MILITARY HANDBOOK by dandanhuanghuang

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									                                 MIL-HDBK-ZLi’F      CHG N O T I C E 2                  7777770 OL770Lb L 4 T


                                                                                   INOT                                  1
                                                                                                     MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE           ~~~       ________   ~~~




                                                                                                   MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                                                   2 DECEMBER 1991
                                                                                                   SUPERSEDING
                                                                                                   MIL-HDBK-217E, Notice 1
                                                                                                   2 January 1990




                        MILITARY HANDBOOK
                            RELIABILITY PREDICTION OF
                             ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT



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                            THIS HANDBOOK IS FOR GUIDANCE ONLY DO NOT                                                                      -
                                CITE THIS DOCUMENT AS REQUIREMENT
                                                     A

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                        DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT Approved for public release: distribution unlimited.
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                                                                       NOTICE OF CHANGE                                                                                  NOT MEASUREMENT

                                                                       THIS
                                                                        HANDBOOK    IS FOR GUIDANCE ONLY                                                -                                       MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                         NOT
                                                                       DO CITE  THIS DOCUMENT AS A REQUIREMENT                                                                                        NOTICE 2
                                                                                                                                                                                               28 February 1995



                                                                                                              MILITARY HANDBOOK
                                                                                               RELIABILITY PREDICTIONOF ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT


                                                                       To all holders of MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                       1. The following pages of MIL-HDBK917F have been revised and supersede the pages listed.
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                                                                  MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                     NOTICE 2




               2.            Retain the pages of this notice and insert before the Table           of Contents.

                3.           Holders of MIL-HDBK-217F will verify page
                                                                   that   changes        and additions indicatedhavebeen
                             entered. The notice pages will be retainedasachecksheet.Theissuance,              together with
                             appended pages, is a separate publication. Each notice is to be retained by stocking points until
                             the military handbookis revised or canceled.

                Custodians:                                                 Preparing Activity:
                     Army - CR                                                   Air Force 17         -
                     Navy - EC
                     Air Force 17    -                                      Project No. RELI-O074




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                Review Activities:
                     Army - MI, AV, ER
                     Navy - SH, AS, OS
                     Air Force - 11, 13,15, 19, 99


                            Army - AT, ME, GL
                            Navy - CG, MC, YD, TD
                            Air Force - 85




                AMSCNIA
                DISTRIBUTION STATEMENTA: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited.                                                          FSC RELI



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                                NOTICE OF CHANGE                                                                           NOT MEASUREMENT
                                                                                                                               SENSITIVE
                                                                                                                                                    MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                                                                                                          NOTICE 1
                                                                                                                                                      10 JULY 1992



                                                                   MILITARY HANDBOOK
                                                    RELIABILITY PREDICTION OF ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT


                            To all holders of MIL-HDBK-217F

                                1. The following pages of MIL-HDBK-217F have been revised and supersede the pages listed.

                                 New Page(s)           Date             Superseded Page(s)                                  Date
                                      vi¡                                       vi i                             2 December 199 1
                                     5-3                                       5-3                               2 December 1991
                                     5-4                                       5-4                               2 December 1991
                                     5-7                                       5-7                               2 December 1991
                                     5-8         2 December 1991               5-8                               Reprinted withoutchange
                                     5-9                                       5-9                               2 December 1991
                                    5-1O         2 December 1991               5-1O                              Reprinted without change
                                    5-11         2 December 1991               5-11                              Reprinted without change
                                    5-12                                       5-12                              2 December 1991
                                    5-13                                       5-13                              2 December 1991
                                    5-14         2 December 1991               5-14                              Reprinted without change
                                    5-19                                       5-19                              2 December 1991
                                    5-20         2 December 1991               5-20                              Reprinted without change
I
                                    6-15                                       6-15                              2 December 1991
                                    6-16         2 December 1991               6-16                              Reprinted without change
                                     7-1         2 December 1991                7-1                              Reprinted without change
                                     7-2                                        7-2                              2 December 1991
                                    12-3                                       12-3                              2 December 1991
                                    12-4         2 December 1991               12-4                              Reprinted withoutchange
                                     A- 1        2 December 1991               A- 1                              Reprinted withoutchange
                                     A-2                                       A-2                               2 December 1991
                                     A-3                                        A-3                              2 December 1991
                                     A-4         2 December 1991                A-4                              Reprinted without change
                                     A-5                                        A-5                              2 December 1991
                                     A-6                                        A-6                              2 December 1991
                                     A-7                                        A-7                              2 December 1991
                                     A-8                                        A-8                              2 December 1991
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                                     A-9                                        A-9                              2 December 1991
                                    A-1O         2 December 1991               A-1O                              Reprinted withoutchange
                                    A-11         2 December 1991               A-1 1                             Reprinted without change
                                    A-12                                       A-12                              2 December 1991
                                    A-13                                       A-13                              2 December 1991
                                    A-14                                       A-14                              2 December 1991
                                    A-15         2 December 1991               A-15                               Reprinted withoutchange
                                    A-16                                       A-l6                              2 December 1991




                                AMSC N/A
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                                                                           MIL-HDBK-2L7F N O T I C E L R E               9399970 O076089                                  8




                                                                                                            MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                                                               NOTICE 1


                                                                   2.      Retainthe pages of this noticeandinsertbeforetheTable               of Contents.

                                                                   3.     Holders of MIL-HDBK-217F will verify that page changes and additions indicated have been
                                                                          entered. The notice pages will be retained as a check sheet. The issuance, together with
                                                                          appended pages, is a separate publication. Each notice is to be retained by stocking points until
                                                                          the military handbook is revised or canceled.

                                                                   Custodians:                                        Preparing Activity:
                                                                        Army - CR                                          Air Force 17            -
                                                                        Navy - EC
                                                                        Air Force - 17                                Project No. RELI-O068

                                                                   Review Activities:
                                                                              -
                                                                        Army MI, AV, ER
                                                                              -
                                                                        Navy SH, AS, OS
                                                                        Air Force - 11, 13, 14, 15, 18,
                                                                                    19,99

                                                                   User Activities:
                                                                        Army - AT, ME, GL
                                                                        Navy - CG, MC,YD, TD
                                                                                   -
                                                                        Air Force 85
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                                                                   2
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                                  H I L - H D B K - 2 1C N O T I C E
                                                         F                     2                           9 9 9 9 7 7 0 O L 7 3 O L 7 086                       m
                                                                       MIL-HDBK-217F




                                                             DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE
                                                              WASHINGTONDC   20301




                                       RELIABILITY PREDICTION OF ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT




                                                                                                     f
                            1. This standardization handbook was developed by the Department o Defense
                               with the assistance of the military departments, federal agencies, and industry.

                            2. Everyefforthas    been made toreflectthelatestinformationonreliability
                               prediction procedures. It is the intent to review this handbook periodically to
                               ensure its completeness and currency.

                            3. Beneficial comments (recommendations,                deletions)
                                                                           additions,        and          any
                               pertinentdata whichmay be of useinimprovingthis          document should be
                               addressed to: RomeLaboratory/ERSR,Attn:Seymour           F. Morris, 525Brooks
                                  Griffiss
                               Rd.,              AFB, NY                 by self-addressed
                                                                         using
                                                              13441-4505, the
                               Standardization DocumentImprovement Proposal (DD Form 1426) appearing
                               at the end of this document or by letter.




