# Science workbook

Document Sample

```					           Fletcher’s Meadow Secondary School
Student Workbook

Name:      ____________________
Date:      ____________________
Teacher:   ____________________
Room:      ____________________

1
SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION SKILLS
Scientific method
The scientific method is a step by step approach to solving scientific problems. There are seven
basic steps:
1. Purpose – state the problem, usually as a question
2. Hypothesis – make a prediction (guess) about the outcome of the experiment and why it
will happen.
3. Materials – list all the materials needed to test the hypothesis
4. Method – list the steps followed in order to test the hypothesis
5. observations – record what occurs during the experiment (using your senses: smell, sight,
sound)
6. Discussion – explain the results of the experiment
7. Conclusion – state if your hypothesis is true or false

Make a flow chart of the scientific method using the sentences below. Put them in order.

Assemble the apparatus                              Carry out the experiment
Check the results against the hypothesis            Collect the apparatus
Design the experiment                               Interpret the observations
Look for patterns in the observations               Make conclusions
Predict an answer to the problem                    Make observations
Record the observations                             Identify the problem
Design a new experiment to further study the       problem
Flow chart of scientific method

1                                             7

2                                             8

3                                             9

4                                            10

11
5

12
6

13
2
Controls and Variables
Write a definition for each:

Control –

Variable –

Independent Variable –

Dependent Variable –

SpongeBob and his Bikini Bottom pals have been busy doing a little research. Read the description
for each experiment and answer the questions.

Krusty Krabs Breath Mints

Mr. Krabs created a secret ingredient for a breath mint that he thinks will “cure” the bad breath people get from eating crabby
patties at the Krusty Krab. He asked 100 customers with a history of bad breath to try his new breath mint. He had fifty
customers (Group A) eat a breath mint after they finished eating a crabby patty. The other fifty (Group B) also received a breath
mint after they finished the sandwich, however, it was just a regular breath mint and did not have the secret ingredient. Both
groups were told that they were getting the breath mint that would cure their bad breath. Two hours after eating the crabby
patties, thirty customers in Group A and ten customers in Group B reported having better breath than they normally had after
eating crabby patties

1. Which people are in the control group?
2. What is the independent variable?
3. What is the dependent variable?
4.    What should Mr. Krabs’ conclusion be?

5. Why do you think 10 people in group B reported fresher breath?

SpongeBob Clean Pants

SpongeBob noticed that his favorite pants were not as clean as they used to be. His friend Sandy told him that he should try
using Clean-O detergent, a new laundry soap she found at Sail-Mart. SpongeBob made sure to wash one pair of pants in plain
water and another pair in water with the Clean-O detergent. After washing both pairs of pants a total of three times, the pants
washed in the Clean-O detergent did not appear to be any cleaner than the pants washed in plain water.

6. What was the problem SpongeBob wanted to investigate?

7. What is the independent variable?

8. What is the dependent variable?
3
Graphing using variables
Graphs are used to show relationships between independent and dependent
variables.

Independent variables are always on the x-axis (bottom)

Dependent variables are always on the y-axis (side)
Seven data pairs are listed in the table below. For each data pair, identify the independent and
dependent variable. Then, rewrite the data pair according to the headings in the next two
columns of the table. The first data pairs is done for you

Data Pair                     Independent                Dependent
(not necessarily in order)              (X-Axis)                  (Y- axis)
1   Temperature Hours of heating             Hours of heating       Temperature
2   Speed of car     Stopping distance
3   # of people      Height over 5 feet
in a family
4   Stream flow      Amount of rainfall
rate
5   Tree age         Average tree height

6   Test score       Number of hours
studying for a test
7   Population of    Number of schools
a city           needed

Here is a data set for you to plot on a graph. The x- values represent time in minutes. The y-
values represent distance in kilometers.

Independent (x-axis)                                 Dependent (y-axis)
0                                                   5.0
10                                                  9.5
20                                                 14.0
30                                                 18.5
40                                                 23.0
50                                                 27.5
60                                                 32.0

1. Make your graph using the blank graph given.

2. Label your graph. Add a label for the x-axis, y-axis, and provide a title.

3. Draw a smooth line (line of best fit) through the data points

4
4. What is position value after 45 minutes? This graph is a position versus time graph. Do you think
the position change is more representative of a person running, a person on a bicycle, or a person

5
Graphing Checkbric

SNC1P0 Graphing Checkbric

Students   Teachers comment
Did I?                 response
I have labelled my x- axis with
the independent variable

I have the units on my x - axis

I have labelled my y- axis with
the dependent variable

I have the units on my y - axis

My graph has a title

My scale on the x - axis is
correct and evenly spaced

My scale on the y - axis is
correct and evenly spaced

I have drawn the line of best fit

6
Part A - Graph each of the following as a   Part B - Graph each of the following as a
BAR GRAPH (words and numbers)               LINE GRAPH (both numbers for “x”
and “y”)
1. Chart of hours a week spend
1. Distance from home Bart skates
watching television
in twenty minutes

Person        Hours a week                        Time ( mins)       Distance (m)
watching TV                              0                   0
Bart          25                                       5                  400
Lisa          10                                      10                  800
Millhouse     5                                       15                 1200
Nelson        20                                      20                 1600

2. Height of a Man eating plant after
2. Chart of number of donuts eaten in             watering for five days
a month
Week #          Size of plants
Person           Donuts eaten                                          (cm)
Homer            30                                   0                  36
Apu              10                                   1                  39
Chief            40                                   2                  42
Moe Szylak       15                                   3                  45
4                  48
5                  51
3. Chart of number of beer drunk at
Moe’s Bar in one week                       3. Size o f Homer’s pants after a
five week period
Person           Beers Drunk
Homer            10                              Week #         Size of pants (ins)
Lionel Hutz      2                                 0                    100
Apu              0                                 1                    150
Barney           35                                2                    200
Bumble                                             3                    250
4                    300
5                    350

7
Qualitative and Quantitative analysis
 Observation: The act of observing and recording data.
Two kinds
1. Qualitative: Information gathered in observations in which no measurement takes place
Examples  liquid is blue, the object smelled good and it was green )
2. Quantitative: An observation that can be measured
Examples  1 kg of cheese, there are 30 students in my class, I weigh 98 pounds and 1 ate a pound of potatoes.

 Inference: the act of making a conclusion about an observation.

Observation:            the sky is blue
Inference:              the sky is cloudy, it will rain today.

*******************************************************************************
Determine which of the following statements are quantitative and which are qualitative.
1. _____________ The cup had a mass of 454 grams.
2. _____________ The temperature outside is 250 C.
3. _____________ It is warm outside.
4. _____________ The tree is 30 feet tall.
5. _____________ The building has 25 stories.
6. _____________ The building is taller than the tree.
7. _____________ The sidewalk is long.
8. _____________ The sidewalk is 100 meters long.
9. _____________ The race was over quickly.
10. _____________ The race was over in 10 minutes.

CONSTRUCTING INFERENCES FROM OBSERVATIONS
Suppose your friends went to the beach at noon on a warm day. They saw some black and white birds.
Which of the following statements are observations and which are inferences? Indicate your answer with
either the letter “O” for an observation, or the letter “I” for an inference.
1. _____________ It is summertime.
2. _____________ It is daytime.
3. _____________ They saw birds.
4. _____________ They saw seaguils.
5. _____________ They went swimming.
6. _____________ It was a warm day.
7. _____________ They ate lunch and drank Coca-Cola&.
8
SNC 1P0 ;                      Investigation on airplane Aerodynamics

In class, you’ve learned that the scientific method allows you to solve problems
through focused trial and error, in this lab you will be using scientific method to
figure out how to make an airplane that flies farther than anybody else’s. You will be
punching holes in the plane to see how this affects the distance the plane travels.

Pre- Lab
Question 1: List the steps of the scientific method.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

Question 2: Identify the following
1. The control in this experiment -

2. The independent variable -

3. The dependent variable -

Make a paper airplane of the type you are most familiar with. With you lab partner,
measure how far the paper plane goes each time you throw it.

9
SNC1P0 - Investigation on airplane Aerodynamics

(2) Title :
The effect of the ______________________ on the __________________________________
Independent variable                    dependent variable

(2) Question:
How does the _______________________ affect the ________________________________?
Independent variable                          dependent variable

(2) Hypothesis:
If the ________________________ is _______________________ then
the Independent variable                 describe the change

_______________________ will ________________________________
dependent variable                           predict the results

(2) Materials:

(2) Procedure:
Students should compose their own procedures.

(3) Observations: Write at least 2-3 observations for each level change
Level 1:

Level 2:

Level 3:

10
( 4) Data Table:

Title: The effect of the _____________________ on the ______________________

Independent                                                             Dependent variable                         Mean
variable                                               Trial 1        Trial 2           Trail 3
Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

(5) Graph:

Title: The effect of the _____________________ on the ______________________
______________________________
Dependent variable

_______________     _____________________            _______________

______________________________
Independent variable

11
Conclusion:
(1)     What was the purpose of the investigation?

(1)     Why do you think you obtained these results?

(2)     Did the results support your hypothesis? Explain

(1)     Give a summary of the experiment.

(1)   Give two (2) possible errors in this experiment.

12
Airplane Aerodynamics Lab Checkbric

response
Did I?
