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					Earth Hour                                                                                                                   1



    Earth Hour
    Earth Hour is a worldwide event that is organized by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and is held on the
    last Saturday of March annually, encouraging households and businesses to turn off their non-essential lights for one
    hour to raise awareness about the need to take action on climate change. Earth Hour was conceived by WWF and
    The Sydney Morning Herald in 2007, when 2.2 million residents of Sydney participated by turning off all
    non-essential lights.[1] Following Sydney's lead, many other cities around the world adopted the event in 2008.[2][3]
    Earth Hour 2012 will take place on March 31, 2012 from 8:30 p.m. to 9:30 p.m., at participant's local time.


    2012
    Earth Hour 2012 will take place on March 31, 2012 from 8:30 p.m. to 9:30 p.m.[4]
    In February, Earth Hour launched its 2012 campaign, “I Will If You Will”, with the intention of engaging its growing
    global community to go beyond the hour and coordinate their efforts publicly through Facebook, Twitter, Google+
    and email. Using a dedicated YouTube platform [5], IWIYW asks Earth Hour's digital community to inspire people
    from all corners of the globe to take sustainability actions, and to share their commitment to the environment with
    their own social media networks.
    Executive Director and Co-Founder Andy Ridley said, "Earth Hour’s challenge is no longer to connect people; the
    challenge is to offer a reason to connect. Any movement of change begins with symbolism - it’s a needed step to
    prove enough people care about an issue. Earth Hour is past the beginning now, and lots of people are switching
    their lights off every year in March. We’re now at the stage of taking it beyond the hour." [6]
    Youtube, following the previous year's example, changed its logo and added a switch on/off feature near the title of
    each video, so that users can change the background color from white to black.
    Further proof of Earth Hour's change in direction came when it was announced its global headquarters was moving
    from Sydney to Singapore. A launch event took place at ION Orchard on February 20, where it was announced that
    the move was supported by Singapore's Economic Development Board (EDB). [7]


    2011
    Earth Hour 2011 was the biggest year in the campaign's five year history, reaffirming it as the largest ever voluntary
    action for the environment. It took place in a record 5,251 cities and towns in 135 countries and territories in all
    seven continents.[8] It had an estimated reach of 1.8 billion people across the globe. In addition to this, the
    campaign's digital footprint grew to 91 million. [9]
    In 2011, Earth Hour’s iconic global ‘lights out’ event, some of the world’s most recognized landmarks, including the
    Forbidden City, Eiffel Tower, Buckingham Palace, Golden Gate Bridge, Table Mountain, Christ the Redeemer statue
    and Sydney Opera House switched off their lights.
    In India, the Earth Hour 2011 was held on 26 March 2011 from 8:30 p.m. to 9:30 p.m. IST, flagged off by the Delhi
    Chief Minister Smt.Sheila Dixit and Earth Hour 2011 Ambassador and Bollywood Heroine Vidya Balan in the
    presence of Jim Leape, Director General, WWF International.[10]
    All seven continents joined in with turning their lights off. In Azerbaijan, Maiden Tower darkened for Earth
    Hour.[11]
    The Philippines, which has been an active participant of the Earth Hour, had an early "earth hour" when power was
    accidentally interrupted,[12] plunging Metro Manila and nearby provinces into darkness. After power was restored,
    major buildings, commercial centers and residential areas in Metro Manila and most provinces continued to turn off
    their lights, while participating channels in the Philippines, ABS-CBN and Cartoon Network halted their
    transmissions for an hour.
Earth Hour                                                                                                                             2


    30 provinces and cities in Vietnam took part in Earth Hour 2011 with the main event held in Nha Trang. The nation's
    electricity demand fell 400,000 kWh, which is one fifth less than the previous year's. Vietnam managed to save 500
    million VND ($23,809) thanks to the saved power.[13]
    YouTube promoted the Earth Hour by changing its logo, and by adding a switch on/off feature near the title of each
    video, so that users can change the background color from white to black.
    One of the least co-operative areas traditionally has been Alberta; in 2008, Calgary's power consumption went up
    during Earth Hour. The trend continued in 2011 when Edmonton's power usage also increased. While Calgary's
    power usage went down in 2011 during the event, electricity officials could not distinguish their readings between
    normal usage and a conscious attempt to participate.[14]


    2010
    Earth Hour 2010 was held from 8:30 p.m. to 9:30
    p.m. local time, March 27.[15] In Israel, the hour was
    held on April 22.[16]
    Earth Hour 2010 was reportedly the biggest Earth
    Hour yet, aiming to garner more than the one billion
    participant goal of 2009's Earth Hour.[17]
    126 countries participated in Earth Hour 2010.[18]
    In the United States polling shows that an estimated
    90,000,000 Americans participated in Earth Hour as
    lights were turned off around the country, including
    iconic landmarks such as Mount Rushmore, the Las          The metal structure of the greenhouses of the curitiban Botanic Garden
    Vegas Strip, the Empire State Building and Niagara         (Curitiba, Paraná, Southern Brazil), with its lights off on March 27,
    Falls.                                                                                     2010