                    ..
                    II
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                                             NIL-HDBK-217F                    C H G NOTICE 2                                 9999970 O L 9 3 O L B TL2
                                                                                         MIL-HDBK-217F


                                                                                                                                                      TABLE             OF CONTENTS
                            SECTION          1:  SCOPE
                               1. 1          Purpose.................................................................................................................                   1-1
                               1.2           Application .............................................................................................................                  1-1
                               1.3           Computerized  Reliability  Prediction            .........................................................................                 1-1

                            SECTION 2:               REFERENCE
                                                             DOCUMENTS                             .......................................................................             2-1

                            SECTION          3: INTRODUCTION
                               3.1           Reliability Engineering ............................................................................................                      3-1
                               3.2           TheRole of Reliability Prediction..............................................................................                           3-1
                               3.3           Limitations of Reliability Predictions..........................................................................                          3-2
                               3.4           Part
                                                Stress  AnalysisPrediction ................................................................................                            3-2

                            SECTION 4:              RELIABILITY ANALYSIS EVALUATION ...................................................                                                4-1

                            SECTION 5: MICROCIRCUITS.                 INTRODUCTION ...........................................................                                          5-1
                               5.1    Gate/Logic  Arrays Microprocessors
                                                           and                                  ....................................................................                    5-3
                               5.2
                                Memories         ...............................................................................................................                        5-4
                               5.3VHSlCNHSlC              Like ..................................................................................................                       5-7
                               5.4    GaAs MMlCandDigitalDevices ................................................................................                                       5-8
                               5.5    Hybrids ..................................................................................................................                        5-9
                               5.6    SAW Devices .........................................................................................................                            5-10
                               5.7    Magnetic Bubble   Memories .....................................................................................                                 5-11
                               5.8    X.T Table for All ........................................................................................................                       5-13




                                                                                                                                                                                               --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                               5.9    C2TableforAll .......................................................................................................                            5-14
                              5.1O    XE, xL and X.Q    Tables for All ....................................................................................                            5-15
                              5.1 1   TJDetermination. (All ExceptHybrids) ......................................................................                                      5-17
                              5.1 2TJ     Determination,(ForHybrids) ................................................................................                                  5-18
                              5.13    Examples ...............................................................................................................                         5-20

                            SECTION          6:   DISCRETE   SEMICONDUCTORS
                               6.0           Discrete Semiconductors. Introduction....................................................................                                  6-1
                               6.1           Diodes. Low Frequency..........................................................................................                            6-2
                               6.2           Diodes. High Frequency (Microwave. .................................................................
                                                                                               RF)                                                                                      6-4
                               6.3           Transistors. Low Frequency. Bipolar             ........................................................................                   6-6
                               6.4           Transistors. Low Frequency. Si FET.........................................................................                                6-8
                               6.5           Transistors, Unijunction ...........................................................................................                       6-9
                               6.6           Transistors, Low Noise, High Frequency, Bipolar                      ......................................................               6-10
                               6.7           Transistors, High Power, High Frequency, Bipolar .....................................................                                    6-12
                               6.8           Transistors, High Frequency, GaAs FET ...................................................................                                 6-14
                               6.9           Transistors, High Frequency, Si FET              ........................................................................                 6-16
                              6.10           Thyristors andSCRs ...............................................................................................                        6-17
                              6.1 1          Optoelectronics, Detectors, Isolators, Emitters .........................................................                                 6-19
                              6.1 2          Optoelectronics, Alphanumeric Displays..................................................................                                  6-20
                              6.1 3          Optoelectronics, Laser Diode..................................................................................                            6-21
                              6.1 4          TJ Determination....................................................................................................                      6-23
                              6.15           Example.................................................................................................................                  6-25




                                                                                                                                                                                         ...
                                                                                                                                                                                         111


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                                MIL-HDBK-217F                   CHG N O T I C E 2                             9999970 OL970L9 959
                                                                                MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                                   NOTICE 2


                    TABLE OF CONTENTS

                    SECTION         7: TUBES
                       7.1          AllTypesExcept TWT and Magnetron ....................................................................                                           7-1
                       7.2                  Wave .......................................................................................................
                                    Traveling                                                                                                                                       7-3
                       7.3          Magnetron.............................................................................................................                          7-4

                    SECTION 8:        LASERS
                       8.0     Introduction...........................................................................................................                              8-1
                       8.1            and
                               Helium Argon          ..................................................................................................                             8-2
                       8.2     Carbon Dioxide.
                                             Sealed           .........................................................................................                             8-3
                       8.3     Carbon Dioxide. Flowing .......................................................................................                                      8-4
                       8.4SolidState.
                                    ND:YAG Ruby
                                            and          Rod                      ......................................................................                            8-5

                    SECTION 9:    RESISTORS
                       9.1  Resistors ...............................................................................................................                               9-1

                    SECTION 10:      CAPACITORS
                      10.1   Capacitors .............................................................................................................                              10-1
                      10.2
                         Capacitors.
                                  Example               ..............................................................................................                             10-6

                    SECTION          11 :      INDUCTIVE       DEVICES
                      11.1          Transformers .........................................................................................................                         11-1
                      11.2          Coils .....................................................................................................................                    11-3
                      11.3          Determination of Hot Spot Temperature ................................................................                                         11-4

                    SECTION 12:     ROTATING      DEVICES
                        Motors
                      12.1          ..................................................................................................................                             12-1
                      12.2   Synchros Resolvers
                                     and                       ........................................................................................                            12-4
                      12.3   Elapsed Meters ..............................................................................................
                                   Time                                                                                                                                            12-5

                    SECTION 13:    RELAYS
                      13.1  Mechanical.............................................................................................................                                13-1
                      13.2  SolidStateandTimeDelay .....................................................................................                                           13-3

                    SECTION 14:     SWITCHES
                      14.1  Switches................................................................................................................                               14-1
                      14.2       Breakers .....................................................................................................
                            Circuit                                                                                                                                                14-2

                    SECTION 15:    CONNECTORS
                      15.1  Connectors. General ..............................................................................................                                     15-1
                      15.2           Sockets .............................................................................................
                            Connectors,                                                                                                                                            15-3

                    SECTION 16:        INTERCONNECTION    ASSEMBLIES
                      16.1InterconnectionAssemblieswithPlatedThroughHoles                                                          ..........................................      16-1
                      16.2     InterconnectionAssemblies,
                                                        SurfaceMountTechnology                                                         .........................................   16-2

                    SECTION 17:    CONNECTIONS
                      17.1  Connections ..........................................................................................................                                 17-1

                    SECTION 18:    METERS
                      18.1       Panel .........................................................................................................
                            Meters.                                                                                                                                                18-1

                    SECTION 19:         CRYSTALS
                                   QUARTZ
                      19.1      Crystals ......................................................................................................
                            Quartz                                                                                                                                                 19-1




                    ¡v                                                                                          page                    Supersedes
                                                                                                       --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                                                                                                                                                       iv of Revision F
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                                                                                NIL-HDBK-2L7F                    CHG N O T I C E 2                            9 9 9 9 9 7 0 0177020 b 7 0                                 m
                                                                                                                           MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                                                                             NOTICE 2


                                                                                                                                                                                           OF
                                                                                                                                                                                       TABLE CONTENTS

                                                                SECTION 20: LAMPS
                                                                  20.1 Lamps...................................................................................................................                               20-1
                                                                SECTION 21 : ELECTRONIC      FILTERS
              --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                                                                  21 .1 Electronic Filters. Non-Tunable................................................................................                                       21-1
                                                                SECTION22:      FUSES
                                                                  22.1     Fuses ...................................................................................................................                          22-1
                                                                SECTION 23: MISCELLANEOUS PARTS
                                                                                   Parts ................................................................................................
                                                                  23.1 Miscellaneous                                                                                                                                          23-1
                                                                APPENDIX A:               PARTS COUNT RELIABILITY PREDICTION..........................................                                                        A- 1