In my title I have the
Independent variable ( input)
Dependent variable (what I am measuring)
For my question I have the
Independent variable
Dependent variable
For my hypothesis I have the
Independent variable
A change
Dependent variable
Results of change
Materials
I have listed ALL the materials used for lab
Procedure
I have written a detailed procedure of what I did in
this lab
Observation
For each level I have very good observation of what
happened
Results
My table has a title
I have three (3) sets of results
I have calculated the mean (average)

Bar Graph
I have a title for my graph
My x- axis is labelled (independent variable)
MY y – axis is labelled (dependent variable)

Conclusion
I have answered all six questions in full sentences

13
WHMIS – Workplace Hazardous Material Information System
What is the name that corresponds to each symbol. Write it below each picture.

A                    B                    C                    D
Names
Safety
precautions

E                     F                   G                    H
Names
Safety
precautions

Match the letter and symbols above with the definitions below. There is only one answer for each
definition (but some symbols are used more than once). Write the letter of the correct answer in the box
beside each definition.

1.    The material could kill you if swallowed, inhaled or absorbed through the skin.

2.    Chemicals in this division wont kill you immediately but could cause birth defects ad
liver damage
3.    The fact that most aerosol cans have propellants that can ignite easily means that this
symbol should be on their labels
4.    Industrial cleaners including sodium hydroxide, a very corrosive base, should have this
symbol on their label.
5     Heating or dropping could cause these cylinders of pressurized gases to explode

6.    Some chemicals with this symbol could undergo a dangerous reaction if in contact with
water.
7     Blood samples that have been contaminated with HIV virus should have this symbol

8     Since it poses such a fire hazard, a bottle of methanol should have this label

9     A chemical that causes cancer after prolonged and repeated exposure should have this
symbol
10    By releasing oxygen can cause a flammable material to burn more easily.

14
HHPS - Hazardous Household Product Symbols

_____________                    _____________                     ___________________

_________________                _________________           ____________________         _________________

    Match the items on the right with the items on the left by placing the number beside the symbols.

Symbols
1.   Caution and toxic

2.   Caution and flammable

3.   Caution and explosive

4.   Warning and flammable

5.   Warning and toxic

6.   Danger and corrosive

write the
Find Three (3) household products that have one of these hazardous household product symbols. For each,
product name and draw the corresponding hazard shape around the symbol. Label the top row of the table
with the following terms: Corrosive, Flammable, Poison.

Household product name
________ ________ ________

For two of the household products list the following
 The safety precautions

    First aid requirements.

15
Lab Safety Sponge Bob
Science Safety Rules
The Bikini Bottom gang has been learning safety rules during science class. Read the
paragraphs below to find the broken safety rules and underline each one.

SpongeBob, Patrick, and Gary were thrilled when Mr. Krabbs gave their teacher a chemistry set! Mr.
Krabbs warned them to be careful and reminded them to follow the safety rules they had learned in science
class. The teacher passed out the materials and provided each person with an experiment book. SpongeBob
and Gary flipped through the book and decided to test the properties of a mystery substance. Since the
teacher did not tell them to wear the safety goggles, they left them on the table. SpongeBob lit the Bunsen
burner and then reached across the flame to get a test tube from Gary. In the process, he knocked over a
bottle of the mystery substance and a little bit splashed on Gary. SpongeBob poured some of the substance
into a test tube and began to heat it. When it started to bubble he looked into the test tube to see what was
happening and pointed it towards Gary so he could see. Gary thought it smelled weird so he took a deep
whiff of it. He didn’t think it smelled poisonous and tasted a little bit of the substance. They were worried
about running out of time, so they left the test tube and materials on the table and moved to a different
station to try another experiment. Patrick didn’t want to waste any time reading the directions, so he put on
some safety goggles and picked a couple different substances. He tested them with vinegar (a weak acid) to
see what would happen even though he didn’t have permission to experiment on his own. He noticed that
one of the substances did not do anything, but the other one fizzed. He also mixed two substances together
to see what would happen, but didn’t notice anything. He saw SpongeBob and Gary heating something in a
test tube and decided to do that test. He ran over to that station and knocked over a couple bottles that
SpongeBob had left open. After cleaning up the spills, he read the directions and found the materials he
needed. The only test tube he could find had a small crack in it, but he decided to use it anyway. He lit the
Bunsen burner and used tongs to hold the test tube over the flame. He forgot to move his notebook away
from the flame and almost caught it on fire. Before they could do another experiment, the bell rang and
they rushed to put everything away. Since they didn’t have much time, Patrick didn’t clean out his test tube
before putting it in the cabinet. SpongeBob noticed that he had a small cut on his finger, but decided he
didn’t have time to tell the teacher about it. Since they were late, they skipped washing their hands and
hurried to the next class.
1. How many can you find?                                                              Did I list the
2. Write at least 5 safety rules that were broken.                                       RULES!!
Eg.. Always
the lab.

16
Lab Equipment/Apparatus
Write the name of the apparatus below each picture.
Diagrams

Name

Diagrams

Name

Diagrams

Name

Fill in the table below with the name of the lab equipment that that fits the description.
Name of                                          Statements
equipment
Used to pick up or hold hot objects
Protects the eyes from flying objects or chemical splashes
A wide-mouthed container used to transport, heat or store substances

A small glass container used to view chemical reactions or to heat
small amounts of a substance
A device to measure the mass or “mass out” and object or substance.

Protects the scientist and the scientist’s clothes from hazardous or hot
chemicals
Used to dispense a very small amount of a liquid

Used to measure volume very precisely

Used to hold a variety of lab equipment

Used to mix solutions in a reaction

Used to heat objects

A narrow-mouthed container used to transport, heat or store
substances, often used when a stopper is required

17
UNIT - Ecology

What is ecology?
   Ecology is

Environment
   The environment is made up of 2 parts:


   An ecosystem is an area where there is a particular set of ____________ between the
____________________________ factors in the environment

What are the living things?
   ____________ are the living, or once living, components in an ecosystem and examples
include ______________________________________________________

What are the non-living things?
   ______________ are the non-living components in an ecosystem and examples include
________________________________________________________

   Ecosystems are made up of ___________, which are a collection of all the
_____________ of ___________
   2 Types of Ecosystems:
   ________________________(land)
   Aquatic (_________________)

Habitat: _________________________________________________________

Niche:_____________________________________________________________________

Community:_______________________________________________________________

Population: -_______________________________________________________________

Species: ___________________________________________________________________
18
THE LORAX

1. Why did the Once-ler cut down the Truffula trees?

2.    Why do the Brown Bar-ba-loots have to leave?

3.    What kind of problems does the Thneed factory cause for the environment? Name at least three.

4.    What happens to the Once-ler when there are no more Truffula trees?

5.   What happens to the Lorax?

6. What could the Once-ler have done to minimize his factory's effect on the environment?

7. Is bigger always better? Give an example to back up your opinion

8.    A "Thneed" is defined as a fine thing that everyone thinks they need (but probably really don't). What
are some examples of thneeds - things that we think we need but could do quite well without

9.   The Lorax spoke for trees "for the trees have no tongues". What would you choose to speak for, and
what would you say? Plan a one minute talk on behalf of something which cannot speak for itself.

JOURNAL ENTRY: Describe in your own words how the Lorax story is related to

19
Ecology Matching terms

___Abiotic factors        A. The environmental space required for the survival of a species.

B. The study of the interactions between living and non-living factors in an
___Habitat
ecosystem.

___Ecosystem              C. Ensuring ecological relationships remain healthy generation to generation.

___Biotic factors         D. The living components of an ecosystem.

___Sustainability
E. The non-living components of an ecosystem.

___Ecology                F. A collection of all the populations in an ecosystem.

___Biodiversity           G. All the members of the same species living in an ecosystem.

H. An area where there is a specific relationship between abiotic and biotic
___Community
factors.

___Species                I. Organisms that belong to the same classification.

___Population
J. The variety and number of species in an ecosystem

More Ecology matching terms
A. Ecosystem         B. Habitat              C. Community            D. Population

Choose the most appropriate vocabulary term from the list above
1 ________ All the living and non living things in an area
2 ________ All the ants in an anthill
3 ________ An area that provides food and shelter
4 ________ Fish, frogs, turtles, lily pads and dragonflies are all
members of the same what?
5 ________ All the blackbirds in your neighbourhood
6 ________ A forest
7 ________ The damp soil within a forest in which a mushroom
grows
8 ________ Different populations that live together in a particular
area
9 ________ A prairie dog, a hawk, and a badger all members of the
same what?
10 ________ The rainbow trout in a stream

20
Food Chain and Food Web
All plants and animals need food which provides the energy they need to live. Green plants make their own
food. They use the energy from the sun to make their own food. They make/produce their own food by photosynthesis.
Some of this food is used, and some is stored in the roots, stems, and leaves.

Plants make their own                   They consume/eat                  End of the chain
food

What is a Food Chain?

All living things need food to give them the energy to grow and move. A food chain shows how each living thing gets its
food. It shows who is eating who. The arrow means "is eaten by" .

Grass              Grasshopper                    Toad                   Snake                   Hawk
Grass is eaten by Grasshopper             is eaten by Toad is eaten by    Snake is eaten by Hawk

In your Journals, write at least two sentences on the importance
of the sun to living things.

What is the difference between a food web and a food chain?

FOOD CHAIN                                                     FOOD WEB

21
In the boxes provided please match the words with the correct definitions.