    Earth Hour will be carried out in practical ways, as
    cities and landmarks apply the core principle of turning off the lights to their everyday routine. In Chicago, the
    Building Owners and Managers Association (BOMA) developed lighting guidelines to reduce light pollution, and
    reduce the carbon footprint of downtown buildings. Mount Rushmore in South Dakota will now start powering down
    each night around 9 p.m. instead of 11 p.m.
    In Vietnam, electricity demand fell 500,000 kWh during Earth Hour 2010, which was three times larger than the first
    time the country joined the event in 2009.[19]
    In the Philippines, 1,067 towns and cities pledged participation in 2010 and over 15 million Filipinos participated in
    the event.
    About 4000 cities participated, including landmarks such as Big Ben, the Empire State Building, the Sydney Opera
    House, the Eiffel Tower, the Parthenon, the Brandenburg Gate, and the Forbidden City.[20]
    Celebrity Earth Hour ambassadors included South African Archbishop Desmond Tutu, former New Zealand Prime
    Minister Helen Clark, President of Vietnam Nguyễn Minh Triết,[21] and London Mayor Boris Johnson.
    Earth Hour has garnered support from many corporations including Coca-Cola Enterprises, Wells Fargo, IKEA,
    HSBC, PwC, Accenture and Nokia Siemens Networks.
    Some critics point out that the reduction in power consumption in most cases is indistinguishable from zero.[22]
    Sydney's The Herald Sun equated the power savings in the Sydney central business district to "taking 48,613 cars off
    the road for 1 hour." Critics, most notably Australian Columnist Andrew Bolt pointed out that "A cut so tiny [48,613
    cars off the road for 1 hour] is trivial - equal to taking six cars off the road for a year".[23]
Earth Hour                                                                                                                          3


    Participating TV channels and radio stations
    • National Geographic Channel Asia and Cartoon Network both suspended broadcasting from 8:30 p.m. to 9:30
      p.m.
    • Philippines GMA Network turn off lights in their building from 8:30 p.m. to 9:30 p.m.
    • Vietnam's FBNC channel joined hands with Earth Hour Vietnam.
    • The Agenda with Steve Paikin on TVOntario ran its full program running only on candlelight again.
    • The Agenda with Steve Paikin on mnit ran its full program running only on candlelight again.


    Innovative environmental media
    Australian advertising agency Wunderman Sydney produced an innovative environmentally-friendly marketing
    piece to support Earth Hour, their pro-bono client since 2009. To encourage businesses to participate in Earth Hour
    2010, five-thousand 'Plant Spikes'[24] were produced and distributed to offices around Australia. The spike was
    designed to be inserted in office pot plants by plant hire company TPR Group as they serviced plants in businesses
    nationwide.
    To ensure the spike was completely environmentally-friendly, the agency partnered with printer STI Lilyfield to
    invent an organic printer's ink containing natural plant fertilizer derived from Durvillaea potatorum and extract of
    Ascophyllum nodosum to promote healthy plant growth and improve resistance to insect and fungal attack. Printed
    on 100% FSC-certified paper, this ink fertilized the pot plants as the spike biodegraded naturally in the plant's soil.


    2009
                                                           Earth Hour 2009 was from 8:30 p.m. to 9:30 p.m. local time, March
                                                           28, 2009. 88 countries and 4,159 cities participated in Earth Hour
                                                           2009,[25] ten times more cities than Earth Hour 2008 had (2008 saw
                                                           400 cities participate).[26] One billion votes was the stated aim for
                                                           Earth Hour 2009,[27] in the context of the pivotal 2009 United Nations
                                                           Climate Change Conference.

                                                           Among the participants in 2009 was, for the first time, the United
                                                           Nations Headquarters in New York City.[28] The U.N. conservatively
       To raise awareness for Earth Hour 2009 during       estimates that its participation will save $102 in energy.[29]
        the week leading up to it, Arla Foods coloured
                                                 Reports show that the United States topped the Earth Hour
      their Swedish milk cartons black-grey, as distinct
                from the typical white-green.    participation with an estimated 80,000,000 people, 318 cities and 8
                                                 states participating. The Philippines saw participation from 647 cities
    and towns; over 15 million Filipinos were estimated to have joined in the hour-long lights-off. This was followed by
    Greece with 484 cities and towns participating, and Australia with 309.[30][31]
    The Canadian province of Ontario, excluding the city of Toronto, saw a decrease of 6% in electricity usage while
    Toronto saw a decrease of 15.1% (nearly doubled from 8.7% the previous year) as many businesses darkened,
    including the landmark CN Tower.[32]
    Swedish electricity operator Svenska Kraftnät recorded a 2.1% decrease in power consumption from its projected
    figure between 8 p.m. and 9 p.m. The following hour, the corresponding number was 5%.[33] This is equivalent to
    the consumption of approximately half a million households out of the total 4.5 million households in Sweden.[34]
    According to Vietnam Electricity Company, Vietnam's electricity demand fell 140 MWh during Earth Hour.
    The Philippines was able to save 611 MWh of electricity during the time period, which is said to be equivalent to
    shutting down a dozen coal-fired power plants for an hour.[35]
Earth Hour                                                                                                                     4


    Participation
    96 countries on 6 continents participated in the event in 2009.

    Participating TV channels
    • 'National Geographic Channel Asia suspended broadcasting on March 28, 2009 from 8:30 p.m. to 9:30 p.m.
    • Philippines' GMA Network turn off lights in their building from 8:30 p.m. to 9:30 p.m.
    • Malaysia's 8TV halted transmission for one hour starting from 8:30 p.m.[36]
    • Canal 5 in Mexico halted transmission for one hour in Mexico City at 8:30 p.m.
    • Cartoon Network and Magic 105.4 FM broadcast Earth Hour at 8:30 p.m. for the event.
    • The National Geographic Channel suspended regular programming for an hour and showed how to reduce energy
      consumption during Earth Hour.
    • DhiTV and Villa TV halted transmission for one hour in Maldives from 8:30 p.m.
    • Naga City's internet radio stations Zone105 and X FM Naga in the Philippines participated in Earth Hour 2009,
      going offline starting at 8:30 p.m.
    • Radiotelevisión Española (RTVE) turned off the lights in their newsrooms and their sets on March 28, 2009 from
      8:30 p.m. to 9:30 p.m.