                                                                APPENDIX B:               VHSICNHSIC-LIKE AND VLSl CMOS (DETAILED MODEL) ..............                                                                       B-1
                                                                APPENDIX C:               BIBLIOGRAPHY .........................................................................................                              c-1

                                                                                                                          LISTOF           TABLES

                                                                Table 3-1:            Partswith Multi-Level Quality  Specifications ........................................................                                   3-3
                                                                Table 3-2:            Environmental Symbol Description
                                                                                                          and                       ..............................................................                             3-4
                                                                Table 4-1:            Reliability      Checklist .............................................................................
                                                                                                Analysis                                                                                                                       4-1
                                                                Table 6-1:            DefaultCaseTemperaturesfor All Environments (“C) ..........................................                                             6-23
                                                                Table 6-2:            Approximate ThermalResistance for Semiconductor                   Devices
                                                                                       in Various Package Sizes ................................................................................                              6-24

                                                                                                                          LISTOF          FIGURES

                                                                Figure 5-1:           Cross Sectional View of a Hybrid with a Single Multi-Layered Substrate ................                                                 5-18
                                                                Figure 8-1:           Examples of ActiveOpticalSurfaces ..................................................................                                     8-1




      page                                                      Revision
                                                                Supersedes               v of                F                                                                                                                   V

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                                    MIL-HDBK-217F         CHG N O T I C E 2           = 7799770                         O377022 443

                                                                      MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                         NOTICE 2


                                                                                                                                                  FOREWORD

                            1.0   THIS
                                    HANDBOOK      S
                                                  I FOR GUIDANCE THIS
                                                               ONLY.HANDBOOKSHALL
                            NOT
                              BE     CITED AS REQUIREMENT.
                                              A              IF IT IS, THE        DOES
                                                                         CONTRACTOR NOT
                                TO
                            HAVE COMPLY.

                            MIL-HDBK-217F,     Notice     2 provides thefollowingchangesbasedupon                                      a recentlycompleted
                            study (see Ref. 37 listed in Appendix C):

                                   Revised resistor and capacitor models, including new models                     to address chip devices.

                                   Updated failure ratemodelsfortransformers,coils,motors,relays,switches,circuitbreakers,
                                             printed
                                   connectors,      circuit
                                                          boards and
                                                               (with without surfacemount  technology) and
                                   connections.

                                   Anewmodel to addresssurfacemountedtechnologysolderconnections.

                               9   ArevisedTravelingWaveTubemodelbasedupondatasuppliedby                the ElectronicIndustries
                                   Association Microwave Tube Division. This further lowers  the calculated failure rates beyond
                                   the earlier modifications made in the base document (MIL-HDBK-217F, 2 December 1991).

                                          the
                                   Revised Fast                Power
                                                        Recovery           Rectifier failure
                                                                                   base    rate                                                on
                                                                                                                                  downward based                a
                                   reevaluation of Ref. 28.

                            2.0      MIL-HDBK-217F, Notice  1,                                        minor
                                                                   (10 July 1992) was issued to correct   typographical
                            errors in the basic F Revision.

                            3.O    MIL-HDBK-217F, document),
                                                   (base                       (2 December 1991)              the
                                                                                                       providedfollowing
                            changes based upon recently completed studies (see Ref. 30 and 32 listed in Appendix C):

                                   1. New failure rate prediction modelsare provided for the following nine major classes of
                                      microcircuits:

                                               Monolithic Bipolar Digital and Linear Gate/Logic Array Devices
                                               Monolithic MOS Digital and Linear Gate/Logic Array Devices
                                               Monolithic Bipolar and MOS Digital Microprocessor Devices
                                               (including Controllers)
                                               Monolithic Bipolar and MOS Memory Devices
                                               Monolithic GaAs Digital Devices
                                               Monolithic GaAs MMlC Devices
                                               Hybrid Microcircuits
                                               Magnetic Bubble Memories
                                               Surface Acoustic Wave Devices

                                       The 2 December1991 revision provided new prediction modelsfor bipolar andMOS
                                                                                                                                                                      --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                                       microcircuits with                up
                                                              gate counts to        60,000, linear            with
                                                                                                  microcircuits        up to 3000
                                       transistors, bipolar and MOS digital microprocessorandco-processorsup            to 32 bits,
                                       memory devices with up      to 1 million bits, GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits
                                       ("ICs)     with up to 1,000 active elements, and GaAs digital ICs with up to 10,000
                                       transistors. The C, factors have been extensively revised to reflect new technology
                                       devices with improved reliability, and the activation energies representing the temperature
                                       sensitivity of the dice ( 7 ~ have been changed for MOS devices and for memories. The
                                                                     ~)


      vi¡             page
                       Supersedes               of Revision F, Notice 1                                                                                         vi¡
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                               MIL-HDBK-217F                             CHG N O T I C E 2           W 9999970 0397023 3 8 T

                                                                                        MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                                           NOTICE 2

                  FOREWORD

                               C2 factor remains unchanged from the previous Handbook version, but includes        pin grid
                               arrays and surface mount packages using the same model as hermetic, solder-sealed dual
                               in-line packages. New values have been included for the   quality factor (xa), the learning
                               factor (xL), andthe environmentalfactor (xE). Themodel for hybrid microcircuitshas
                               been revised to be simpler to use, to delete the temperature dependence of the seal and
                               interconnectfailurerate                 and
                                                          contributions,      to provide a method of calculatingchip
                               junction temperatures.

                            2. A newmodel for Very High Speed IntegratedCircuits(VHSICNHSICLike)                                                                           andVery
                               Large Scale Integration (VLSI) devices (gate counts above 60,000).

                            3. The reformatting of the entire handbook to make it easier to use.

                            4. A reduction in the number of environmental factors (XE) from 27 to 14.

                            5. A revised failure rate model for Network Resistors.

                                                     and
                            6. Revised models for TWTs           Klystronsbased                                      on datasupplied                      by theElectronic
                               Industries Association Microwave Tube Division.




                  viii                --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                                                                                                                                                         New
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                                                   MIL-HDBK-217F C H G N O T I C E 2                  7777770 0197024 216

                                                                             MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                                NOTICE 2




                         1.1       Purpose       This
                         requirement. If it is, the
                                                     handbook
                                                          contractor
                                                                     -s
                                                                     i for guidance and not cited a
                                                                          not     to
                                                                                       only shall be as
                                                                     does have comply Page(see    1-2).                      Th e
                         purpose of this handbook is to establish and maintain consistent and uniform methods for estimating
                         the inherent reliability (Le., the reliability of amaturedesign)of    military electronic equipment and
                         systems. It provides a common basis for reliability predictions during acquisition programs for military
                         electronic systems and equipment. It also establishes a common basis        for comparing and evaluating
                         reliability predictions of related or competitive designs. The handbook is intended to be used as a tool
                         to increase the reliability of the equipment being designed.

                         1.2                                             -
                                  Application Thishandbookcontains two methods            of reliability prediction - "Part Stress
                         Analysis" in Sections 5 through 23 and "Parts Count" in Appendix A. These methods vary in degree
                         of information needed to apply them. The Part Stress Analysis Method requires a greater amount of
                         detailed information and is applicable during the later design phase when actual hardware and circuits
                         are beingdesigned.The         Parts CountMethodrequiresless        information, generally part quantities,
                         quality level, and the application environment. This method is applicable during the early design phase
                         andduringproposal formulation. In general,thePartsCount              Method will usually result in amore
                         conservative estimate (Le., higher failure rate) of system reliability than the Parts Stress Method.