Carnivore           Primary Consumer Secondary Consumer             Herbivore

Producer            Tertiary Consumer Predators       Prey          Decomposer

Omnivore            Trophic level       Food web                    Scavenger

Words                                    Definitions

Usually a green plant that produces its own food by
photosynthesis
An animal that eats both plants and animals eg bears and
humans.

An animal that eats plants

A consumer that eats dead animals (e.g. crab, crow,
vulture, buzzard and hyena. )

Animals that eat primary consumers herbivores).

Are the organisms that predators feed on. Examples of
predator and prey species are: fox and rabbit; blue tit and
caterpillar; wolf and lamb
An animal that eats other animals.

Each level in a food chain. Matter is always 'lost' as heat
energy at each trophic level
Animals that eat secondary consumers ie carnivores that
feed on other carnivores.
A network of interrelated food chains in a given area
Kill for food. They are either secondary or tertiary
consumers - eg polar bears, golden eagles
An organism such as bacteria and fungi that breaks down

Animals that consume only plant matter. They are
herbivores - eg rabbits, caterpillars, cows, sheep, and
deer.

22
Food Chain and Webs Cloze

Fill in the blanks with the words above the paragraph.

The Bottom of the Food Chain
bottom        trees        sun                   grass        chain

Plants such as _____________________ and _____________________
are at the _____________________ of the food _____________________.
Plants get their energy from the _____________________.

The Middle of the Food Chain
deer           herbivores              rabbits         carnivores

Animals such as _____________________ and _____________________
get their energy by eating plants. They are called
_____________________, which means 'plant eaters.' There are many
more herbivores on our planet than _____________________, which are
animals that eat meat.

The Top of the Food Chain
predators       hunt              prey               top       lions

_____________________ such as wolves and _____________________
are at the _____________________ of the food chain. Predators are
animals that _____________________ other animals. The animals that
they hunt are called _____________________. Some animals are both
predator and prey.

The Food Web
connected            energy               web              more

Most animals belong to
_____________________ than one food
chain, which means many food chains are
_____________________ together. Many
food chains together form a food
_____________________. The food web
shows how the sun's
_____________________ moves from plants
to animals to animals.
23
Ecosystem Study

 Look at the environment around you and name at least 5 different biotic things:
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

 Look at the environment around you and name at least 3 different abiotic things:
1.

2.

3.

 Is the pond an ecosystem? Circle: Yes / No        Why do you think so?

 How do humans have an impact on this area?

 What might this area look like in 10 years with no human interference?

 Is the pond a terrestrial or aquatic ecosystem?

 Draw a food chain or a food web based on things you saw in the area (or that
probably live in the area even if you didn’t see them)

24
Food Chain and Food Web worksheet

Question 1
Look at the following food chains and then complete the chart below it.
a. lettuces  snails  blackbirds  sparrow hawks  fleas
b. sycamore bark  woodlice  mice  foxes
c. plant plankton  tadpoles  water beetle  water scorpion  perch
d. grass  insects  frogs  bats
e. photosynthesis organism  rotifers  water fleas  small fish  perch 
humans

Food        producer Tertiary                 Top           Primary     Second tropic
chain                consumer                 consumer      carnivore   level
A
B
C
D
E

Question 2
Construct food webs from the following information:

Lettuces are eaten by snails and rabbits
Rabbits are eaten by ferrets, foxes and hawks
Ferrets are eaten by foxes

Blackbirds, robins and squirrels are eaten by hawks
Squirrels are eaten by foxes
Woodlice and beetles are eaten by robins
Squirrels, woodlice, beetles and blackbirds eat berries

Kelp(seaweed) is eaten by sea urchins and krill
Sea urchins are eaten by sheephead fish and wolf eels
Krill are eaten by sardines
Sardines are eaten by sharks

Zebras eat grass and tree leaves
Lions eat zebras
Hyens eat dead zebras and lions
Bacteria decompose all these organisms and return the nutrients
back into the soil to be used by the producers

25
Human Effects on Food Webs

In the 1950’s, a disease called malaria (which can be deadly) was a severe problem on an island
named Borneo. Malaria is carried by mosquitoes. Another problem was that there were fleas
that carried a disease called the plague but there weren’t too many fleas. The World Health
Organization (WHO) wanted to get rid of the mosquitoes so they sprayed the island with a
happen to the island if they did this.

1. Draw a food web with the following organisms in your notes: mosquito, cockroach, lizard,
cat, rat, flea, caterpillars, humans, grass (the roofs of the houses were made with grass)

2. Mosquitoes were killed by the DDT. The cockroaches were also affected; it made them
slow and easy to catch. If DDT is in a prey animal and a predator eats them, the predator
will also become affected. Who eats the cockroaches?

3. Who eats the lizard?

4. With the lizard and cat gone, who doesn’t get eaten and gets out of control?

5. What bad thing happens if the caterpillars get out of control?

6. What bad thing happens if the rats get out of control?

7. Is there something better that the WHO could have done?

8. A friend of yours says that they hate spiders and wished they would all just disappear.
Use your knowledge of ecology to explain why it can be very bad for everyone if one type
of animal or plant is in danger.

26
Oh Deer, Here Come the Wolves
Imagine you are a wildlife manager working to restore the population of an endangered species of deer.
Currently, the herd is small and your task is to find the best habitat and situation for the population to
grow and develop into a healthy herd. Which of the following scenarios do you think would provide the
best situation for your herd of deer?

Scenario 1: The herd is currently living in a 100 square mile range in the Bitterroot Mountains of
Montana which has been continually inhabited by this species for centuries. Human settlers eradicated
wolves (one of the deer’s principle predators) over 100 years ago although other habitat changes caused
by human development have continued to keep the deer’s populations low. Now, the habitat is improving
and the deer population is growing slowly but steadily. However, some wildlife managers are planning to
reintroduce wolves to your region. They plan to bring in several families of wolves into the area. The deer
population is just beginning to rebound and you are concerned about the effects of the wolf introduction
on the continued growth of the herd.

Scenario 2: You have the opportunity to move the deer herd and reintroduce it to a new, more favorable
habitat. The new area is a deserted island in the arctic region. There is a lot of food (no animal has filled
the deer’s niche for many many years) and there are no natural predators. The island has 41 square miles
of good habitat for the population.

Prediction:
Which of these scenarios would produce the fastest growth of the deep population?

Which would potentially provide the healthiest long-term situation for the deer?

Graphing: Graph the following data showing the changes in deer population over time for each
of the two regions described above. You will make 2 line graphs.

Data Set A:       Year Deer Population                       Data        Year Deer Population
1975              2000                                       Set B:
1976              2100
1977              2060
1978              2010                                       1910        25
1979              1980                                       1915        78
1980              2000                                       1920        180
1981              1840                                       1925        100
1982              1710                                       1930        500
1983              1590                                       1935        800
1984              1440                                       1940        2000
1985              1400                                       1945        700
1986              1290                                       1950        8
1987              1300                                       1955        25
1988              1260
1989              1310
1990              1360
1991              1290
1992              1330

27
Step 2: Describe and hypothesize.
1. What do you see happening to the two deer populations over time?

2. What similarities do you see in the two graphs?

3. What differences do you see in the two graphs?

4. Why do you think the population changes that you see have occurred?

5. At some point, wolves were reintroduced, write a hypothesis explaining
a. when you think this happened (which graph and what year)

b. Why you think it happened at that point.

28
Title :

29
Eco-Jar Lab

The purpose of this lab is to have you plan and carry out a lab that explores how humans impact
ecosystems and then to think about whether these actions are sustainable.

You will be investigating how your “human factor” affects the quality of soil, water, and
your observations to the effects of human impacts on ecosystems in the real world.

Materials
 Two (2) water bottle with top cap
 String (teacher provided)
 Pond Water (teacher provided)
 Distilled Water (teacher provided)
 Potting Soil (teacher provided)
 Grass seed (teacher provided)
 1 “human factor” (see below)

Procedure (Making the Eco-Jar)
1. Cut the pop bottle into two parts at about 12cm from the top.
2. Fill the bottom with pond water about 8cm deep.
3. Make a small hole in the bottle cap and feed string through so that it will dip
into the pond water when the jar is assembled.
4. Make a knot in the string and secure the cap to the bottle top.
5. Place potting soil in bottle top.
6. Sprinkle grass seed on top of soil and gently cover with more soil.
7. Place the bottle top, string downwards, into the bottom base to complete

Human Factors
Select 1 human factor for your Eco-Jar from the list below. Use the same “human factor” for the
entire experiment.
 Acid rain (dilute H2SO4)
 Oil
 Soap
 Fertilizer
 Pesticide
 Iron Filings (heavy metal)

You will mark 1 Eco-Jar as a “control” with no human factors.

30
Question
“human factor” and if it will have a positive or negative effect on your grass and soil (terrestrial)
and pond water (aquatic) ecosystems.

My question is:

Hypothesis
Write a hypothesis for the expected outcome of your Eco-Jar experiment. Your hypothesis
should answer your question with some reasons why you think that way.