    2008
    Earth Hour 2008 was held internationally on March 28, 2008 from 8 p.m. to 9 p.m. local time, marking the first
    anniversary of the event. With 35 countries around the world participating as official flagship cities and over 400
    cities also supporting, Earth Hour 2008 was celebrated on all seven continents. Iconic landmarks all around the
    world turned off their non-essential lighting for Earth Hour, including the Sydney Opera House (Sydney, Australia),
    Empire State Building (New York City, USA), Sears Tower (now Willis Tower, Chicago, USA), National
    Monument (Jakarta,Indonesia), Golden Gate Bridge (San Francisco, USA), Bank of America Plaza (Atlanta, USA),
    Space Needle (Seattle, USA), Table Mountain (Cape Town, South Africa), the Colosseum (Rome, Italy), Royal
    Castle (Stockholm, Sweden), London's City Hall (United Kingdom), the CN Tower (Toronto, Canada), SM Mall of
    Asia, SM Science Discovery Center (Manila, Philippines), Suva (Fiji), Nidaros Cathedral (Trondheim, Norway), The
    Royal Liver Building (Liverpool, United Kingdom), Petronas Towers (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia), KL Tower (Kuala
    Lumpur, Malaysia), Wat Arun Buddhist Temple (Bangkok, Thailand) and the Azrieli Center (Tel Aviv, Israel).
    The official website for the event, earthhour.org [37], received over 6.7 million unique visitors in the week leading up
    to Earth Hour. Other websites took part in the event, with Google's homepage going "dark" on the day Earth Hour
    took place.
    According to a Zogby International online survey 36 million people participated in Earth Hour 2008. The survey also
    showed there was a 4 percentage point increase in awareness of environmental issues such as climate change,
    directly after the event.
Earth Hour                                                                                                                           5


    2008 participants
    Earth Hour 2008 included 31 partner cities,[38] along with 182 other cities and regions that also supported the
    event.[39][40]


    Scheduling
    Before 2008, San Francisco had been running its own "Lights Out"
    program in October.[41] In 2008 it was moved to March 29 to align
    with Australia's Earth Hour. This also happened to be the year that
    Earth Hour became an international event and San Francisco was asked
    to be a partner city in Earth Hour. Rather than have a competing event,
    San Francisco decided to support Earth Hour and all Lights Out efforts
    have now moved to supporting the international Earth Hour event.
    Since Earth Hour for 2008 was on a Saturday, many high schools in
                                                                            Sydney Harbour Bridge and Sydney Opera House
    the Greater Toronto Area participated by turning off half the lights in     were darkened during Earth Hour 2007.
    classrooms during the last hour of school on Friday, March 28, 2008.
    Although the tagline of Earth Hour 2008 was officially, "See the difference you can make", the official radio
    advertisement ended with the tagline, "Dark city, bright idea."

                                                       Tel Aviv scheduled their Earth Hour for Thursday March 27, 2008 to
                                                       avoid conflict with Sabbath.[42] Dublin moved their Earth Hour to
                                                       between 9 and 10 p.m. due to their northern geographical location.[43]




       Azrieli Center in Tel Aviv darkened for Earth
                         Hour 2010.




    Reduced energy consumption
    According to WWF Thailand, Bangkok decreased electricity usage by
    73.34 megawatts, which, over one hour, is equivalent to 41.6 tonnes of
    carbon dioxide.[44] The Bangkok Post gave different figures of 165
    megawatt-hours and 102 tonnes of carbon dioxide. This was noted to
    be significantly less than a similar campaign initiated by Bangkok's
    City Hall the previous year in May, when 530 megawatt-hours were
    saved and 143 tonnes of carbon dioxide emission were cut.[45]

    In the Philippines it was noted by the Philippine Electricity Market
                                                                                       Colosseum darkened for Earth Hour 2008
    Corp. that power consumption dropped by about 78.63 megawatts in
    Metro Manila, and up to 102.2 megawatts in Luzon island.[46] The
    maximum                   demand                 drop                of                         around                      39
Earth Hour                                                                                                                                  6


    MW was experienced at 8:14 p.m. in Metro Manila and of
    around 116 MW at 8:34 p.m. in the Luzon grid.[47]
    Meanwhile, in Mindanao and in Visayas, rolling blackouts are
    happening everyday.
    Ontario used approximately 900 megawatt-hours less
    electrical energy during Earth Hour. At one point, Toronto,
    Ontario saw an 8.7% reduction in consumption as compared
    to a typical March Saturday night.[48]
    Ireland, as a whole, had a reduction in electricity use of about
    1.5% for the evening.[49] In the three-hour period between
    18:30 and 21:30, there was a reduction of 50 megawatts,                        Auditorio de Tenerife darkened for Earth Hour

    saving 150 megawatt-hours, or approximately 60 tonnes of
    carbon dioxide.[50]
                                                         In Dubai, where external lighting on several major city landmarks was
                                                         turned off and street lighting in selected areas was dimmed by 50%, the
                                                         Electricity and Water Authority reported savings of 100
                                                         megawatt-hours of electricity. This represented a 2.4% reduction in
                                                         demand compared to before the hour began.[51]