                            Supersedes page 1-1 of Revision F
                                              1-1
                   --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




Document provided by IHS.                                                          Document provided by IHS Licensee=Lockheed Martin/4667500100, 05/05/2004
                                                                                   10:42:07 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
                                                                                   Policy Group at 303-397-2295.
                                                                         MIL-HDBK-217F C H 6 N O T I C E 2                       9 9 9 9 9 7 0 0177025 1 5 2

                                                                                                    MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                                                       NOTICE 2

                                         1.0                             SCOPE




                                                                                     OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRmARY OF DEFENSE
                                                                                                  9906 DEFENSE PENTAGON
                                                                                                 WASHINGTON. DC x U o 1 - 3 # ) 0




                                                                                                                                             FEB 2 8 1995

                                                                          SUBJECT:   Notice 2 to MIL-HDBK-217F, 'Reliability Prediction of
                                                                                     Electronic Equipment', Project RELI-O074
                                                                               Prior to sending the subject noticet o the M D Single Stock
                                                                          Point f o r printing and distribution, the following additions=st
                                                                          be made:

                                                                            Across the cover in BIG BOLD BLJu3K LETpisRs ALL CAPS: Insert      -
                                                                             'TRIS HANDBOOK IS FOR GUIDANCE =Y.     DO NOT CITE T H I S
                                                                            DOCUMENT As A REQmREMENT..
                                                                            In the POREWORD (Page vii of Notice 2 ) . paragraph 1.0: A d d
                                                                            'THIS HANDBOOK IS FOR GUIDANCE ONLY. TEacS HANDBOOK SHWl NOT
                                                                                            -
                                                                            BE CITED AS A REQVIREMENT. IF IT I S , TRE R-
                                                                            HAVE M COMPLY.
                                                                                                                                     DOES NOT

                                                                            Add an entry f o r the SCOPE, paragraph 1.1 (Purpose): 'This
                                                                            handbook is f o r guidance only and shall not be cited as a
                                                                            requirement. If it is, the contractor &es not have to
                                                                            comply.




                                                                                                            Walter B. Ber
                       --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                                                                                                            Chairman,
                                                                                                            Defense Standards Improvement
                                                                                                            Council

                                                                         cc:   OUSD(A&T)IYTSE&E/SE, Mr. M. Zsak




                      1-2                                                                                                                                                                 New Page
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                                   MIL-HDBK-237F            CH6 N O T I C E 2                    9999970 O377026 079

                                                                      MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                         NOTICE 2


                                                                                                                         DOCUMENTS
                                                                                                           2 . 0 REFERENCE


                            This handbook cites some specifications which have been cancelled or which describe devices that are
                            not to be used for new design. This information is necessary because someof these devices are used in
                            so-called "off-the-shelf"equipment which the Department of Defense purchases. The documents cited
                            in this section are for guidance and information.

                              SPECIFICATION        SECTION #                                TITLE

                                 MIL-C-5             10.1           Capacitors, Fixed, Mica Dielectric, General Specification for

                                 MIL-R-11             9.1           Resistor, Fixed, Composition (Insulated), General Specification for

                                 MIL-R-19             9.1           Resistor, Variable, Wirewound (Low Operating Temperature) General
                                                                    Specification for

                                 MIL-C90             10.1           Capacitor, Fixed, Ceramic Dielectric (Temperature Compensating),
                                                                    Established Reliability and Nonestablished Reliability, General
                                                                    Specification for

                                 MIL-R-22             9.1           Resistor, Variable, Wirewound (Power Type), General Specification for

                                 MIL-C-25            10.1           Capacitor, Fixed, Paper-Dielectric, Direct Current (Hermetically Sealed
                                                                    in Metal Cases), General Specification for

                                 MIL-R-26             9.1            Resistor, Fixed, Wirewound (Power Type), General Specification for

                                  M I L-T-27         11.1           Transformer and Inductors (Audio, Power, High Power Pulse),
                                                                    General Specification for

                                  MIL-(2-62          10.1            Capacitor, Fixed Electrolytic (DC, Aluminum, Dry Electrolyte,
                                                                     Polarized), General Specification for

                                  MIL-C-81           10.1            Capacitor, Variable, Ceramic Dielectric, General Specification for




                                                                                                                                                                        --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                  MIL-C-92           10.1            Capacitor, Variable, Air Dielectric (Trimmer), General Specification for

                                  MIL-R-93            9.1            Resistor, Fixed, Wirewound (Accurate), General Specification for

                                  M IL- R-94         9.14            Resistor, Variable, Composition, General Specification for

                                  MIL-V-95           23.1            Vibrator, Interrupter and Self-Rectifying, General Specification for

                                  w-L-111            20.1            Lamp, Incandescent Miniature, Tungsten Filament

                                  w-c-375            14.5            Circuit Breaker, Molded Case, Branch Circuit and Service

                                  W-F-1726           22.1            Fuse, Cartridge, Class H (this covers renewable and nonrenewable)

                                  W-F-1814           22.1            Fuse, Cartridge, High Interrupting Capacity

                                  MIL-C-3098         19.1            Crystal Unit, Quartz, General Specification for

                                  MIL-C-3607         15.1            Connector, Coaxial, Radio Frequency, Series Pulse, General
                                                                     Specifications for

                                  MIL-C-3643         15.1            Connector, Coaxial, Radio Frequency, Series HN and Associated
                                                                     Fittings, General Specification for




                            Supersedes page 2-1 of Revision F                                                                                                     2-1
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                                     flIL-HDBK-217F            C H G NOTICE 2               9 9 9 9 9 7 0 0397027 T25

                                                                         MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                           NOTICE 2

                     2 .O            REFERENCE DOCUMENTS


                                     MIL-C-3650             15.1       Connector, Coaxial, Radio Frequency, Series LC

                                     MIL-C-3655             15.1       Connector, Plug and Receptacle, Electrical (Coaxial Series Twin) and
                                                                       Associated Fittings, General Specification for

                                     MIL-S-3786             14.3       Switch, Rotary (Circuit Selector, Low-Current (Capacity)), General
                                                                       Specification for

                                     MIL-S-3950             14.1       Switch, Toggle, Environmentally Sealed, General Specification for

                                     MIL-C-3965             10.1       Capacitor, Fixed, Electrolytic (Nonsolid Electrolyte), Tantalum, General
                                                                       Specification for

                                     MIL-(3-5015            15.1       Connector, Electrical, Circular Threaded, AN Type, General
                                                                       Specification for

                                    MIL-F-5372              22.1       Fuse, Current Limiter Type, Aircraft

                                     MIL-S-5594             14.1       Switches, Toggle, Electrically Held Sealed, General Specification for

                                     MIL-R-5757             13.1       Relays, Electromagnetic,General Specification for

                                     MIL-R-6106             13.1       Relay, Electromagnetic (Including Established Reliability(ER) Types),
                                                                       General Specification for

                                     MIL-L-6363             20.1        Lamp, Incandescent, Aircraft Service, General Specification for

                                     MIL-S-8805        14.1,14.2       Switches and Switch Assemblies, Sensitive and Push (Snap Action),
                                                                       General Specification for

                                     MIL-S-8834             14.1       Switches, Toggle, Positive Break, General Specification for

                                    MIL-S-8932              14.1       Switches, Pressure, Aircraft, General Specification for

                                    MIL-S-9395              14.1       Switches, Pressure, (Absolute, Gage, and Differential), General
                                                                       Specification for

