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The Journal will publish accounts of original research in general microbiology, i.e. the study of bacteria,
microfungi, microscopic algae, protozoa, and viruses in their biological activities and, more particularly,
the fundamental aspects of the study of these forms, including structure, development, physiology,
genetics, cytology, systematics and ecology. Writers of papers on a specialized aspect of their subject
should describe their work so that its relevance to their own science and to microbiology in general will
be apparent to readers who may be unfamiliar with the particular aspect.
                          T H E PREPARATION O F PAPERS
                     ‘Easy writing’s curst hard reading.’-Richard Brinsley Sheridan.
                     ‘Easy reading’s curst hard writing.’-The Editors, J. gen. Microbial.
The Editors wish to emphasize ways in which contributors can help to avoid delays in publication.
  (1) Papers must be written in English with the utmost conciseness consistent with clarity. The best
English for the purpose of the Journal is that which gives the sense in the fewest short words.
  (2) A paper should be written only when a piece of work is rounded off. Authors should not be seduced
into writing a series of papers on the same subject seriatim as results come to hand. It is better, for many
reasons, to wait until a concise and comprehensive paper can be written.
  (3) Authors should state the objects they had in view when the work was undertaken, the means by
which they carried it out and the conclusions they draw. A section labelled ‘Discussion’ should be strictly
limited to discussing, if this be necessary, and not to recapitulating. Many papers when first sent to the
Journal are too long for the crucial information they contain. It is unnecessary to describe preliminary or
abortive experiments.
  (4) Figures and tables should be selected to illustrate the points made, to summarize, or to record
important quantitative results. Well-designed tables or graphs should need little explanatory letterpress.
Photographs or drawings should not be submitted unless they illustrate facts that cannot be conveniently
described in the text.
  ( 5 ) Authors should remember that in preparing their typescript they are giving instructions to the
printer (about layout, etc.), as well as attempting to convey their meaning t o their readers. The latter
object will be the better attained the more carefully authors consider how their typescripts will be
converted to the printed page. Ink corrections on a typescript greatly prolong the type-setter’s work;
the final version of a paper must if necessary be retyped to provide a clean copy for the printer. Type-
scripts which do not conform to the conventions of the Journal will be returned to authors for revision.
  (6) Special attention should be given to the details below in ‘Directions to Contributors’. Strict
observance of these requirements will help to shorten the interval between the receipt of a paper and its
publication. Where relevant the ‘Suggestionsto Authors, Symbols and Abbreviations and Notes on Usage
and Conventions’ published in the Biochemical Journal (1957),66,l-16 should be followed. The pamphlet,
General Notes on the Preparation of Scientific Papers, published by the Royal Society, Burlington House,
Piccadilly, London, W. 1 (2s. 6d.; post free, 2s. 10d.) will be found useful.
  Editors do not alter authors’ typescripts except to increase clarity and conciseness, or to bring them
into line with the Journal’s conventions. If an editorial alteration changes an author’s meaning one
implication is that it was expressed ambiguously. When an editor can grasp the meaning of a sentence
unequivocally it may be assumed that anyone can.
                         D I R E C T I O N S T O CONTRIBUTORS
Communications. Papers submitted for publication             to press lies in the first place with the author. Authors
should be sent to A. F. B. Standfast (The Journal of         should consult a current issue in order to make them-
General Microbiology), Lister Institute of Preventive        selves familiar with the Journal’s typographical and
Medicine, Elstree, Hertfordshire, England. Communi-          other conventions, use of cross-headings, layout of
cations about offprints should be addressed to The           tables, etc.
University Press, Cambridge.                                   Papers should be headed with the title of the paper,
General. Submission of a paper to the Editors will be        the names of the authors (male authors use initials,
held to imply that it reports unpublished work, that it      female authors use one given name in full) and the name
is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and    and address of the laboratory where the work was
that if accepted for the Jozsrnal it will not be published   performed.
again in the same form, either in English or in any other      A paper should be submitted in double-spacedtyping
language, without the consent of the Editors.                (top copy) with a 14 in. left-hand margin, and on paper
                                                             suitable for ink corrections. The paper should in general
Form of papers Submitted for Publication. The                be divided into the following parts in the order indi-
onus of preparing a paper in a form suitable for sending     cated: ( a ) Summary: brief and self-contained; (b)
Introduction; ( c ) Methods; ( d ) Results (illustrative       Chemical Formulae. These should be written as far
protocols only should be included); ( e ) Discussion (if       as possible on one line. The chemical nomenclature
any), and general conclusions; ( f ) Acknowledgements ;        adopted is that followed by the Chemical Society
(8)References.                                                                1936,p. 1 6 ) With a few exceptions the
                                                               ( J . chem. SOC.        07.
   The position of Tables and Figures should be indicated      symbols and abbreviations are those adopted by a
in the typescript.                                             committee of the Chemical, Faraday, and Physical
   Typescripts should carry the name and address of the        Societies in 1937 (see J. chem. SOC.
                                                                                                  1944,p. 7 7 . Care
person to whom proofs are to be sent, and a shortened          should be taken to specify exactly whether anhydrous
version of the paper’s title, not exceeding forty-five         or hydrated compounds were used, i.e. the correct
letters and spaces in length, suitable for a running title     molecular formation should be used, e.g. CuSO,,
in the published pages of the work.                                   .               .