      Golden Gate Bridge and Marin Headlands public
      open space in the background, before (inset) and
                  during Earth Hour 2008




    The best result was from Christchurch, New Zealand. The city reported
    a drop of 13% in electricity demand. However, Transpower reported
    that New Zealand's power consumption during Earth Hour was 335
    megawatts, higher than the 328 megawatt average of the previous two
    Saturdays.[52] Melbourne, Australia reduced demand by 10.1%.
    Sydney, being the city that participated in both the 2007 and 2008
    Earth Hours, cut electricity consumption by 8.4%. This is less than the
    previous year's 10.2%; however, Earth Hour executive director Andy
    Ridley made the claim that after factoring margin of error, the
    participation in this city was the same.[53]

    The worst result was from Calgary, Canada. The city's power
                                                                                         The Sky Tower in Auckland, New Zealand,
    consumption actually went up 3.6% at the hour's peak electricity
                                                                                        switched off its usual floodlighting during the
    demand.[54] In Calgary, however, where weather plays a large role in               Earth Hour, and re-lit afterwards. (the red lights
    power consumption, the city experienced weather 12°C colder than the               in the middle image are aircraft warning lights)
    previous Saturday's recorded temperature.[55]
Earth Hour                                                                                                                      7


    Celebrations around the world
                                                       • The Danish royal palaces, Amalienborg Palace and Gråsten Palace,
                                                         went dark at the Queen's command.[56]
                                                       • Nelly Furtado held a free concert at Nathan Phillips Square in
                                                         Downtown Toronto to celebrate Earth Hour.[57]
                                                       • In Toronto, Ontario, York University's student-run Environmental
                                                         Outreach Team ran an afternoon Earth Hour information session,
                                                         and the York University Observatory offered an extra public
                                                         viewing session.[58]
                                                       • Stargazing activities were held in Toronto's Ontario Science Centre
                                                         and Richmond Hill's David Dunlap Observatory.[59][60]
                                                       • Astronomy Ireland set up high-powered telescopes in Dublin's
                                                         Phoenix Park to allow people to take advantage of the night sky,
                                                         normally swamped by bright city lights.[50]
                                                       • In Tel Aviv, Israel, a free concert by Knesiyat Hasekhel was held at
                                                         Rabin Square. Power needed for the concert was generated by a
                                                         group of cyclists pushing pedal generators. The rest of the power
                                                         was supplied by generators burning used falafel oil for power.[61]
                                                       • In Atlanta, the CEO of WWF US, Carter Roberts, and the Mayor of
                                                         Atlanta, Shirley Franklin, flipped a giant switch on live TV,
                                                         symbolically starting the wave of lights going out on the buildings
                                                         around the city.
                                                       • In San Francisco, a public event hosted by WWF US was attended
        These three combo photos show Malaysia's
                                                         by Mayor Gavin Newsom, Gold medal figure skater Brian Boitano,
     landmark the Petronas Twin Towers in downtown
        Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, having their lights
                                                         Grateful Dead drummer Mickey Hart, and other celebrities. They
       turned off (from top to lower ground) to mark     gathered to watch the lights go out, listening to the music of Jason
              Earth Hour on March 28, 2009.              Damato.
                                                 • In Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, the lights of the world's tallest twin
       towers, the Petronas Towers, were turned off.[62]
    • In Egypt, the lights went out on the Sphinx and the Great Pyramids of Giza from 8:30-9:30 pm.[63]

    Google

    Earth Hour has also received free publicity from the Google corporation. From 12:00 a.m. on March 29, 2008 until
    the end of Earth Hour, the Google homepage in the United States, Colombia, Canada, Denmark, Ireland and the UK
    was turned to a black background. Their tagline is, "We've turned the lights out. Now it's your turn - Earth Hour."[64]
    However, Google stated that for 2009 they would not turn the page black again due to the confusion it caused many
    users.[65] A common misconception is that having a black background on a web page reduces the power
    consumption of monitors; LCD monitors use a constant amount of power regardless of which colors are shown. This
    is not the case for Organic LED monitors,[66] though they are not currently in popular use.

    Also YouTube has light switches on their videos and comments.
Earth Hour                                                                                                                      8


    TV channels
    • Earth Hour was covered extensively in the United States with segments on The Oprah Winfrey Show, NBC
      Nightly News, CBS Evening News, The Today Show, Good Morning America, CNN, CNN International, The
      Weather Channel and more. Several stations around the United States went live with their coverage, including
      NBC in Atlanta, who did an hourlong Earth Hour special during the event.
    • Canada's The Weather Network moved its studios outside between 8 and 9 p.m. EDT for Earth Hour, using only
      an LED light for the hour.[67]
    • The Agenda with Steve Paikin on TVOntario ran its full program running only on candlelight.[68]


    2007
    Earth Hour was held on March 31 in Sydney, Australia at 7:30 pm, local time.


    Measurement of reduction in electricity use
    According to figures from EnergyAustralia, a local utility, mains
    electricity consumption for the 2007 event in Sydney was 10.2% lower
    during the Hour than would be expected given the time, weather
    conditions and past four years' consumption patterns. The Herald Sun
    equated this with "taking 48,613 cars off the road for 1 hour."[69]
    Critics, most notably Columnist Andrew Bolt, labelled this as "A cut
    so tiny is trivial - equal to taking six cars off the road for a year".[70] In     Overview of Sydney in Earth Hour 2008
    context, the six cars equates to there being six fewer cars on the road at
    any given point of time in the day or night. In response to this criticism, the organisers of Earth Hour counter that "If
    the greenhouse reduction achieved in the Sydney CBD during Earth Hour was sustained for a year, it would be
    equivalent to taking 48,616 cars off the road for a year."[71] and they also note that the main goal of Earth Hour is to
    create awareness around climate change issues and "to express that individual action on a mass scale can help change
    our planet for the better."[71] and not about the specific energy reductions made during the hour being all that's
    required.