                                    MIL-S-9419              14.1       Switch, Toggle, Momentary Four Position On, Center Off, General
                                                                       Specification for

                                    MIL-"10304              18.1       Meter, Electrical Indicating, Panel Type, Ruggedized, General
                                                                       Specification for

                                    MIL-R-10509              9.1       Resistor, Fixed Film (High Reliability), General Specification for

                                    MIL-C-10950             10.1       Capacitor, Fixed, Mica Dielectric, Button Style, General Specification
                                                                       for

                                    MIL-C-11015             10.1       Capacitor, Fixed, Ceramic Dielectric (General Purpose), General
                                                                       Specification for

                                    MIL-C-11272             10.1       Capacitor, Fixed, Glass Dielectric,General Specification for




                     2-2
     --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                                                                            Supersedes
                                                                                          page                                           2-2 of Revision F
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                                                MIL-HDBK-217F            CHG NOTICE 2                  9 9 9 9 7 7 0 0197028 961

                                                                                 MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                                   NOTICE 2


                                                                ~~~~
                                                                                                                   2 . O REFERENCE                           DOCUMENTS


                                              MIL-C-I 1693        10.1         Capacitor, Feed Through, Radio Intederence Reduction AC and DC,
                                                                               (Hermetically Sealedin Metal Cases) Established and Nonestablished
                                                                               Reliability, General Specification for

                                              MIL-R-1 1804             9.1     Resistor, Fixed, Film (Power Type), General Specification for

                                              MIL-S-12211         14.1         Switch, Pressure

                                              MIL-S-12285         14.1         Switches, Thermostatic

                                              MIL-S-12883         15.3         Sockets and Accessories for Plug-ln Electronic Components, General
                                                                               Specification for

                                              MIL-C-12889         10.1         Capacitor, By-pass, Radio - Interference Reduction, Paper Dielectric,
                                                                               AC and DC, (Hermetically Sealed in Metallic Cases), General
                                                                               Specification for

                                              MIL-R-12934              9.1     Resistor, Variable, Wirewound. Precision, General Specification for

                                              M IL-S-13484        14.1         Switch, Sensitive: 30 Volts Direct Current Maximum, Waterproof

                                              MIL-C-13516         14.2         Circuit Breakers, Manual and Automatic (28
                                                                                                                        Volts DG)

                                              MIL-S-13623         14.1         Switches, Rotary: 28 Volt DC

                                              MIL-R-13718         13.1         Relays, Electromagnetic 24 VoltDC

                                              MIL-S-13735         14.1         Switches, Toggle: 28 Volt DC

                                              MIL-G14409          10.1         Capacitor, Variable (Piston Type; Tubular Trimmer), General
                                                                               Specification for

                                              MIL-F-15160        22.1          Fuse, Instrument, Power and Telephone

                                              MIL-S-15291         14.1         Switches, Rotary, Snap Action and DetenVSpring Return Action,
                                                                               General Specification for

                                              MIL-C15305          11.2         Coils, Electrical, Fixed and Variable, Radio Frequency, General
                                                                               Specification for

                                              MIL-GI5370          15.1         Couplers, Directional, General Specification for

                                              MIL-F-15733        21.1          Filters and Capacitors, Radio Frequency Interference, General
                                                                               Specification for

                                              MIL-S-15743         14.1         Switches, Rotary, Enclosed

                                              MIL-G18312          10.1         Capacitor, Fixed, Metallized (Paper, Paper Plastic or Plastic Film)
                                                                                                                             in
                                                                               Dielectric, Direct Current (Hermetically Sealed Metal Cases), General
                                                                               Specification for

                                              MIL-F-18327       21 .i          Filter, High Pass, Low Pass, Band Pass, Band Suppression and Dual
                                                                               Functioning, General Specification for




                       page
                         Supersedes                          2-3 of Revision F                                                                                              2-3
      --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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                                MIL-HDBK-217F    CH6 N O T I C E 2           H 9999970 0197029 8 T 8

                                                        MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                          NOTICE 2


                 2 . O REFERENCE DOCUMENTS


                            MIL-R-18546    9.1        Resistor, Fixed, Wirewound (Power Type, Chassis Mounted), General
                                                      Specification for

                            MIL-S-19500    6.0        Semiconductor Device, General Specification for

                            MIL-R-19523   13.1        Relays, Control

                            MIL-R-19648   13.1                                                         for
                                                      Relay, Time, Delay, Thermal, General Specification

                            MIL-C-19978   10.1        Capacitor, Fixed Plastic (or Paper-Plastic) Dielectric (Hermetically




                                                                                                                                                          --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                                      Sealed in Metal, Ceramic or Glass Cases), Established and
                                                      Nonestablished Reliability, General Specification for

                            MIL-T-21038   11.1        Transformer, Pulse, Low Power, General Specification for

                            MIL-C-21097   15.1        Connector, Electrical, Printed Wiring Board, General Purpose, General
                                                      Specification for

                            MIL-S-21277   14.1        Switches, Liquid Level, General Specification for

                            MIL-C-21617   15.1        Connectors, Plug and Receptable- Electrical Rectangular, Polarized
                                                      Shell, Miniature Type

                            MIL-R-22097    9.1        Resistor, Variable, Nonwirewound (Adjustment Types), General
                                                      Specification for

                            MIL-S-22614   14.1        Switches, Sensitive

                            MIL-R-22684    9.2        Resistor, Fixed, Film, Insulated, General Specification for

                            MIL-S-22710   14.4        Switches, Code Indicating Wheel (Printed Circuit), (Thumbwheel, In-line
                                                      and Pushbutton), General Specification for

                            MIL-S-22885   14.1        Switches, Pushbutton, Illuminated, General Specification for

                            MIL-C-22992   15.1        Connectors, Plugs and Receptacles, Electrical, Water-Proof, Quick
                                                      Disconnect, Heavy Duty Type, General Specification for

                            MIL-C23183    10.1                                            or
                                                      Capacitors, Fixed or Variable, Vacuum Gas Dielectric, General
                                                      Specification for

                            MIL-C-23269   10.1        Capacitor, Fixed, Glass Dielectric, Established Reliability, General
                                                      Specification for

                            MIL-R-23285    9.1        Resistor, Variable, Nonwirewound, General Specification for

                            MIL-F-23419   22.1        Fuse, Cartridge, Instrument Type, General Specification for

                            MIL-T-23648    9.1        Resistor, Thermal, (Thermally Sensitive Resistor), Insulated, General
                                                      Specification for

                            MS-24055      15.1        Connector, Plug-Receptacle, Electrical, Hexagonal, 9 Contacts,
                                                      Female, 7.5 Amps

                            MS-24056      15.1        Connector, Plug-Receptacle, Electrical, Hexagonal, 9 Contacts, Male,
                                                      7.5 Amps




                 2-4                                                             Supersedes page 2-4 of Revision F
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                                    MIL-HDBK-ZL7F C H G N O T I C E 2            = 9777770                         0377030 5LT

                                                             MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                               NOTICE 2


                                                                                               2 . O REFERENCEDOCUMENTS


                                MIL-C-24308     15.1       Connectors, Electric, Rectangular, Nonenvironmental, Miniature,
                                                           Polarized Shell, Rack and Panel, General Specification for

                                MIL-S-24317     14.1       Switches, Multistation, Pushbutton (Illuminated and Non-Illuminated),
                                                           General Specificationfor

                                        16
                                M IL-C-255      15.1       Connector, Electrical, Miniature, Coaxial, Environment Resistant Type,
                                                           General Specification for

                                M IL-C-26482    15.1       Connector, Electrical (Circular, Miniature, Quick Disconnect,
                                                           Environment Resisting), Receptacles and Plugs, General Specification
                                                           for

