Scientific Method by fjzhangxiaoquan


									Scientific Method

   Be a Scientist
             Scientific Method
•   What do you know about disease?
•   How do people get sick?
•   Do other animals get sick too?
•   How o scientists study diseases?
             Scientific Method
1.   Make Observation
2.   Ask Question
3.   Form a Hypothesis
4.   Test Your Hypothesis
5.   Results Supported
6.   Results Do Not Support
7.   Conclusion, or Reform Question
Scientific Method
           Scientific Method

                                   larva in

                Mosquito eggs in
                Flood water.
           Scientific Method

Adult mosquito emerges from the water.
                Scientific Method
Where mosquitoes live and breed!

                                   Swamps and standing water.

                   Flood waters.
                       Scientific Method
                                         Mosquitoes will live anywhere where there is
                                         standing water!

Tree holes that hold water.
                                          Old tires that collect rain water.

    Anything that can collect water! Control mosquitoes by controlling trash!
Scientific Method
Mosquitoes feed by absorbing blood from a host! Yuck!
            Scientific Method
Mosquitoes can carry and transfer Malaria,
 Yellow Fever and Dengue Fever!
Mosquitoes can transfer these diseases to other
 creatures while feeding on a host! (YUCK!)
Scientific Method
 Mosquitoes can spread the
 virus by infecting a host, such
 as a chipmunk.

                     As other Mosquitoes feed off of the
                     chipmunk, they become infected and
                     continue to spread the disease to
                    Scientific Method
• How do you think scientists every made the
  connection between Mosquitoes and these
  different diseases?

Malaria in the blood! (Notice the cells
that are not round!)
             Scientific Method
• Discovery of the Malaria Parasite (1880)
• Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran, a French
  army surgeon stationed in Constantine,
  Algeria, was the first to notice parasites in the
  blood of a patient suffering from malaria. This
  occurred on the 6th of November 1880. For
  his discovery, Laveran was awarded the Nobel
  Prize in 1907.
              Scientific Method
• Discovery That Mosquitoes Transmit Malaria
  Parasites (1897-1898)
• On August 20th, 1897, Ronald Ross, a British officer in
  the Indian Medical Service, was the first to
  demonstrate that malaria parasites could be
  transmitted from infected patients to mosquitoes. In
  further work with bird malaria, Ross showed that
  mosquitoes could transmit malaria parasites from bird
  to bird. This necessitated a cycle (the time interval
  during which the parasite developed in the mosquito).
  Thus, the problem of malaria transmission was solved.
  For his discovery, Ross was awarded the Nobel Prize in
                Scientific Method
• On 20 August 1897, in Secunderabad, Ross made his landmark
  discovery. While dissecting the stomach tissue of a mosquito
  fed four days previously on a malarious patient, he found the
  malaria parasite and went on to prove the role of Anopheles
  mosquitoes in the transmission of malaria parasites in
• He continued his research into malaria in India, using a more
  convenient experimental model, malaria in birds. By July
  1898, he had demonstrated that mosquitoes could serve as
  intermediate hosts for bird malaria. After feeding mosquitoes
  on infected birds, he found that the malaria parasites could
  develop in the mosquitoes and migrate to the insects' salivary
  glands, allowing the mosquitoes to infect other birds during
  subsequent blood meals.

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