    The 10.2% figure was itself challenged by David Solomon, a finance student at the University of Chicago. Without
    citing data sources or the analytical methods he claims to have used, Solomon says he used eight years of electricity
    usage data to conclude that the Earth Hour-inspired drop was 6.33%, and that after other potential factors were taken
    into account, 2.10%, "statistically indistinguishable from zero."[69] In some areas in the Northern Hemisphere, it will
    be twilight at 8 p.m., removing some of the advantages of the event.[72]


    Fairfax Media coverage
    Media Watch, a television show scrutinising the press, reported on claims that Fairfax publications, The Sydney
    Morning Herald and The Age had run misleading and even manipulated photographs of the event.[73] The program
    shows Before and After photos published by the papers and provides commentary that the photos may or may not
    have been manipulated by overexposure or taking "before" picture 2 days early, as many businesses shut down their
    lights for the entire evening, precluding an accurate before and after shot comparison on the same evening.
    The Australian, a competing news outlet, said that journalists at Melbourne's Age newspaper claimed they had been
    pressured not to write negative stories about Earth Hour because of the parent company's sponsorship arrangement.
    The Australian went on to say that on April 10, a statement from the journalists claimed that "Reporters were
    pressured not to write negative stories and story topics followed a schedule drafted by Earth Hour organisers".[74]
Earth Hour                                                                                                                   9


    2006
    Leo Burnett was challenged to come up with a campaign name that represents more than simply flicking off lights –
    Earth Hour was born. WWF Australia and Leo Burnett Sydney took the concept of Earth Hour to Fairfax Media
    asking Fairfax to back the event – they agreed. Sydney Lord Mayor Clover Moore MP agreed to support.[75]


    2005
    WWF Australia and Leo Burnett Sydney developed the concept of a large scale switch off. The project had the
    working title, "The Big Flick": a campaign based on hope not fear, and the idea that everyone can take personal
    responsibility for the future of the planet we live on.


    2004
    WWF Australia began to look at new ways to take climate change mainstream after being confronted with serious
    scientific data. WWF Australia and advertising agency Leo Burnett Sydney discuss ideas for engaging Australians
    on the issue of climate change. [76]


    Celebrity endorsements
    Indonesian actress, model, and VJ, Nadya Hutagalung is the Earth Hour ambassador for Singapore and dares the
    world to save the planet through her personal "IWIYW" challenges. Several public figures and celebrities endorse
    Earth Hour in an official capacity, including supermodel Miranda Kerr[77], race car driver Leilani Munter and
    conservationist Elissa Sursara.[78]


    Criticism
    The criticisms of Earth Hour include:
    • In March 2010, the Telegraph quoted electricity experts that "it could therefore result in an increase in carbon
      emissions" due to complications related to rapidly lowering then raising electricity generation.[79]
    • In February 2010, Rick Giles, president of ACT on Campus, the youth wing of New Zealand's ACT Party,
      appeared on the morning television show Sunrise to denounce Earth Hour and instead suggested the celebration of
      "Edison Hour". He argued that Earth Hour is an "anti-technology" cause, and that people will simply use candles
      instead, which is undesirable as they are petroleum-based. He argued that if we are heading for some kind of
      disaster, it makes sense to use technology to combat this.[80] Rick quickly gained notoriety for saying "I think my
      argument is so powerful that it's not necessary to talk about it".
    • The Christian Science Monitor said that most candles are made from paraffin, a heavy hydrocarbon derived from
      crude oil, a fossil fuel, and that depending on how many candles a person burns (if one uses candles during Earth
      Hour), whether or not they normally use compact fluorescent light bulbs, and what source of energy is used to
      produce their electricity, in some cases, replacing light bulbs with candles will cause an increase, instead of a
      decrease, in carbon dioxide emissions.[81]
    • An alternative celebration of "Human Achievement Hour" was promoted by the libertarian think tank the
      Competitive Enterprise Institute to celebrate the advancement of human prosperity.[82] Participants in this
      celebration were asked to "celebrate the achievements of humanity such as eating dinner, seeing a film, driving
      around, keeping the heat on in your home".[83]
    • The Ayn Rand Institute wrote, "Participants spend an enjoyable sixty minutes in the dark, safe in the knowledge
      that the life-saving benefits of industrial civilization are just a light switch away... Forget one measly hour with
      just the lights off. How about Earth Month... Try spending a month shivering in the dark without heating,
      electricity, refrigeration; without power plants or generators; without any of the labor-saving, time-saving, and
Earth Hour                                                                                                                                            10