                                MIL- C-26500    15.1       Connectors, General Purpose, Electrical, Miniature, Circular,
                                                           Environment Resisting,General Specification for

                                MIL-R-27208      9.1       Resistor, Variable, Wirewound, Nonprecision, General
                                                           Specification for

                                MIL-G28731      15.1       Connectors, Electrical, Rectangular, Removable Contact, Formed
                                                           Blade, Fork Type (For Rack and Panel and Other Applications), General
                                                           Specification for

                                MIL-G28748      15.1       Connector, Plug and Receptacle, Rectangular, Rack and Panel, Solder
                                                           Type and Crimp Type Contacts, General Specification for

                                MIL-R-28750     13.2       Relay, Solid State, General Specification for

                                MIL-C-28804     15.1       Connectors, Plug and Receptacle, Electric Rectangular, High Density,
                                                                                     General Specification for, Inactive for New
                                                           Polarized Center Jackscrew,




                                                                                                                                                              --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                                           Designs

                                MIL-C-28840     15.1                                                             High Shock
                                                           Connector, Electrical, Circular Threaded, High Density,
                                                           Shipboard, Class D, General Specification for

                                MIL-M-38510      5.0       Microcircuits, General Specification for

                                MIL-S-38533     15.3       Sockets, Chip Carrier, Ceramic,General Specification for

                                MIL-H-38534      5.0       Hybrid Microcircuits, General Specification for

                                MIL-1-38535      5.0       Integrated Circuits (Microcircuits) Manufacturing,General
                                                           Specification for

                                MIL-G38999      15.1       Connector, Electrical, Circular, Miniature, High Density, Quick
                                                           Disconnect, (Bayonet, Threaded, and Breech Coupling) Environment
                                                           Resistant, Removable Crimp and Hermetic Solder Contacts, General
                                                           Specification for

                                MIL-C-39001     10.1       Capacitor, Fixed, Mica-Dielectric, Established Reliability, General
                                                           Specification for

                                MIL-R-39002      9.1       Resistor, Variable, Wirewound, Semi-Precision, General Specification
                                                           for

                                MIL-G39003      10.1       Capacitor, Fixed, Electrolytic, (Solid Electrolyte), Tantalum,
                                                           Established Reliability, General Specification for




                            Supersedes page 2-5of Revision F                                                                                            2-5
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                                                                                         C N
                                                                             MIL-HDBK-217F HG OTICE             2                     9 9 9 9 9 7 0 OL9703L 456

                                                                                                    MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                                                      NOTICE 2

                  2 . O REFERENCE                                                     DOCUMENTS
                     --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                                                                       MIL-R-39005      9.1       Resistor, Fixed, Wirewound (Accurate), Established Reliability, General
                                                                                                  Specification for
                                                                       MIL-G39006      10.1       Capacitor, Fixed, Electrolytic (Nonsolid Electrolyte) Tantalum
                                                                                                  Established Reliability, General Specification for
                                                                       MIL-R-39007      9.1       Resistor, Fixed, Wirewound (Power Type), Established Reliability,
                                                                                                  General Specification for
                                                                       MIL-R-39008      9.1       Resistor, Fixed, Composition (Insulated), Established Reliability,
                                                                                                  General Specification for
                                                                       MIL-R-39009      9.1       Resistor, Fixed, Wirewound (Power Type, Chassis Mounted)
                                                                                                  Established Reliability, General Specification for
                                                                       MIL-G3901O      11.2       Coils, Electrical, Fixed, Radio Frequency, Molded, Established
                                                                                                  Reliability, General Specification for
                                                                       MIL-G39012      15.1       Connector, Coaxial, Radio Frequency, General Specification for
                                                                       MIL-G39014      10.1       Capacitor, Fixed, Ceramic Dielectric (General Purpose), Established
                                                                                                  Reliability, General Specification for
                                                                       MIL-R-39015      9.1       Resistor, Variable, Wirewound (Lead Screw Actuated), Established
                                                                                                  Reliability, General Specification for
                                                                       MIL-R-3901 6    13.1       Relay, Electromagnetic, Established Reliability, General Specification
                                                                                                  for
                                                                       MIL-R-39017      9.1       Resistor, Fixed, Film (Insulated), Established Reliability, General
                                                                                                  Specification for
                                                                       MIL-G39018      10.1       Capacitor, Fixed, Electrolytic (Aluminum Oxide), Established Reliability
                                                                                                  and Nonestablished Reliability, General Specification for
                                                                       MIL-C-39019     14.5       Circuit Breakers, Magnetic, Low Power, Sealed, Trip-Free, General
                                                                                                  Specification for
                                                                       MIL-G39022      10.1       Capacitors, Fixed, Metallized, Paper-Plastic Film Plastic Film
                                                                                                                                                  or
                                                                                                  Dielectric, Direct and Alternating Current (Hermetically Sealed in Metal
                                                                                                  or Ceramic Cases), Established Reliability, General Specification for
                                                                       MIL-R-39023      9.1       Resistor, Variable, Nonwirewound, Precision, General Specification for
                                                                       MIL-R-39035      9.1       Resistor, Variable, Nonwirewound (Adjustment Type), Established
                                                                                                  Reliability, General Specification for
                                                                       MIL-S-45885     14.1       Switch, Rotary
                                                                       MlL-G49142      15.1       Connectors, Plugs and Receptacle, Electrical Triaxial, Radio
                                                                                                  Frequency, General Specification for
                                                                       MIL-G55074      15.1       Connectors, Plug and Receptacle, Telephone, Electrical, Subassembly
                                                                                                  and Accessories and Contact Assembly, Electrical, General
                                                                                                  Specification for
                                                                       MIL-P-55110     15.2       Printed Wiring Board, General Specification
                                                                                                                                            for
                                                                       MIL-R-55182      9.1       Resistor, Fixed, Film, Established Reliability, General Specification for


                  2-6                                                                                                    Supersedes
                                                                                                                       page                                            2-6 of Revision F

Document provided by IHS.                                                                                           Document provided by IHS Licensee=Lockheed Martin/4667500100, 05/05/2004
                                                                                                                    10:42:07 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
                                                                                                                    Policy Group at 303-397-2295.
                                  MIL-HDBK-217F C H G N O T I C E 2                                                     9999970 0397032 392

                                                                                           MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                                             NOTICE 2


                                                                                                                              2 . 0 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS


                               MIL-G55235                              15.1              Connectors, Coaxial, Radio Frequency, Series TPS
                               MIL-G55302                              15.1              Connector, Printed Circuit, Subassembly and Aocessories
                               MIL-A-55339                             15.1              Adaptors, Connector, Coaxial, Radio Frequency, (Between Series and
                                                                                         Within Series), General Specification for
                               MlL-R-55342                               9.1             Resistors, Fixed, Film, Chip, Established Reliability, General
                                                                                         Specification for
                               MIL-C-55365                             10.1              Capacitor, Fixed, Electrolytic (Tantalum), Chip, Established Reliability,
                                                                                         General Specification for
                               MIL-S-55433                             14.1              Switches, Reed, General Specification for
                               MIL-G55514                              10.1              Capacitors, Fixed, Plastic (or Metallized Plastic) Dielectric, DC or DC-
                                                                                         AC, In Non-Metal Cases, Established Reliability, General Specification
                                                                                         for
                               MIL-G55629                              14.5              Circuit Breaker, Magnetic, Unsealed, or Panel Seal, Trip-Free, General
                                                                                         Specification for
                               MIL-T-55631                             11.1              Transformer, Intermediate Frequency, Radio Frequency and
                                                                                         Discriminator, General Specification for
                               MIL-G55681                              10.1              Capacitor, Chip, Multiple Layer, Fixed, Unencapsulated Ceramic
                                                                                         Dielectric, Established Reliability, General Specification for
                               MIL-G81511                               15.1             Connector, Electrical, Circular, High Density, Quick Disconnect,
                                                                                         Environment Resisting and Accessories, General Specification  for