My hypothesis is:

1. Water your Eco-Jar and apply your human factor treatment on a regular schedule as assigned
by your teacher. (e.g. every 2 days)
2. Make sure you apply the same amount of distilled water every treatment time.
3. Make sure you apply the same amount of human factor every treatment time.
4. NOTE: Do not apply your factor on the first day.
5. Record both quantitative and qualitative observations every treatment time.
6. Write your conclusion and answer the analysis questions at the end of the lab.

Data / Observations
 Quantitative observations are things you can measure such as length of grass, number of
grass sprouts, pH of the soil and water, etc.
 Qualitative observations are things you can describe such as colour, smell, or “a lot of
grass”, “grass looks healthy”, etc.

31
My “human factor” is: ____________________________________.

Amount of     Quantitative Observations     Qualitative Observations
Date
Water Factor     (grass / soil / water)       (grass / soil / water)
Start

32
Conclusion
Summarise your observations. How were they different or the same as your hypothesis? What
could explain your observations? What could you have done differently to improve your
experiment?

My conclusion is:

Analysis Questions
Answer the following questions on separate lined paper and attach it to this report.
1. Why did you wait a few days after planting the grass before you started your treatments?

2. What conditions does grass needs to grow? List both biotic and abiotic factors.

3. Explain what changes you saw in your ecojar over time. Comment on the grass, soil, and
water.

4. How did the water in the bottom of the jar change over time? Why did this happen?)

5. Explain how your factor and experiment could be used to understand what happens in the
real world. How would the conditions and results be different or the same?

33
Evaluation / Checklist

Inquiry

Construction and Maintenance of Eco-Jar was planned         0 1 2
and performed according to outlined procedure.

Application of Treatments is consistent and                 0 1 2 3 4
demonstrates skills of measurement and control.

Qualitative Observations are recorded with detail and       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 10
relevant to the context of the experiment.

Quantitative Observations demonstrate appropriate use       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 10
of tools and measurement technique.

Conclusion effectively summarises and interprets            0 1 2
observations.

Total Inquiry
28

Making Connections

Initial Question proposes a practical direction for the purpose     0 1 2
of the lab.

Hypothesis demonstrates a clear link between the initial            0 1 2
question and expected outcomes of the experiment based on
knowledge of the real world.

Analysis Questions are answered in a way that demonstrates          0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9
the application of ecology topics learned in class to the Eco-Jar   10
and the consequences and implications of what was observed
in the Eco-Jar for the real world.

Total MC                                                            14

34
Unit:                               CHEMISTRY
States of Matter

What are the three states of matter?__solid, liquid and gas

Draw the particles of the 3 states of matter in the boxes on the left below. Beside the arrows on the lines
provided please indicate the name of that phase (state) change

SOLIDS
   Particles held closely together
   Attractive forces are very strong between particles
   Particles vibrate
Melting                                             freezing

LIQUIDS
   Particles not held as strongly together as in solids          sublimation
   Attractive forces not as strong as in solids
   Particles are moving but much more slowly than in
gases
Evapouration / boiling                                  condensation

GASES
   Particles are far apart
   Attractive forces between particles are weak
   Particles move quickly

Answer the following questions using the words below

Melting      boiling point melting point        sublimation                freezing      boiling, condensation
evapouration solid         Zero 0C       liquid        gas                        matter

1. Anything that has mass and occupies space.                             _matter______________________

2. Temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid                       ____meltiing point____________

3. State where particles take the shape of its container and have a definite volume _liquid

4. Temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid is at its melting point.

5. Change from a liquid to a gas       evapouration/ boiling

6. Change from a solid to a gas and vice versa. sublimation

7. Temperature at which a liquid changes to a gas at its boiling point.

8. State which has a definite shape and volume. solid

9. Changing from solid to liquid melting

35
Physical and Chemical Properties

Physical Property is a characteristic or a description of a substance that may help you identify it.

Some physical properties are observed with your senses: These are Qualitative. (the quality..)
 colour, texture, odour, lustre, clarity, taste, state, viscous, hardness. Others include Malleability (can
be hammered into sheets eg aluminium foil) and ductility ( can be stretched, eg copper wires)

Some physical properties are the ones we have to measure: These are Quantitative: ( a number)
√     Density, Height, weight, mass, volume , Melting and boiling points and Solubility

Chemical Properties: Matter can also be described in terms of how it reacts with other substances.
Describes the behaviour of a substance, as it becomes a new substance.

Some properties include:
 Flammability - when exposed to a flame it will burn
 Combustibility - ability to burn in air
 Reaction with an acid
 Light sensitivity - keeping chemicals in the dark

Classify each of the following as a physical or chemical property

1. The density of platinum is 2.14 x 104 kg/m3.
2. The boiling point of water is 100°C.
3. Methanol is soluble in water.
4. A balloon expands when it is filled with air.
5. Steel wool rusts.
6. Water reacts with sodium to produce hydrogen gas..
7. Gallium metal melts in your hand
8. A match has a foul smell when it burns.
9. Sulphur is a foul smelling solid at room temperature.
10. Copper is easily drawn into wires

Label these properties as chemical (C) or physical (P).
combustibility       _____         density                    _____
malleability         _____         tendency to corrode        _____
weight               _____         volume                     _____
failure to react     _____         melting point               _____
ductility            _____         odor                        _____
texture              _____         flammability               _____

36
Physical and Chemical Changes
There are two ways that substances can change when we mix them together.
1. Physical Change :

Examples

2. Chemical Changes:

Clues that suggest a chemical change has occurred
1.

2.

3.

4.

Classify each of the following as a physical or chemical change:
1. The burning of rubber.

2. The formation of snowflakes.

3. The darkening of silver in air.

4. The baking of a cake

5. The stretching of a balloon when it is inflated.

6. The combustion of gasoline in an engine.

7. The mixing of sand and gravel.

8. The boiling of water producing steam.

9. The fermentation of grapes.

10. Milk going sour.

11. A platinum wire becomes red when placed in a Bunsen burner

12. Food is digested when it is eaten.

13. A candle emits light.

14. A person breathes in oxygen and breathes out Carbon dioxide

15. A light bulb gives off light.

37
Physical and Chemical Changes

Change                     Type                    Reason

A newspaper yellowed after a few     Chemical      The colour change indicates it is a
weeks.                                             chemical change.

Breaking glass.

The red meat turns brown as it is
cooked.

Sugar is dissolved in water.

You’ve got a cavity in a
tooth.

Lightning flashed across the sky.

The piece of lime turned
the tea cloudy.

Frying an egg.

Souring milk.

Burning gasoline.

Water disappears from a glass left
on a desk.

Write your own example here          Chemical

Write your own example here          Physical

38
INSTRUCTIONS: Write HET in the blank if the material is heterogeneous or HOM if it is homogeneous.
1. Wood ______                                     6. Dirt ______
2. Freshly-brewed black coffee ______              7. Sausage-and-mushroom pizza ______
3. Tap Water ______                                8. Air ______
4. Lucky Charms ______                             9. Milk ______
5. Salt water ______                               10. 14 carat Gold ______

INSTRUCTIONS:
Classify each of the following as an element [E], a compound [C], or a mixture [M].
11. Pure Gold ____ __                                     16. Air ______
12. pure Water __ ____                                    17. Carbon dioxide ______
13. Seawater ___ ___                                      18. Silver ______
14. Sugar ______                                          19. Ice ______
15. A chocolate sundae______                              20. A Big Mac _____

39
40
Atoms

The 3 particles of the atom are: Their respective charges are:                Location
1
2
3

1. The atomic number tells you the number of ______________________in one atom of an element. It
also tells you the number of _____________________in a neutral atom of that element. The atomic
number gives the “identity “of an element as well as its location on the Periodic Table. No two different
elements will have the ______ atomic number.

2.    The _____________of an element is the total number of protons and neutrons in the _________ of the
atom.

3. The mass number is used to calculate the number of ______________________in one atom of an
element. In order to calculate the number of neutrons you must subtract the ___________________from
the ______________________.

Use the words below to label the parts of an atom. Place the correct term on the line next to each part of
that atom. You will need to use all the terms.
Nucleus           proton              neutron        electrons      energy level

41
Complete each statement using a term or terms from the list below. Write your answers in the spaces
provided. Some answers may be used more than once.

Outside       neutrons       same           cancel out      Protons        atoms

Negative      electrons      Nucleus        smaller         no             positive

1. All matter is made of tiny particles__________________________.

2. The center part of an atom is called the _______________________.

3. A nucleus is made up of ______________________ and ____________________.

4. Electrons are found ________________________________ the nucleus.

5. Electrons are ________________________ than protons or neutrons.

6. The main parts of an atom are _______________, _______________ and ________________.

7. Since protons have a ____________________ charge, and neutrons have a ______________
charge, the nucleus will have a ___________________ charge.

8. Electrons have a ____________ charge.

9. An atom has the __________________ number of protons and electrons.

10. The plus and minus charges of an atom______________________ each other.

True or False - In the space provided, write “T” if the sentence is correct or “F’ if it is false.

__________ 1. A proton is found outside the nucleus.

__________ 2. A proton has a negative charge

__________ 3. A neutron has a positive charge

__________ 4. An electron has a negative charge

__________ 5. An electron is found inside the nucleus.

Fill in the blanks for each diagram. The first one has been done partially to help you.

a. Number of protons_________
a. Number of protons_________
b. Number of electrons ________
b. Number of electrons ________
c. Atomic number ________
c. Atomic number ________
d. Total number of shells
d.Total number of shells
42
Atomic Number and Mass Number

Complete the following chart and answer the questions below.