                                                               CuSO, H,O or CuSO, 5H,O.
References. References in the text are cited thus:             Descriptions of Solutions. The concentrationsof solu-
Brewer & Stewer (1942), (Brewer & Stewer, 1942).               tions are preferably defined in terms of normality (N)or
Where a paper to be cited has more than two authors,           molarity (M). The term ‘ %’ must be used in correct
the names of all the authors should be given when              sense, i.e. g.1100 g. of solution. For ‘per cent of volume’,
reference is first made in the text, e.g. (Brewer, Stewer      i.e. ml.1100 ml., the term ‘yo(v/v)’ should be used, and
& Gurney, 1944), and subsequently as (Brewer et al.            for weight of a substance in 100 ml. of solution, the
1 4 4 ; but papers with more than four authors may be
 91)                                                           term ‘yo (wlv)’.
cited, e.g. (Cobley et al. 1940)in the first instance. Where
more than one paper by the same author(s) has appeared         Proprietary Substances and Materials. At first
in one year the references should be distinguished in the      mention, the correct designation of a manufacturer
text and the bibliography by the letters a, b, etc.            should be given in the text, with address to enable other
following the citation of the year (e.g. 1914a,1914b,or        workers to obtain the product mentioned.
1914a,b).                                                      Nomenclature of Amino Acids and Vitamins. The
   References a t the end of the paper should be given in      rules published in the Biochemical Journal (1952),52,
alphabetical order according to the name of the first          1-2, should be followed.
author of each publication, and should include the title
of the paper. Titles of journals should be abbreviated in      Nomenclature and Descriptions of Micro-
accordance with the World List of Scientific Periodicals,      organisms. Binomial Latin names of micro-organisms,
4th edn. (1965).References to books and monographs             the generic name only with a capital, must be used in
should include year of publication, title, edition, town of    accordance with International Rules of Nomenclature;
publication and publisher, in that order. It is the duty       in full at the first mention in each paragraph and in the
of the author to check his references and see that the         Summary but in subsequent mention with the generic
correct abbreviations are used.                                name abbreviated. Single initial letter abbreviations are
Illustrations. Illustrations and diagrams should be            used where they are not ambiguous. Binomials should
approximately &vice the size of thefinished block, each on     be underlined in the typescript. Scientific epithets or
a separate sheet, bearing the author’s names, short title      trivial names are not underlined and should be without
of the paper and Plate or Figure numbers on the back.          capitals.
Diagrams should be drawn in indian ink on plain white             Descriptions of new species of cultivable microbes
paper, Bristol board, faintly blue-lined paper, or tracing     should not be submitted unless an authentic specimen
linen (but not plastic tracing linen) with letters,            of a living culture has been deposited in a recognized
numbers, etc. written lightly in pencil. Lettering should      culture collection
be clear of the diagram and indicate by blue pencilled            The word ‘generation’ should not be used synony-
lines the desired position. Caption and legend should          mously with ‘subculture’. For an agreed use of terms
be typed on a sheet separate from the illustration and         like strain, type, variant, phase, etc., see the Inter-
numbered to correspond. Drawings and photographs               national Bacteriological Code of Nomenclature, Sec-
should include a statement of magnification. Photo-            tion 1 Rules 7 and 8
                                                                     ,                .
graphs should be well-contrasted prints on glossy paper,          Except for good reasons, micro-organisms should be
and should be chosen for size and number, bearing in           designated by the names used in the works listed below.
mind layout on the finished Plate; layout should be            When other authorities are followed, they should be
indicated. Coloured plates must be paid for by the             cited whenever obscurity might result from their use.
author.                                                        MICROFUNGI.Airnorth & Bisby‘s Dictionary of the
Tables. Tables should carry headings describing their             Fungi, 1961, 5th ed. (Kew: Commonwealth Myco-
content and be comprehensible without reference to the            logical Institute.)
text. Each table should be typed on a separate sheet           P A T PATHOGENIC F U N G I AND PLANT DISEASES.
                                                                L N                                                     Of
and its approximate position in the text indicated on            Common British Plant Diseases, 19M. (Cambridge
the typescript.                                                  University Press.)
Symbols and Abbreviations. Authors should refer to             P A T VIRUSES AND VIRUS DISEASES (1957).Rev. Uppl.
                                                                L N
current issues of The Journal of General Microbiology for        Myc01. 35, Suppl. 1 7 .
informationin this connection. Attention is particularly       BACTERIA.  Author’s preferencesin naming are a t present
drawn to the following points: degrees Centigrade are            accepted provided that the designation is unambi-
written, e.g. looo,not 100°C.; hr, min., sec. (singular          guous and conforms with the International Bacterio-
and plural); M = molar; m (milli-) = 10-8 and p                                                     J.
                                                                 logical Code of Nomenclature (1949; gen. Mimbiol.
(tnicro-) =        ml. (millilitre) should be used instead       3,444) and the Opinions issued by the International
of c.c., and pg. (microgram) instead of y ; N = normal           Committee on Bacteriological Nomenclature. If
(of solutions); No. or no. = number. Ratios should be            desired, a synonym may be added in brackets when
written 1 :10;dilutions, 1/10.                                   a name i first mentioned.

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