                               MIL-S-81551                              14.1             Switches; Toggle, Hermetically Sealed, General Specification for
                               MIL-C-81659                              15.1             Connectors, Electrical Rectangular, Crimp
                                                                                                                                 Contact
                               MIL-S-82359                              14.1             Switch, Rotary, Variable Resistor Assembly Type
                               MIL-G83383                               14.5             Circuit Breaker, Remote Control, Thermal, Trip-Free, General
                                                                                         Specification for
                               MIL-R-83401                                9.1            Resistor Networks, Fixed, Film and Capacitor-Resistor Networks,
                                                                                         Ceramic Capacitors and Fixed Film Resistors, General Specification for
                               MIL-C83421                               10.1             Capacitors, Fixed Metallized Plastic Film Dielectric (DC, AC or DC
                                                                                         and AC) Hermetically Sealed in Metal or Ceramic Cases, Established
                                                                                         Reliability, General Specification for
                               MIL-C83446                               11.2             Coils, Radio Frequency, Chip, Fixed or Variable, General Specification
                                                                                         for
                               MIL-C83500                               10.1             Capacitor, Fixed, Electrolytic (Nonsolid Electrolyte), Tantalum Cathode,
                                                                                         General Specification for
                               MIL-S-83504                              14.1             Switches, Dual In-line Package (DIP), General Specification for
                               MIL-C-83513                              15.1             Connector, Electrical, Rectangular, Microminiature, Polarized Shell,
                                                                                         General Specification for




                            New Page                                                                                                                                                   2-7
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                                                                             NOTICE 2


                                DOCUMENTS
                  2 . O REFERENCE


                                   Connectors,
                                   15.1             Polarized
                                                         Shell,
                            MIL-C-83515 Telecommunication,                                                                                           General Specification
                                                            for

                                   Relays,
                                   13.1
                                     Reed,
                                      Dry,
                            MIL-R-83516                                                            General Specification for

                            MIL-C-83517              Connectors,
                                                    15.1    Coaxial,                 Radio
                                                                                       Frequency Strip
                                                                                               for
                                                                                              Coaxial,                                                         or Microstrip
                                                                 Transmission Line, General Specification for

                                   Relays,
                                   13.1
                                     Electromechanical, Non-Hermetically
                            MIL-R-83520             Purpose,
                                                 General           Sealed,
                                                             Plastic Enclosure (Dust Cover),General Specification for

                                    15.1 Receptacle, Rectangular
                                    Connectors, Electrical,
                            MIL-C-83527    and
                                          Plug              Multiple
                                                            Insert Type, Rackto Panel, Environment Resisting,15OOC Total
                                                            Continuous Operating Temperature, General Specification for

                                  Relays,
                                   13.1
                                    Electromagnetic, Reliability,
                            MIL-R-83536       Established                                                                                            General Specification
                                                                     for

                                   Connector,
                                   15.1
                            MIL-C-83723                                                        Environment Receptacles
                                                                                Electrical (Circular Resisting),
                                                                     and Plugs, General Specification for

                                 Relay,
                                 Vacuum, for
                                  13.1
                                    General
                                      Specification
                            MIL-R-83725

                                      13.1, Relays,
                            MIL-R-83726 13.2,                                                State, Delay,
                                                                              Hybrid and Solid Time                                                            for
                                                                                                                                           General Specification
                                               13.3

                      14.1 MIL-S-83731                               Switch, Toggle, Unsealed and Sealed Toggle, General Specification for

                            MIL-G83733              15.1                                                                     to
                                                                     Connector, Electrical, Miniature, Rectangular Type, Rack Panel,
                                                                     Environment Resisting, 200°C Total Continuous Operating
                                                                     Temperature, General Specification for

                                    15.3
                                    Sockets,
                            MIL-S-83724                                                     Components,
                                                                              Plug-ln Electronic                             and
                                                                                                            Dual-ln-Line (DIPS)
                                                                     Single-ln-Line Packages (SIPS), General Specification for

                                   Connector,Rectangular, Sealing,
                                   15.1                  Contact
                            MIL-C-85028 Electrical, Individual
                                                               Polarized Center Jackscrew, General Specification for

                      STANDARD                                                                                                    TITLE

                                 Reliability
                                   Prediction
                                    Modeling
                                      and
                            MIL-STD-756

                            MIL-STD-883and
                                   Test
                                   Methods
                                       Procedures                                                         for Microelectronics
                                     NASA    Electrical,
                            MIL-STD-975 Standard            and
                                                             Electromechanical Parts
                                                     Electronic            (EEE)List

                            MIL-STD-1547                   Electronic Parts, Materials and Processes for Space and Launch Vehicles,
                                                           Technical Requirements for

                                      Certification
                            MIL-STD-1772                  for
                                                          Hybrid       Facilities
                                                 Requirements Microcircuit and  Lines


                  Copies of specifications and standards required by contractors in connection with specific acquisition
                  functions should be obtained from the contracting activity or as directed by the contracting officer. Single
                  copies are also available(without charge) upon written requestto:
                                       Standardization Document Order Desk, 700 Robins Ave., Building 4, Section D,
                                       Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094, (215) 697-2667


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                                                                                                               MIL-HDBK-217F


                                                                                                                                                                        3.O            INTRODUCTION



                   .
                                                                                                       -
                                                                      3. I Rellablllty Englneerlng Reliability is currentlyrecognized as an essential need in military
                                                                      electronic systems. It is looked upon as a means for reducing costs from the factory, where rework of
                                                                      defective components adds a non-productive overhead expense, the field, where repair costs include
                                                                                                                                       to
                                                                      not only parts and labor also transportation and storage. More importantly, reliability directly impacts
                                                                                                   but
                                                                      force effectiveness, measured in terms of availability or sortie rates, and determines the size of the
                                                                      "logistics tail"inhibiting force utilization.
                                                                      The achievement of reliability is the function of reliability engineering. Every aspect of an electronic
                                                                      system, from the purity of materials used in its component devices to the operator's interface, has an
                                                                      impact on reliability. Reliability engineering must,therefore,be applied throughout the system's
                                                                      development in a diligent and timely fashion, and integrated with other engineering disciplines.
                                                                      A variety of reliability engineering fools have been developed. This handbook provides the models
                                                                      supporting a basic tool, reliability prediction.