Kind of matter     Protons    Neutrons       Atomic       Electrons      Atomic
mass                       number
1             Oxygen                8                         16             8
2             Sodium                                          23            11
3             Carbon                             6            12
4             Phosphorous                       16                                         15
5             Potassium             19          20
6             Iron                  26                        56
7             Copper                            35            64
8             Chlorine                                        35                           17
9             Boron                 5            6
10            aluminum                          14            27

Question
1. How are the atomic number and the number of protons related to each other?

2. How do the number of protons, number of neutrons, and the mass number relate to each other?

True or False
In the space provided, write “T” if the sentence is true or “F” if the sentence is false.
_______ 1. An atom has no mass.
_______ 2. An electron is the largest part of an atom.
_______ 3. All atoms have the same mass.
_______ 4. All protons have the same mass.
_______ 5. All oxygen atoms have the same mass.
_______ 6. An oxygen atom has the same atomic number as a hydrogen atom.
_______ 7. To find the atomic mass of an atom, we add the protons and electrons.
_______ 8. The atomic number of an atom is the number of neutrons it has.
_______ 9. Atoms of the same kind that have different number of neutrons are called isotopes.
_______ 10. Atomic number = atomic mass.
43
Are there different types of elements?                                                    Yes or No ?
METALS                                                   NON-METALS

List two ways that a metal is different from a non-metal.

1.

2.

Use the terms in the vocabulary box to fill in the blanks. You can use each term more than once. You
will not need to use every term. Some questions have more than one correct answer.

Vocabulary

Compound          malleable     conductivity     metal             ductile     mixtures

Elements         non- metals       liquid        pure substance    lustrous

1. Substances that contain particles that are the same throughout are _________________.
2. A metal that can be hammered into sheets is described as ________________________.
3. Oxygen and gold are examples of __________________, which cannot be broken down or separated into
simpler substances.
4. A ____________________ can be solid, brittle, non-conductive and dull
5. Mercury is the only metal that is a ___________________.
6. Sodium chloride is a _________________ because it can be broken down into the __________ sodium
and chlorine.
7. A substance that is ____________________ is a metal.
8. In many ___________________ you are able to see two different types of particles.
9. A pure substance that is made up of two or more types of atoms that are joined together is called
a(n)_________________________
44
Periodic Table Checkbric

Student’s Checkmarks
Not                         Teacher’s
L3 Expectations
Yet    Met Exceeded        Checkmarks
Met

I have written all the element’s atomic number with
little or no errors

I have written all the element’s name with little or no
errors

I have written all the element’s atomic mass with little
or no errors

I have determined all the number of protons, neutrons,
and electrons for each element with few errors

I have determined all the number of protons for each
element with few errors

I have determined all the number of electons for each
element with few

I have determined all the number of neutrons for each
element with few errors

I have shown that each element is solid, liquid, or gas

I have completed the Bohr diagram for each element
with few errors

I have coloured most of the cards properly and neatly

I have arranged most of the cards in order of atomic
number

I have put a proper title at the top of the page

I have answered questions 1 – 11 with few errors

45
Periodic Table Worksheet

Step 1: Complete the card for each element.
Complete the top section for each element by adding the element’s (1) atomic #, (2) name,
(3) atomic mass.(4) Determine the # of protons, neutrons, and electrons in each element.
Darken the correct circle to show if it is a solid (S), liquid (L), or gas (G) at room
temperature. Create a Bohr diagram for each element

Step 2: Colour the cards as shown below. Hydrogen is not colored!
Green = Li & Na     Pink = O & S        Blue = Be & Mg       Red = C & Si
Purple = F & Cl    Orange = B & Al Brown = N & P       yellow = He, Ne, & Ar

Step 3: Cut the cards apart and arrange according to atomic number in the pattern shown below on a sheet of
legal size paper. Add a title at the top of the page along with your names.
1                                                        2
3        4      5       6         7       8       9      10
11       12     13      14        15      16      17     18

Step 5: Answer the questions below using the periodic table you made.

1. Which elements had complete outer shells? Give the name and symbol for each.
________________ _____ ________________ _____ ________________ _____
2. What do you notice about the location of these elements?

3. Which elements had only one valence electron? Give the name and symbol for each.
________________ _____ ________________ _____ ________________ _____
4. What do you notice about location of these elements?

5. What do you notice about the number of outer electrons as you move from left to right across a row or period in
the periodic table? (Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar)

6. What do you notice about the number of energy levels or shells as you move down a group or column in the
periodic table? (H  Li  Na)

7. Write the name of each family at the top of the columns on your periodic table using the following
information.
Alkali Metals - 1 valence electron                   Nitrogen Family - 5 valence electrons
Alkaline Earth Metals - 2 valence electrons          Oxygen Family - 6 valence electrons
Boron Family - 3 valence electrons                   Halides - 7 valence electrons
Carbon Family - 4 valence electrons                  Noble Gases - Complete outer shells
8. What do you notice about the location of the elements in each family?

9.   In what family would you classify hydrogen? Explain your choice.

10. In what family would each of these elements be classified?
Radium - ________________________           Tin - ________________________
Iodine - ________________________           Cesium - ________________________

11. Predict the number of valence electrons for each element based on its location in the Periodic Table of
Elements. You will need to use the table in your textbook.
Barium = _____ Lead = _____ Bismuth = _____ Potassium = _____
46
Unit:        Electrical Energy
There are many forms of energy such as kinetic energy (energy of motion), chemical energy
(energy stored in bonds) and electrical energy. All forms of energy can be converted into other
forms. Most electrical energy in Canada is made by converting kinetic energy into electrical
energy using a generator.

Electricity is a form of energy produced by the movement of _____________
Electricity is electrical power or electric current.

Resources for Generating Electricity
The majority of electrical energy in Canada is generated from three sources of energy;
______________, ________________ and ________________ Other sources of electrical
energy are solar, biomass, tides, geothermal energy and wind.

There are two categories of energy
Renewable Energy                                  Non-renewable energy

Complete the Venn diagram by listing the sources of energy in the correct circle.

Sources of
electrical
Energy:                          Renewable                             Non
wind,
water,                                                                 renewable
solar,
biomass,
tides,
geothermal
energy,                                                 Sources of
fossil fuels                                            electrical
(oil, coal,
natural                                                 energy
gas),
Uranium

47
Sustainability of energy resources refer to providing energy such that it meets the needs of the
present without compromising the energy needs of future generations. Issues associated with
the use of these energy sources to produce electricity are social, environmental technological and
economical.

Comparison of energy sources

Sources            Social Issues    Environmental     Economic Issues   Technological
Issues                              Issues

Fossil fuels

Hydroelectricity

Solar Energy

Wind Power

Nuclear energy

Geothermal
energy

Question 1Which method of generation of electricity has the least environmental impacts?

Question 2: Which method of generation of electricity is the least and most expensive?

Question 3: Which method would you recommend the government of Ontario choose for the
future?

48
Energy Use in Homes

Electrical devices such as lamps, televisions and refrigerators convert electrical energy into other
forms of energy. The rate at which this change takes place is called the electrical power and is
measured in Watt (W) or kilowatt kW; 1kW=1000W. The energy consumption of
appliances, houses and factories are measured in kilowatthours (kwh). One kwh is the amount
of electrical energy that an appliance with a power rating of 1kW will consume when it operates
for a time period of 1 hour. The consumption in kWh is used to calculate the electricity (hydro)
bill of the consumer by the company that provides the service.

Electrical energy consumption = power in kW x Time in hours

Question 4: A refrigerator has a power rating of 2kW. Calculate its energy consumption for a
week if it operates 12 h each day.

Question 5: If the electricity provider charges its customer \$0.56 for each kWh of electricity
consumed, what is the cost of operating the refrigerator for one week?

The chart below shows how much energy an appliance typically uses on a yearly basis based on
national averages.
Average Electricity Consumption of Appliances

1400

1200

1000
Average Yearly Usage (kWh)

800

600

400

200

0
Microwave oven    Television   Washing Machine Home computer   Refrigerator   Freezer   Clothes dryer   Electric cooking
Appliances

Question6: Which appliances uses the most electrical energy in homes?

Select two of the appliances on the chartthat you have in your home. State three ways to
decrease the amount of energy used by each appliances.

49
Energy Efficiency:
When an incandescent lamp operates some of the energy is converted to light (10%) and the majority
(90%) to heat which is lost to the environment. The efficiency of an electrical device is a measure of the
amount of electrical energy converted to a useful form. The higher the efficiency of a device the greater
the amount of useful energy converted. The energy guide label allows the consumer to compare the
energy use ofone appliance against other similar appliances.

Refrigerator A                                  Refrigerator B

The Energy Guide label of two refrigerators are shown. List information shown by each label.

Which refrigerator is more efficient ? State your reason.

Activity: Student complete the table based on the type and number appliances they have at home.
50
Appliances       Age of        Number in Home   Average Yearly      Total average yearly
Appliance                      Consumption/unit    Consumption

Question 7: What is your total average yearly consumption?

Question 8: What steps can you take to decrease your yearly consumption?

Question9: Is it feasible to change your older appliances for newer models to decrease your
consumption?

Activity: In your Journals - Design a plan to decrease your yearly consumption

51
Lightning Worksheet
Lightning is the sudden movement of large numbers of electrons from one place to another. Many lightning strokes
produce 20 to 30 million volts of electricity.