      therefore life-saving products that industrial energy makes possible."[84]
    • Although in support of Earth Hour, the "Carbon Sense Coalition" wants Earth Hour to be renamed "Blackout
      Night", and to be held outside on the shortest and coldest day of the year "...to prepare our population for the dark
      days ahead".[85][86]
    • Bjørn Lomborg, author of The Skeptical Environmentalist, wrote, "It is vital to make solar and other new
      technology cheaper than fossil fuels quickly so we can turn off carbon energy sources for a lot longer than one
      hour and keep the planet running... Fossil fuels literally gave us an enlightenment, by lighting our world and
      giving us protection from the fury of the elements. It is ironic that today's pure symbolism should hark back to a
      darker age."[87]
    • On March 29, one day after Earth Hour 2009, Dân Trí daily newspaper published an article about the other side of
      Earth Hour. It was concerned that many young people chose to drive around the darkened cities for fun,
      exhausting petroleum instead of electricity and resulting in long-time traffic jams.[88]
    • During the 2010 Earth Hour in the city of Uusikaupunki in Finland, a 17-year-old female motorcyclist hit a
      71-year-old man, who was walking on the street instead of the sidewalk for an unknown reason. The man died
      from his injuries, while the motorcyclist and her passenger were uninjured. At the time of the accident the street
      lights had been turned off as part of the Earth Hour. The police stated that the lack of street lighting may have
      played a part in the accident, while the mayor believed the city's street lights would have been too dim to prevent
      it even if they had been on.[89][90]
    • Jeremy Clarkson, host of the BBC motoring programme Top Gear, confessed to switching on all electrical items
      in his home as a protest against the perceived impact of Earth Hour, claiming the event would have little to no
      effect on attitudes towards climate change.[91]


    References
    [1] "Earth Hour - Earth Always :: Sydney Media" (http:/ / www. sydneymedia. com. au/ html/ 3263-earth-hour---earth-always. asp). City of
        Sydney. 2007-05-18. .
    [2] "Now is the hour to tackle global warming - WWF-Australia" (http:/ / wwf. org. au/ articles/ now-is-the-hour-to-tackle-global-warming/ ).
        Wwf.org.au. . Retrieved 2010-03-25.
    [3] (http:/ / www. edinburgh. gov. uk/ internet/ city_living/ events/ CEC_earth_hour_2009)
    [4] http:/ / www. earthhour. org/
    [5] http:/ / www. youtube. com/ earthhour
    [6] http:/ / earthhour. org/ blog/ my-challenge-earth-hour-community
    [7] http:/ / www. asiaone. com/ News/ Latest%2BNews/ Singapore/ Story/ A1Story20120221-329146. html
    [8] http:/ / earthhour. org/ page/ about/ about-earth-hour
    [9] http:/ / earthhour. org/ blog/ earthhour-heats-social-media>
    [10] India switches off on March 26 from 8.30 pm and beyond (http:/ / www. earthhour. in/ news-events/ india-unites-for-earthhour-2011. html),
        earthhour.in,
    [11] Rustamov, Elshan. "Девичья башня на час останется без света ради природы" (http:/ / www. 1news. az/ society/ 20110324035120563.
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    [12] Gatdulla and Villanueva, Rodina and Donabelle. "Earth Hour comes early in Metro" (http:/ / www. philstar. com/ Article.
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    [15] "2010 Global Site – It's Show Time!" (http:/ / www. earthhour. org/ Homepage. aspx). Earth Hour. . Retrieved 2010-03-25.
    [16] "Israel to mark 3rd Earth Hour" (http:/ / www. ynetnews. com/ articles/ 0,7340,L-3874552,00. html). Ynet News. 2010-04-16. .
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    [19] Tiết kiệm 450 triệu đồng trong giờ Trái đất - VnExpress (http:/ / www. vnexpress. net/ GL/ Kinh-doanh/ 2010/ 03/ 3BA1A2E1/ )
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Earth Hour                                                                                                                                                 11

    [21] Mr President joins Earth Hour in Hanoi (http:/ / vnexpress. net/ GL/ Xa-hoi/ 2010/ 03/ 3BA1A23D/ ), VnExpress, by: Khánh Chi, date:
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    [22] Soloman, David (2007-05-09), "Rage, rage against dimming of the light", The Australian, http:/ / www. theaustralian. com. au/ news/
        opinion/ david-solomon-rage-rage-against-dimming-of-the-light/ story-e6frg6zo-1111113495138, Retrieved 2011-03-20
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        earth-hour-coverage-should-be-grounded/ story-e6frfifx-1111115907103, Retrieved 2011-03-20
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Earth Hour                                                                                                                                             12

    [52] Lights on, power use up for Earth Hour (http:/ / www. stuff. co. nz/ 4457620a11. html). Kelly Andrew. The Dominion Post. Monday, 31
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        Electronics.howstuffworks.com. . Retrieved 2010-03-25.
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        0,20867,21694864-7583,00. html). The Australian. . Retrieved 2008-03-29.
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        0,21985,23443475-5000117,00. html). Herald Sun. . Retrieved 2008-03-31.
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    [74] Age blighted by bias, selling its soul (http:/ / www. theaustralian. news. com. au/ story/ 0,25197,23520854-5006785,00. html) The
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    [80] YouTube - I think my argument is so powerful that it's not necessary to talk about it (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=2B9MqNzQuuk)
    [81] Does lighting candles for Earth Hour defeat the purpose? (http:/ / features. csmonitor. com/ environment/ 2009/ 03/ 27/
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        turn-out-the-lights-not-everyones-on-board-earth-hour/ ), Christian Science Monitor, March 28, 2009
Earth Hour                                                                                                                                             13

