ec.europa.eu/energy/res/legislation/share_res_eu_en.htm
 Biofuels: No biofuels production is taking place in Romania so far.
 Heating and cooling: Biomass is the main source of RES-H in Romania. In 2004, this resulted
 in 3 047 ktoe. A further 68 ktoe was generated through geothermal heat. The production of
 both biomass heat and geothermal heat did not increase between 1997 and 2004.

                                                                 Penetration 1997          Penetration 2004          Av. Annual growth
                                                                      (ktoe)                    (ktoe)                      [%]
                      Biomass heat                                    3 296                     3 047                      -1%
                      Solar thermal heat                                 4                         4                        0%
                      Geothermal heat
                      incl. heat pumps                                  67                         68                         0%

 Source: European Commission
 http://ec.europa.eu/energy/res/legislation/share_res_eu_en.htm

 Good example: Project “SAWDUST 2000”
 The project is a fuel switch project addressing the Romanian district-heating (DH) sector, and
 aiming to substitute fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas with local wood residues such as
 sawdust, wood chips and bark originating from the forestry and sawmill industry. Practically
 speaking fuel will be sawdust as this is the easiest available biomass residue (reason to the
 name of the project – Sawdust 2000).

 An important aspect of forest carbon management in Romania, is the way in which wood
 residues are used or disposed of by wood processing companies. Large stockpiles of wood
 residues have been accumulating in forest areas in Romania. The biomass resources used in
 the project will be existing wood residues supplied by the forest- and sawmill industry (mostly
 sawdust). To date, these residues are dumped in forests which is illegal and causes
 considerable environmental damage.

 The aims, specific objectives and strategies of the project are the following:
     - to promote the wider use of biomass in general, and wood waste in particular, as a
         cost effective and environmentally beneficial RES for Romania;
     - to demonstrate efficient replacement of oil fuel (expensive and pollutant) by wood
         waste to produce heat;
     - to assist local communities in mitigating pollution from wood processing, train local
         operators in using energy efficient technologies and practices;



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ROMANIA – Renewable Energy Fact Sheet

      -   to increase awareness of the economic, social and environmental benefits of using
          wood waste;
      -   to spread and developed the results of the implemented biomass projects, in five
          selected towns;
      -   to reduce the uncontrolled dumping of sawdust in rivers and in nature in general, and
          in this way to reduce the impact on nature caused by wood processing activities,
          which is one of the key industry sectors in this region.
 For further information
 To find out more about renewables, go to: http://ec.europa.eu/energy/res/index_en.htm
 http://ec.europa.eu/energy/intelligent/index_en.html
 To find out more about the current situation of renewables in the Member States, go to
 http://ec.europa.eu/energy/res/legislation/electricity_member_states_en.htm
 http://ec.europa.eu/energy/res/legislation/share_res_eu_en.htm
 To find out more about support measures, go to
 http://ec.europa.eu/energy/res/legislation/support_electricity_en.htm
 To find out about a project or contact an energy agency in your region, go to
 http://www.managenergy.net/emap/maphome.html
 Further fact sheets on Romania and other Member States can be found on:
 http://ec.europa.eu/energy/energy_policy/facts_en.htm

 What is meant by…..?
 RES: Renewable energy sources
 RES-E: Electricity production from renewable energy sources
 RES-H: Production of heat and cold from renewable energy sources
 Biofuels: Mainly includes biodiesel and bioethanol
 Biomass: Includes solid biomass, biowaste and biogas
 CHP: Combined Heat and Power
 GWh: gigawatthour
 ktoe: Thousand tonnes of oil equivalent
 MW: megawatt
 TWh: terrawatthour
 PV: Photo-voltaic – technology for the production of electricity from solar energy
 Disclaimer
 Views expressed in this document have not been adopted or in any way approved by the European
 Commission and should not be relied upon as a statement of the Commission’s views.
 The Commission does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this document, nor does it
 accept responsibility for any use made thereof.




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