Most clouds do not produce lightning. Their cloud droplets are neutral. They have the same number of positive
and negative charges. Thunderheads however, have strong up-and-down currents. Cloud droplets rising in these
currents strike other cloud droplets and ice crystals. It is believed that they lose some electrons when they rise
because of this friction. The rising water droplets produce strong positive charges in the upper part of the
thunderhead. Because they have left electrons below, the lower part of the cloud gets a strong negative charge.
When the difference between the charges becomes great enough, lightning will form. Lightning carries electrons
back to the top of the cloud.
If clouds are close together, lightning may flash between them. Clouds near the ground often send their
electrons to the ground. Lightning can also strike from ground to cloud. This will occur when the positively charged
part of the cloud gets near the ground. Lightning strikes because unlike electrical charges attract each other. Cloud
charges have an electrical field around them. When opposite fields connect. Lightning forms. It will travel the
shortest path in several surges. This is why lightning bolts flash several times.
Lightning heats the air, expanding it quickly. This sound wave we call thunder. Thunder rumbles because of
echoes from the ground and other clouds.

Step II

Write in the missing word to complete the statements below.
1. Most clouds do not produce_____________
2. Lightning will travel the___________ path in several surges.
3. Because of electrons left below, the lower part of the cloud gets a strong ______________charge.
4. Lightning is the sudden _____________ of electrons from one place to another.
5. Expanding air causes sound wave we call_______
6. Thunderheads have strong up-and down_________
7. Lightning can also strike from___________to cloud
8. ________________ electrical charge attract each one
9. When the difference between the charges becomes___________ enough.
10. The rising water droplets produce strong positive charges in the _______________ part of the cloud.
11. Cloud charges have an electric____________ around them
12. If the clouds are ________________ together lightning may flash between them.
13. Thunder rumbles because of _____________ from the ground and other clouds
14. It is believed that rising cloud droplets _____________ some electrons as they rise because of friction

Step 111 Find and circle the answers from step 11 on the grid below. Words can read in any directions.
M   O     V   E   M   E   N   T   S   T   R     Step 1V
O   U     N   L   I   K   E   N   G   G   E
R   L     T   I   T   G   V   N   H   T   E     Read left to right, row by row the letters you have not circled for
N   I     N   A   S   G   I   M   A   S   C     a hidden message about lightning. Write it here
C   U     R   R   E   N   T   S   O   D   H
L   D     K   E   T   R   A   L   U   N   O
O   L     S   H   R   L   G   O   P   U   E
S   E     G   U   O   D   E   E   P   O   S
E   I     R   T   H   U   N   D   E   R   T
L   F     H   U   S   N   D   E   R   G   R
52
Static Electricity:
This type of electricity stays on the surface of objects. Static
electricity is produced when some materials are rubbed together
causing some electrons to move from one material to the other. The
material that gains electrons becomes negatively charged and the
material that loses electrons becomes positively charged. This
process is called charging by friction.

In this activity, you will investigate the ability of several different materials to become charged.
Your teacher will supply you with two suspended pith ball. Pith ball A is positively charged and
pith ball B is uncharged.

Object                          Charge on     Attracted or repelled    Attracted or
Material      + ve pith ball           repelled uncharged
pith ball
Polythene rubbed with fur       positive
Glass rubbed with silk          negative
Silk                            negative
fur                             positive

Complete the following statement based on your results.
A positively charged object will _______________ a positively charged object. A positively
charged object will _____________ a negatively charged object.

Charged objects will _____________ an uncharged object.

The law of electric charges states that ____________ charges attract and that charges that are
____________ repel each other.

Explain what happens in each of the following situations.

(1) When Paul walks on the carpet in his shoes, he feels a small shock when he touches the
door knob.

(2) When Sandra combs her hair, she can use her comb to pick up small pieces of paper

53
Activity: Tie two balloons with pieces of string. Rub each balloon with the same material to
charge them. Hold the string and let the balloons get close together. Record your observations.

Question. Did the balloons repel or attract?

Rub the balloons with different materials and repeat the experiment.

Was there any change in your observations?

Charging By Contact: If a charged
object touches a neutral object,
some of the charge will move onto
the neutral object. The neutral
object becomes charged with the
same sign of charge as the charging
body.

Charging By Induction:
Step1: A charged object is brought close to a neutral object without touching it. The
negative charges repel electrons. The neutral object now has an excess of positive
charge at the side closest to the charged body and an excess of positive charge at the
opposite side.

Step 2: The opposite side of the neutral object is touched with the finger or ground wire
with the charged body still held close. Electrons from the body rare repelled to the
ground.

Step 3: The ground wire is removed, followed by the charged body. The object is now
positively charged.

54
Draw diagrams showing how induction can be used to negatively charge a neutral object.

55
Grounding: A conductor connected to a charged body will carry excess charges to the Earth’s
surface and into the ground. Charged objects can be discharged by touching them with a
conductor connected to the ground.

Conductivity: The ability of electrical charges to move through a material is called its
conductivity. Conductivity depends on the state of the material. In solids, only negative charges
can move and in liquids, both negative and positive charges can move. A conductor is a material
that allows charges to move through it. Insulators prevent charges moving through it. Most
metals are good conductors and most non-metals are insulators.

Conductivity Activity.

Current Electricity

Source: The source such as an electric outlet or battery supplies electrical energy to operate
electrical equipment. A source provides a potential difference V.

Potential difference: is a measure of the amount of energy charges gain when they pass
through source. The potential difference (V) is the change in energy of one unit of charge when
it passes through a source or load.

Current: An electric current is a flow of charge. Electric current symbol I, is measured in
Amperes (A). A potential difference placed across a conductor will cause charges to flow through
the conductor. Since charges cannot build up in a conductor the current flow is the same at
every point in the wire.

Load: Any device that converts electrical energy into other forms of energy is called a load.
Examples: clothes iron, television and radios. Charges loose energy when they pass through a

Resistance: A resistance is a load that opposes the flow of an electric current. Toaster ovens
and filament bulbs are examples of resistance loads. Resistance is represented by R, and is
measured in Ohms (Ω).

56
Electrical Circuit: An electrical circuit is the path taken by an electric current. An electrical
circuit has a source connected to a load in a way that will allow an electrical current to flow. The
negative charges leave the source, passes through the load and back to the positive terminal of
the source.

Device      Function
Fuse

Switch

Source

Conductor

If the source is a battery, the current flows in one direction in the circuit and it is called a direct
current (dc), circuit.

Circuit Symbols: Simple symbols are used to make it easier to draw circuits.

Parallel and Series Circuit: In a series circuit, there is only one path along which the electrical
current can flow. In a parallel circuit, there is more than one path for the current to flow.

Activity 1: Your teacher will connect a circuit consisting of a dc source, two light bulbs, a switch
and a resistance. Examine the circuit. Draw the circuit using circuit symbols. Trace the flow of
current by placing arrowheads on the conductors in your circuit. List the flow of current starting
with the positive terminal of the source.

Activity 2: Examine the second circuit setup by your teacher. Draw the circuit using circuit
symbols. Trace the path of the current in this circuit using arrowheads on the conductors as
before. List the order of the current flow starting with the positive terminal of the source.

Question 1: What is the difference in connection between circuit 1 and 2?
57
Question2: How does this difference affect the flow of current in circuit 2?

Question 3: Circuit 1 is an example of what type of a circuit?

Question 4: Circuit 2 is an example of what type of circuit?

Voltmeters & Ammeters

Voltmeters measure potential difference in a circuit. Voltmeters
are connected in parallel with the device which voltage is being
measured.
Ammeters measure current flow. Ammeters are connected in
series in the circuit.

Using Ammeters & Voltmeters

In this investigation, you will practise connecting an ammeter and voltmeter in a circuit and
investigate the relationship between current and potential difference.

Your teacher will provide you with a dc source, a switch, a bulb, a resistor, and connecting wires.

Draw a circuit diagram showing how you would connect these devices in a series circuit.

Place the ammeter between the source and the bulb. Record the current.
Remove the ammeter and place it in series between the bulb and the resistor.

Record the current. Compare both values of current. Are the values the same or different?

58
Place the voltmeter across the bulb. Record your voltage.

Place the voltmeter across (in parallel with) the resistor. Record your voltage.

Are the voltages the same or are they different. Explain your result.

Complete the statement below: in a series circuit the current through each device is the
_______________, but the voltage across each device is __________________

Potential Difference & Resistance
In this activity, you will be investigating the
relationship between resistance and potential
difference. You will be provided with a variable
power source, a load, an ammeter, a switch,
connecting wires and a voltmeter. Connect the circuit
based on the circuit diagram.

Plot a graph of ammeter reading on the y-axis and voltmeter reading on the x-axis. Examine
your graph and complete the statement below.

When the voltage in a circuit ______________, the current will ________________ When the
voltage in a circuit decrease, the current will ________________

59
Drawing electrical Circuits
Practice drawing the electric circuits in the boxes provided.

Two dry cells, 2 light bulbs and one motor in          Three dry cells, 2 light bulbs and one motor
series. A voltmeter is measuring the voltage on        connected in parallel with an open switch
the motor.                                             controlling only one bulb. An ammeter is
measuring the current for all loads.