    [86] "Earth Hour or Blackout Night?" (http:/ / canadafreepress. com/ index. php/ article/ 9685). Canadafreepress.com. . Retrieved 2010-03-25.
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    External links
    • Official website (http://earthhour.org/)
    • Official website (http://earthhourkids.org/) (children's version)
    • Earth Hour 2008 (http://www.earthhour2008.com/) - a collection of Earth Hour 2008 news articles and press
      releases
    • Video: Earth Hour in Boulder, Colorado. (http://www.elephantjournal.com/2008/04/earth-hour/)
    • Interview with Earth Hour Executive Director Andy Ridley (WWF) (http://knowledge.allianz.com/en/
      globalissues/climate_change/top_climate_stories/earth_hour_wwf_interview.html)
Article Sources and Contributors                                                                                                                                                                    14



    Article Sources and Contributors
    Earth Hour  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=484777100  Contributors: (HUN)Villy, 0030520dv, 21655, AMK1211, AaronLPQ, Adthegreat, Aecis, Agathman, Ahmad
    halawani, Aitias, Aiuw, Alan Liefting, Alansohn, Albert.white, Aldo L, Alexkin, All Is One, AlletsJr, Amog, AndreasJS, Andrejj, AndrewStar, Angela26, Ankur Banerjee, Antandrus, Arichnad,
    ArlenCuss, Ashleyfan335, AstroHurricane001, AtticusX, Audirs8, Audreykitching, Azurich, BD2412, BONGU SEAN, Baker astro, Bald Guy from Lost, Bandwagonman, Bashari,
    Ben-Substance, Ben10027, Betterusername, BigHaz, Bigbluefish, Biodin, Biruitorul, BitexcoFinancialTower, Black Kite, Blamed, Bobrayner, BookDen, Bpeps, Brandmeister (old), Braquin,
    BretWaldner, BrianKnez, BrickBreak, BullBoxerBAB, Bushcutter, Callumgare, Canada1952, Canberra User, Capaign, CapitalR, Captain Crush, Caringcanadian, Casliber, Causa sui, Cgingold,
    Chandunaresh, Cheong Kok Chun, Chia3633, Chickenfeed9, Chris as I am Chris, Chris the speller, Cintwig, Colonies Chris, CommonsDelinker, Computerjoe, Consumed Crustacean, Coolia45,
    Cop 663, Cossaxx, Cpx86, Creez34, Critical Chris, Crossl2y, CuffX, Curtdbz, Cvindustries, Cyberfan, Cynthia wwf, DXRAW, Dadude3320, Daen, Damicatz, Danny2579, Dar book, Darkfight,
    Darkwind, Darth Narutorious, David Edgar, Daysleeper47, Dcamp314, Deanb, Deanmullen, DeathNomad, Decltype, Deleteyourself16, Delirium, Denelson83, Denlogo, DeusMP, Dfrg.msc, Difu
    Wu, Dilbao, Dimethyl, DjJosh, Dogwinkle, Dominik Moritz, Doron, Doronef, Dougweller, Dragoncore, Drumheros, Dual Freq, DuncanHill, Duncanil, EPO, EWikist, Earthhourdigital,
    Earthhourpublicist, Eastgate, Ebe123, Ebethw85, Eebeef, Efficacious, Ejay, Eldur, Eleland, Eleven even, Elfalem, Elipongo, Emeraldcityserendipity, Empty Buffer, Ericwja80, Esuzu, Excirial,
    ExplodingFeijoa, Fa2f, Faigl.ladislav, Fanrailuk, Fast track, Fedayee, Fieldday-sunday, Flopsy Mopsy and Cottonmouth, Fuddle, Fugliesunited, Gabbe, Gaga-Stefani, Garas, Gary King,
    GaryMcMahon, Gd edi, GeekyTwin, Genetichazzard, Geniac, Gh5046, Giftlite, Gillyweed, Gimmetrow, Glacialfox, Gothbag, Grundle2600, Guoguo12, Gurchzilla, Harryboyles, HereToHelp,
    Hertz1888, HexaChord, Hobit, Hohohob, Howcheng, Huaiwei, HunterHH, HurricanesFan5, Hux, IncidentalPoint, Indigophox, Inspeanut21, Interchange88, Iridescent, J.delanoy, JackofOz, Jake
    37, JamesAM, Jamesnp, Jamesysilber, Japerry007, Jasewase, Jayann, Jeandré du Toit, Jedi94, Jeff79, Jeffq, Jensen25, Jibco, Jim1138, John Broughton, Jonhall, Joseph Solis in Australia,
    Jrincayc, Jrssr5, Jungegift, Jynto, Ka ga, Kaihsu, Kalathalan, Kaldorei88, Karthikndr, Kb3mlmsk, Keegsmeister, Keen Esquivias, Keilana, Kevintth, Kevlar67, KimDabelsteinPetersen, Kollision,
    Konsulromanum, Kooziking, Korg, KurtMervin, Kweenkoopa, Kxx, Kyle1278, Kz1123, LOL, Laogeodritt, Lcmortensen, Leeheonjin, Legoktm, Leinad, LeinsterLion, Lemmey, Lemon martini,
    Leonidas23, Lewis7a, Li4kata, LightSpeed, LightSpeed3, Lightmouse, Lokionly, LonelyPker, Loukinho, Luiboowee, Lulo.it, Luna Santin, MER-C, MMS2013, MShefa, Magnetic Rag,
    Magnum2037, Mahanga, Mahudhy, Mailer diablo, Malcolm Saville, Malomeat, Mandarax, Maplegetsout, Marcuscalabresus, MarianWilde, Mark Boogie, Mark Malcampo, Mark0528,
    Martync84, Masamage, Master of Puppets, Matthewblasi, Mav, Maxim, Mazdapickup89, Mbz1, Mdf, Messiisking, Mhby87, Mhhaj, Michellecrisp, Millere08, Misibacsi, Mlb06uk, Mlpearc,
    Mokgen, Morecomes, Mozartmuzic, MrStonybrook, Mspraveen, Muzak9, Mydreamistofly, Mythdon, NEMT, NYKevin, Naddy, Naeem2104, Nanami Kamimura, Naturalorganic65, Ndboy,
    Newell Post, Newone, NextGenPolitico, NiZhiDao, Nick carson, NicolaM, Nightfox247, Nikhilajain, NikolaiBondicus, Nil Einne, Nitamar, Nlg turbo, Nopetro, NorthernThunder, NovaSkola, O
    Fenian, OhanaUnited, Onore Baka Sama, Ontariogal, Op12, Opakapaka, Orichalcon, Orionsky1, Otisjimmy1, P. S. Burton, Paaki, PandarenLord, PatrikR, Paulinho28, Pavel92, Paw 25694, Pc84,
    Pedgeth, Peruvianllama, Phanly, Phantomtheif1, Phichanad, Philly jawn, Piano non troppo, Piledhigheranddeeper, Pmj, Prolog, Promethean, Pyromaniac guy, Pyu.agrawal, R'n'B, R000t,
    RC-0722, RG104, Ragesoss, Raider Duck, Random User 937494, RandomXYZb, Raul654, Raysonho, Readjusting, Realson, Recognizance, Redcar987, Rennell435, Reorion, Reuelmee, RexNL,
    Rexxrally, Reywas92, Rich Farmbrough, Richardtjr, Rikuansem13, RockMFR, Ronline, Rotovia, Roxya, Rst20xx, Runefrost, Ruodyssey, SEWilco, Saads, Saberwyn, Salamurai, Salvio giuliano,
    SamirNosteb, Samngchaoyu, Sandy amity, Santamoly, Saturn star, Scruples98, Seaphoto, Seav, Seki rs, Sesu Prime, Shadowjams, Shem, Sherpajohn, Silveroblivion, Silvertear, Singh001175,
    Sjt04, Skizzik, Skraz, SkyWalker, Skyemoor, Slasher-fun, Snigbrook, Soccer3443, Sp33dyphil, Spaiken, Spencer, Spitfire, Spitfire19, Sportyguy03, SriMesh, Sry85, Staka, StaticVision, Steam5,
    Stefa.rossi, Stemonitis, Stephenchou0722, Stevefrench9, Steven X, Stwalkerster, Suckon3, Suis78, Sulmac, SunnieBG, Super-Magician, SuperHamster, Susanhistorian, SwagChanges,
    Swatkatz14, Sxjxcx, Sylviaelse, Synergy, TCAS42, TaintedMustard, Tajik24, Tanvir Ahmmed, Taroaldo, Tbhotch, TeaDrinker, Techdawg667, Teiresias84, Texteditor, Tgok, The Duke of
    Waltham, The Giant Puffin, The Magnificent Clean-keeper, The Thing That Should Not Be, TheRack, Thehondaboy, Theleftorium, Thelobbyist, Thespacepeople, Thisisfun111, Thumper101577,
    Tide rolls, TimothyPilgrim, TitanOne, TomasBat, Tomasf, TransUtopian, Truflip99, Trusilver, Truthanado, Twe1ve1111, Twinsday, Tytrox, UBeR, V&-L.E.E.T, VadimIppolitov, Vanshizzle,
    Vapour, Vegaswikian1, Versus22, Vkil, Voxphilosophiae, Vslslzrds, Vwsnc, Warhol6987, Wavelength, WayKurat, West.andrew.g, Whirlingstorm06, Why Not A Duck, WiKinny, Wiki1010101,
    Willsmith3, Wizardman, Woohookitty, XAXISx, Xelgen, YUL89YYZ, Yarjka, Ynotswim, ZZ9pluralZalpha, Zero10one, Zodon, Zoharby, Zollerriia, Zoroethgenre 003, Zuanzuanfuwa, Érico
    Júnior Wouters, ΚΕΚΡΩΨ, АлександрВв, 969 anonymous edits




    Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
    File:Botanigif.gif  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Botanigif.gif  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: SamirNosteb
    File:Arla mjölk - Earth Hour 2009 (gabbe).jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Arla_mjölk_-_Earth_Hour_2009_(gabbe).jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors:
    Gabbe, Gabriel Ehrnst Grundin
    File:Sydney Harbour Bridge and Opera House Earth Hour.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sydney_Harbour_Bridge_and_Opera_House_Earth_Hour.jpg  License:
    Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: madradish
    File:AzrieliCenterEarthHour2010.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:AzrieliCenterEarthHour2010.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: My own work
    File:Colosseum Earth Hour.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Colosseum_Earth_Hour.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: saveourclimate
    File:Santa Cruz de Tenerife Auditorium.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Santa_Cruz_de_Tenerife_Auditorium.jpg  License: Creative Commons
    Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: Dbenbenn, Porao, Rlbberlin, 1 anonymous edits
    File:Ggb during earth hour.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ggb_during_earth_hour.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Brocken
    Inaglory
    File:Earth Hour Sky Tower Auckland.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Earth_Hour_Sky_Tower_Auckland.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License
     Contributors: Kaihsu Tai
    File:Twintower earthhour.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Twintower_earthhour.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Lai Seng Sin
    File:Sydney Opera House - After.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sydney_Opera_House_-_After.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors:
    saveourclimate




    License
    Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
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