Two dry cells, 3 light bulbs, a closed switch          One dry cell, 3 motors in series, an open switch
with each light. Voltmeter on source.                  and a fuse.

Four dry cells, 2 lights in series with one light in   Two dry cells, in light in parallel with 2 lights in
parallel around the second light and a closed          series, an open switch and a fuse controlling
switch. Voltage is measured on all loads.              the first light.

60
Unit: Space Exploration
A visually impaired student has just come to Fletcher’s Meadow. He has never been taught
about space and of course he has never seen the night sky. Your job is to tell him what you
below (try to come up with 10 things about space that you could tell the new student):

2. What is a constellation?

Fill in the following chart describing the major components of the universe.
Words       What is it? How does it        How close is the nearestHow close is the 2nd nearest
move?                                     one
one and what is it called? and what is it called?

Planet

Moon

Star

Galaxy

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Patterns in the Night Sky
Purpose : To investigate constellations in the night sky and the motion of celestial objects ( the sun, our moon,
planets, stars) using a computer simulation.
1. Go to http://skychart.skytonight.com/observing/skychart.asp
2. Change the location to Brampton, Ontario, and change the date to you next birthday. We on Eastern
Time. Also change the time to 10:00 pm
3. Use the green box on the right side of the page to change what you see on the top left.
a. What day is your birthday?____________________
What constellations are visible at 10:00 pm on your birthday?
b. in the north sky
c. In the east sky?
d. In the south sky?
e. In the west sky?
4. Go back to the north sky and change the time to 10:30 pm. How did the constellations move?

5. Change the time again four more times by adding half an hour each time.
a. What happens to your view of the sky?

b. What happens to the constellations in the sky view on the right side of the page as time
progresses?

6. Experiment with the date and time to find other planets.
a. Which planets were you able to see?

b. How do they move across the night sky as time passes?

7. Experiment with the date and time to find a full moon. Record this date in the chart
a. How does the moon move across the sky?

b. Adding 5 days each time, change the date and record the appearance of the moon, also noting
when it is in the sky. (for example: from 8:30pm – 1:30 pm)

Date                               APPEARANCE                          WHEN IT IS IN THE SKY
Full Moon

62
THE SOLAR SYSTEM
Use your textbook to fill out the following information in the chart below.
Distance        Rotation                Three interesting features
from Sun
Mercury

Venus

Earth

Mars

Jupiter

Saturn

Uranus

Neptune

1. Why isn’t Pluto included in this chart?

2. What is an asteroid and where care they mostly found?

3. What is a meteoroid?

4. What is a meteor?

5. What is a meteorite?

6. What is a comet?

7. When will Halley’s Comet next appear?

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Fill in the blanks below with words from this box:
Neptune                  gas giants               Pluto              planetoids
solar                     Mars                  eight                comet
asteroids                  Jupiter             temperature           terrestrial
orbit                     water                Saturn               Uranus
dinosaurs                   Earth                 Venus                  tail
Mercury                 astronomers

The Solar System
The _______________ system is the group of planets that _____________ our Sun. There
are _________________ known planets in our solar system. We used to say there were nine
planets, but now _________________ think that ______________ is too small to be called
as a planet.

The Terrestrial Planets also called ___________________
Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are called _________________ planets because they have
rocky surfaces. _______________, of course, is the planet we live on. _______________ is
the closest planet to the sun. ________________, which is also called the evening star, has
a ______________ of 500 degrees Celsius and clouds of sulfuric acid. _________________
is known as the red planet. Recently, frozen ______________ was discovered there.

The Gaseous Planets also called ___________________________
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are called __________________ because they are big
and made mostly of gas. _______________ is the largest planet in the solar system.
_________________ is famous for its rings.
_______________ also has rings but is not as famous as Saturn.

Planetoids: Asteroids and Comets
There are many other ______________ in the solar system. Between
Mars and Jupiter there is a belt of small rocky objects called
_______________. As well, balls of ice and rock called
_______________ occasionally come close to the sun creating a
bright ________________ that can be seen from Earth. Some
scientists think the _____________ became extinct when one of these
comets came crashing into the Earth.

64
PROJECT A Scale Model of the solar system
An Astronomical Unit (AU) is the distance from the Earth to the Sun, or 149,600,000 kilometers.
Determine and record the distances from the Sun to each of the planets in terms of Astronomical units. To
do this, we take the distance from a planet to the sun, and divide the Earth-Sun distance, then use a scale of
1AU = 4 cm to get the represented distance for the scale model.
Complete the following table before assembling the model:

divide by 150       multiply by 4                  divide by 10000

Celestial object      Distance of      Distance         Modeled         Planet         Modeled
the planet to      (AU)            distance       diameter        diameter
the sun                           (cm)           (km)            (cm)
Sun                  0               0                0         1 400 000           140

A          Mercury              57.9            0.386            1.54           4800             0.5

B           Venus                108                                           12 000

C           Earth                150                                           13 000            1.3

D           Mars                 228                                            6800

Asteroid Belt            419                                         ------------    ------------

E           Jupiter              778                                          143 000

F           Saturn              1427                                          116 000

G          Uranus               2870                                           47 000
H          Neptune              4497                                           45 400

1. Now draw out the circles with the right diameter for your model.
2. Color the planets using your text book for hints on how they should look. Put in rings too!
3. Cut out the circles, write the letter on the back of the planet so you remember which is which.
4. Assemble your planets in order on a long piece of coloured construction paper. Using your
calculations measure how far away the planets should be (starting from the sun each time
5. Glue your planets on. Don’t forget small pieces of paper for your asteroid belt.
6. Label the following
a. inner planets,
b. the outer planets
c. the asteroid belt
7. Give two ( 2) characteristic of each planet on your model.

65
What is solar eclipse?

What is a shadow? A shadow is an area of darkness, it forms when an object gets in the
way or blocks light.

Every object that blocks light forms a shadow. The earth and moon are no exceptions.
The earth and moon block the sun’s light. They cast huge cone-shaped shadows deep into
space.

The earth and the moon are always moving. Sometimes the earth moves behind the
moon. Part of the earth is in the moon’s shadow. For the people at this place on earth, the
moon blocks out, or eclipses, the sun. The eclipsed area becomes dark. For a short period
of time, it looks like it is night time.

A solar eclipse does not last lone - no longer than a few minutes in any one place
Since scientists know a lot about the orbits of the earth and the moon, they can accurately
predict:
 When an eclipse will take place
 Where it will take place
 How long it will last.

66
Solar eclipse Questions – Fill in the blanks

Complete each statement using a term or terms form the list below. Write your answers in
the spaces provided. Some words may be used more than once.
Solar eclipse       sun         total        earth          eclipse      darkness
Parital             moves       moon         conona         shadows      blocks

1. A shadow is an area of _____________________.
2. A shadow forms when an object _________________________ light.
3. The __________________ and _________________________ block the sun’s light. They
cast long, cone shaped__________________________
4. Sometimes the shadow of a heavenly body blocks out another heavenly body. This is
called an ______________________________________
5. The blocking out of the sun by the moon’s shadow is called____________________.
6. A solar eclipse occurs when the ____________________ is between the
________________ and the ________________________.
7. When the moon blocs out all of the sun, we have a ___________________solar eclipse.
8. When the moon blocks out part of the sun, we have a _____________ solar eclipse
9. During a total eclipse, we can see only the sun’s rim. This is called the
_________________.
10. The place where you can see a solar eclipse_______________________ across part of
the earth’s surface.

   Solar eclipse can take place only during one moon phase. Which phase is it?

   Why?

67
Career / Scientist Assignment

Expectations:
 Demonstrate understanding of a career or scientist for the unit.
 Cleary organize ideas and information

Assignment options: (pick one of the options below to show your understanding of
 Create a poster or drawing
 Design a graphic organizer to explain assignment
 Make a report
 PowerPoint Presentation
 Brochure
 Storybook
 Newspaper article

Assessment Checkbric:

Application
Student’s
Checkmarks             Teacher’s
L3 Expectations
Not Yet                    Checkmarks
Met   Exceeded
Met
I have stated the career / scientist and
described the career / scientist
I have included a short description of the
career / scientist
I have included and explained at least three
interesting facts
I have explained the
responsibility/contribution of the career /
scientist
I have included a description of how this
career / scientist relates to the unit

Communication
Student’s
Checkmarks            Teacher’s
Not                       Checkmar                   L3 Expectations
Excee
Yet    Met                   ks
ded
Met
There are very few spelling mistakes.
There are very few grammatical errors.
The images support and supplement the text.
Information is clearly and neatly represented

68
CAREER

1. Name of Career: _____________________________________
If yes, what did you know?

3. What are the qualifications for this career?

4. What is the annual salary for this career? (how money can you make per year)











6. What do you think the daily responsibilities for a person with this career might be?

7. How might a person use their knowledge of grade 9 science in this career?

69
CAREER

1. Name of Career: _____________________________________
If yes, what did you know?

3. What are the qualifications for this career?

4. What is the annual salary for this career? (how money can you make per year)











6. What do you think the daily responsibilities for a person with this career might be?

7. How might a person use their knowledge of grade 9 science in this career?

70
Scientist

1. Name of Scientist: _____________________________________

If yes, what did you know?

3. Where were they born and where do they live now?











5. In which area of science does this scientist work?

6. What discoveries / contributions has the Scientist made to the science field?

71
Scientist

1. Name of Scientist: _____________________________________

If yes, what did you know?

3. Where were they born and where do they live now?











5. In which area of science does this scientist work?

6. What discoveries / contributions has the Scientist made to the science field?

72
Ecology Unit Review
Word List
Abiotic                           Biome                            Death
Biotic                            Birth                            Community
Ecosystem                         Components                       Ecology
Migration                         Environment                      Organisms
Biosphere                         Population                       Rate
Habitat                           Predator                         Consumer
Food Chain                        Food Web                         Decomposer
Omnivore                          Carnivore                        Scavenger
Herbivore                         Top predator                     Photosynthesis
Pesticide                         Bioaccumulation                  Carbon Cycle
Definitions
1. _______________ is the study of the relationship between and among organisms and their
____________.
2. An _______________ is all living and non-living components interacting together.
3. The _________ component of an ecosystem consists of all those things that are living or were once
living.
4. This is the term used to describe all the non-living things in an ecosystem. ___________
5. A group of individuals of a single species that live in the same area is known a ______________
6. Several different populations of plants and animals living together in an area is called a
_________________
7. A large area with the same climate and a characteristic group of plants and animals is known as a
_______________.
8. The ___________________ is the part of the earth where all life exists.
9. The number of individuals moving into or out of an area over a given period of time is known as the
_____________ _____________.
10. The number of individuals that are born into a population over a period of time is known as the
_________ rate; just as the number of individuals that die over a period of time is known as the
__________ rate.
11. ____________ is the place where an organism lives
12. ____________ Animals that hunt and kill for food
13. ________________ Organisms which must feed on others
14. _____________ The flow of energy through an ecosystem. Linear feeding relationship.
15. _________________ Organisms that recycle dead material.
16. ____________________ Organisms that eat plants and animals
17. __________________ Organisms that feed off of live organisms
18. _________________ Organisms that eat only producers
19. ____________________ Animals that have no natural enemies
21. ___________________ Food chains that overlap
22. _______________________Process by which green plants make food
23. The __________________ is being affected by humans because of the excessive burning of fossil
fuels. This is causing Global Warming.
24. ________________ is the increase in concentration of nutrients or contaminants from eating many
organisms over time.
25. ____________ are used to control the population of pests that eat food crops. DDT is an example
that has proven to be very bad for ecosystems.

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26. What is the difference between the following terms?
Biotic vs. Abiotic Factors                 Habitat vs Niche

Population vs. Community                           Producers vs consumers

Carnivore vs. Herbivore                            Food chain vs. Food web

27. Consider the following food chain:
plants  grasshopper  toad  snake  hawk  bacteria
Identify who is/are:
Producer(s) ______________________________________________________________
3rd Consumer _____________________________________________________________
Herbivore(s)_____________________________________________________________
2nd Carnivore_____________________________________________________________
Primary Carnivore ________________________________________________________
Secondary Carnivore ______________________________________________________
Top Consumer ___________________________________________________________
28. Explain why biodiversity is important for ecosystems.

29. Explain how the extinction of one species can have a serious effect on others in
the ecosystem.

30. How is sunlight important for an ecosystem?

31. Consider the following food web:
a) What would happen if all the hawks were to disappear?
berries           sparrow
hawk
b) What would happen if all of the rabbits died?                                              robin
seeds       insects
c) What would happen if all of the grass plants died?                                        snake
grass        mouse

d) What would happen if all the decomposers were destroyed?                rabbit             fox
roots

bacteria    fungi        earthworms

74
SCN1P0 Chemistry Review
1. States of matter
2. Physical and Chemical Properties
3. Physical and chemical changes
4. Classification of matter – Elements, Mixtures (Heterogeneous and Homogeneous) and Compounds
5. Subatomic Particles – electrons, protons and neutrons. Must know their charges, and where they are
found in the periodic table.
6. Atomic number and atomic mass (mass number).
7. Bohr diagrams
8. Periodic table
*********************************************************
Practice Questions

1. An example of a gas is
a.    chocolate syrup               b. a rock          c. pencils            d. helium

2. Any object or anything that takes up space and has mass is called
a. stuff                   b. gas                   c. matter                       d. atoms

3. Burning a match is a
a. chemical change          b. physical change c. chemical property       d. physical property

4. What is the chemical symbol, atomic mass, and atomic number of Nitrogen?

5. If the atomic number of an element remains the same and the neutrons change what else
has changed in that element?
a. atomic mass b. electrons         c. chemical symbol       d. protons

6. When a liquid changes to a gas it is called
a. condensation        b. melting point             c. evaporation        d. boiling point

7. An example of a liquid is oil.                              A. True       b. False

8. Condensation is when a liquid changes to a gas.              A. True      b. False

9. Ice cream melting is a chemical change.                     A. true       b. False

10. Bubbling is a sign of a chemical change.                   A. True       b. False

11. Classify the following as either elements, compounds, homogeneous mixtures (solutions) or
heterogeneous mixtures:
a) Kool Aid -
b) concrete -
c) Silver (Ag) -
d) carbon dioxide (CO2) -
e) salt water -

75
12. Draw Bohr diagram for
a. Chlorine                              b. Calcium               c. Nitrogen

13. Fill in the blanks in the following table
Atomic          Atomic                                                          Atomic
symbol          number          Protons        Neutrons     Electrons            mass

B                5                                                             11
Na                              11                                             24
Ga              37                             37
Y                                                           39                 89
Cu                              29                                             64
Tc                                             57           43
Pb                              82             125
14. Draw a diagram of an atom and label all the parts. Write the charges beside each particle.

15. Indicate which a physical change (P) is or Chemical Change (C)
Mixing sugar and water -
Making a peanut, pretzel and cereal mixture. –
Baking soda reacts with vinegar and forms a gas. -
Bending a metal in half -
Burning methanol. -
Crushing aspirin into a powder -

16. Based on the periodic table you made. Which group of elements have 2 electrons in the last
shell?____
17. What are the vertical columns in the periodic table called?_______________________
18. What are the horizontal rows in the periodic table called?________________________
19. Which group of elements have a full last(outermost) shell?_______________________
20. What is the special name of that group?________________________
Electricity Review Sheet
76
1. List the differences between the following

Static                                              Current

Conductor                                           Insulator

Series                                              Parallel

2. Match the following
1. Path electrons take                         a.   Insulator
2. Allows electrons to flow though it          b.   Conductor
3. Instrument used to measure current          c.   Ohms
4. Electricity that does not move along a      d.   A
path
5. Units for resistance                        e. Circuit
6. Does not allow electrons to pass            f. Current electricity
thought it
7. Symbol unit for current                     g. Static electricity

Answer the following questions.  V= IR      R = V/I       I = V/R
3. How much voltage does a line with a resistance of 10 Ohms and a current of 20 Amps have?
Given and required         Analysis                      Substitute and solve

4.   How much current does a line with a voltage of 200 volts and a resistance of 40 Ohms?
Given and required         Analysis                       Substitute and solve

77
5. Which of the following statements describing the movement of charge when you rub a balloon
with a piece of fur is correct? (HINT: Think what we did in class)

a)   The   electrons from the balloon are transferred to the fur
b)   The   protons from the balloon are transferred to the fur
c)   The   electrons from the fur are transferred to the balloon
d)   The   protons from the fur are transferred to the balloon

6. What are the charges of the unknown object (+, - or neutral)             (HINT: Think of the law of
charges)
-
a.                                 -    -
?                  -
-    -

+
?                 + +
+
+
+
Draw the following
7. Three dry cells connected to 2 bulbs and a motor in parallel. An ammeter measures the current on
the motor only. A voltmeter measures the voltage on the second bulb and a closed switch is
connected just before the positive end of the dry cell.

8. A bulb, and motor and buzzer are connected in series to one dry cell. The closed switch is
connected just after the negative end of the dry cell. The ammeter measures the current of all the
loads. Voltmeters are connected to the bulb and the motor.

9. Two dry cells connected in parallel are connected to two bulbs in series. A voltmeter is connected
across both dry cells and a closed switch is connected between the two bulbs.

78
Space Review

1. What is the solarsystem?

2. What are the Inner (terrestrial or rocky) planets?

3. What are the outer (gas giants) planets?

4. Order of planets from the sun

5. Define the following : Meteorite

Meteoroid

Comet

Meteor

asteroids and asteroid belt

6. List at least 2 Characteristics of all the planets
Planets                            Characteristics
Mercury
Venus
Earth
Mars
Jupiter
Saturn
Uranus
Neptune

7. What is the difference between the Earth’s revolution and earths rotation

79
1

2

3

4
Across
2. Earth's companion.
5                6         7             4. This used to be called a planet
but now isn’t.

8       9           10
5. An instrument that scientists
use to observe planets.
11
9. This planet is known as the
red planet.
12                   13                  11. One of many 'rocks' in a belt
between Mars and Jupiter.
14
12. Planet between Saturn and
15                         16
Neptune.
14. The largest planet in the
solar system.
15. Planet named after the sea
god.

Down
1. Planet known as the evening     7. The path that a planet
star.                              takes around the sun.
2. Our galaxy.                     8. Planet closest to the sun.
3. An icy rock that has bright     10. Planet famous for its
tail when it comes close to the    rings.
sun.
13. Star at the center of our
6. Our sun is this.                solar system.
16. Our planet.

80

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