                                                                      3.2                                          -
                                                                              The Role of Rellablllty Predlctlon Reliability prediction provides the quantitativebaseline
                                                                      needed to assess progress in reliability engineering. A prediction made of a proposed design may be
                    --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                                                                      used in several ways.
                                                                      A characteristic of Computer Aided Design is the ability to rapidly generate alternative solutions to a
                                                                      particular problem. Reliability predictions for each design alternative provide one measure of relative worth
                                                                      which, combined with other considerations, aid in selecting the best the available options.
                                                                                                                   will                      of
                                                                      Once a designis selected, the reliability prediction may used as a guide to improvement by showing
                                                                                                                              be
                                                                                             to                                                it may also reveal other fruitful
                                                                      the highest contributors failure. I the part stress analysis method is used,
                                                                                                        f
                                                                      areas for change (e.g., over stressed parts).
                                                                                                             on
                                                                      The impactof proposed design changes reliability canbe determined only by comparing the reliability
                                                                                                             designs.
                                                                      predictions of the existing and proposed
                                                                                               to                                level
                                                                      The ability of the design -maintain an acceptable reliability under environmental extremes may be
                                                                      assessed through reliability predictions, The predictions may be used to evaluate the need for
                                                                      environmental control systems.
                                                                      The effects of complexity on the probability of mission success can be evaluated through reliability
                                                                      predictions. The need for redundant or back-up systems may be determined with the aid of reliability
                                                                                                                                                         (e.g.: more cooling,
                                                                      predictions. A tradeoff of redundancy against other reliability enhancing techniques
                                                                      higher part quality, etc.)must be based on reliability predictions coupled with other pertinent
                                                                      considerations such as  cost, space limitations, etc.
                                                                      The prediction will also help evaluate the significance of reported failures. example, ifseveral failures
                                                                                                                                                 For
                                                                                                                                            can
                                                                      of one type or component occur in a system, the predicted failure rate be used to determine whether
                                                                      the number of failures is commensurate with the number of components usedin the system, or, that it
                                                                      indicates a problem area.
                                                                      Finally, reliability predictions useful to various other engineering analyses.As examples, the location
                                                                                                     are
                                                                                                      be                                                                   and
                                                                      of built-in-test circuitry should influenced by the predicted failure rates of the circuitry monitored,
                                                                      maintenance strategy plannerscan make use of the relative probabilityof a failure's location, based on
                                                                      predictions, to minimize downtime. Reliability predictions are also used to evaluate the probabilities of
                                                                                                 in
                                                                      failure events described a failure modes, effects and criiticality analysis (FMECAs).




                                                                                                                                                                                                         3-1
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                                                    MIL-HDBK-217F
        3. O           INTRODUCTION


        3.3        Limitations of ReliabilityPredlctions      -  This handbook provides a common basis for
         reliability predictions, based on analysisof the best available data at the timeof issue. It is intended to
         make reliability prediction as goodtool as possible. However, like anytool, reliability predictionmust be
                                            a
                                                   of
         used intelligently, with due consideration its limitations.
        The first limitation is that the failure rate models are point estimates which are based on available data.
        Hence, they are valid for the conditions under which the data was obtained, and for the devices covered.
        Some extrapolation during model development is possible, but the inherently empirical nature of the
        models can be severely restrictive. For example, none of the models in this handbook predict nuclear
                                     of
        survivability or the effects ionizing radiation.
        Even when used in similar environments, the differences between system applications can be significant.
        Predicted and achieved reliability have always been closer for ground electronic systems than for avionic
        systems, because the environmental stresses vary less from system to system on the ground and hence
        the field conditions are in general closerto the environment under which the data was collected for the
        prediction model.  However,      failure rates are also impactedby operational scenarios,operator
        characteristics, maintenarice practices, measurement techniques and differencesin definition of failure.
        Hence, a reliability prediction should never be assumed to represent the expected field reliability as
        measured by the user (¡.e., Mean-Time-Between-Maintenance, Mean-Time-Between-Removals, etc.).
        This does not negate     its value as a reliability engineering tool; note that none of the applications
                                                           to
        discussed above requires the predicted reliabilitymatch the field measurement.
        Electronic technology is noted for its dynamic nature. New types of devices and new processes are
        continually introduced, compounding the difficulties of predicting reliability. Evolutionary changes may be
        handled by extrapolation from the existing models; revolutionary changes may defy analysis.




                                                                                                                                                             --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                             f
         Another limitation o reliability predictions is the mechanics of the process. The part stress analysis
         method requires a significant amount of design detail. This naturally imposes a time and cost penalty.
         More significantly, many of the details are not available in the early design stages. For this 'reason this
         handbook contains both the stress analysismethod (Sections 5 through 23)and a simpler parts count
                                     pad
         method (AppendixA) which can be used early design and formulation stages.
                                                   in                  bid
         Finally, a basic limitation of reliability prediction is its dependence on correct application by the user.
         Those who correctly apply the models and use the information ina conscientious reliability programwill
         find the prediction a useful tool. Those who view the prediction only asa number which must exceed a
         specified value can usually find a way to achieve their goal without any impact on the system.

         3.4             Stress
                       Part         Predlctlon
                              Analysls
                                  -
        3.4.1 Applicability This method is applicable when most of the design is completed and a detailed
        parts list including part stresses available. It can also be used during later design phases for reliability
                                         is
        trade-offs vs. part selection and stresses. Sections 5 through 23 contain failure rate models for broad
                                                                                                         a
        variety of parts used in electronic equipment. The parts are grouped by major categories and, where
        appropriate, are subgrouped within categories. For mechanical and electromechanical parts covered
                                                                                                     not
        by this Handbook, refer Bibliography items20 and 36 (Appendix C),
                                 to
                                          to
         The failure rates presented apply equipment under normal operating conditions, ¡.e.,  with power on and
                                                                                     of
         performing its intended functions its intended environment. Extrapolation any of the base failure rate
                                          in
         models beyond the tabulated values such as high or sub-zero temperature, electrical stress values above
         1.0, or extrapolation of any associated model modifiers is completely invalid. Base failure rates can be
                                                          O to
         interpolated between electrical stress values from 1 using the underlying equations.

        The general procedure for determining a board level (or system level) failure rate is to sum individually
        calculated failure ratesfor each component. This summation is then added to a failure rate for the circuit
        board (which includes the effects of soldering parts to it) using Section 16, Interconnection Assemblies.


         3-2
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                                                                     MIL-HDBK-217F


                                                                                                                                3.0           INTRODUCTION


    .                       For parts or wires soldered together (e.g.,'a jumper wire between two parts), the connections model
                            appearing in Section 17 is used. Finally, the effectsof connecting circuit boards together accounted for
                                                                                                                    is
                            by adding in a failure rate for each connector (Section Connectors). The wire between connectors
                                                                                    15,                                           is
                            assumed to have a zero failure   rate. For various serviceuse profiles, duty cycles and redundancies the
                            procedures describedin MIL-STD-756, Reliability Modeling and Prediction, shouldbe used to determine
                            an effective system level failure rate.

                                                  -




                                                                                                                                                                  --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                            3.4.2 Part Quallty .The quality of a part hasa direct effecton the part failure rate and     appears in the
                            part models as a factor, ZQ. Many parts are coveredby specifications that have several quality levels,
                            hence, the part models have values of na that are keyedto these quality levels. Such parts with their
                                                           in
                            quality designators are shown Table 3-1. The detailed requirements for these levels are clearly defined
                            in the applicable specification, except for microcircuits. Microcircuits have quality levels which      are
                            dependent on the number of MIL-STD-883 screens(or equivalent) to which they are subjected,

                                                Table 3-1:   Parts Wlth          Quality
                                                                       Muitl-Level     Specifications

                                                                                                                  Quality Designators

                                                                                          SI B-1 ,Other: Quality Judged by
                                                                                            B,
                                Microcircuits                                             Screening Level
                                Discrete Semiconductors                                  JANTXV, JANTX, JAN
                               Capacitors, Established                                    D, C, SI B, P, M, L
                                                                                                  R,
                                Reliability (ER)
                                Resistors, Established                                   SI P, M
                                                                                           R,
                                 Reliability (ER)
                               Coils, Molded, R.F.,
                                Reliability (ER)
                                Relays, Established
                                 Reliability (ER)

                            Some parts are covered by older specifications, usually referred Nonestablished Reliability
                                                                                         to as                          (Non-ER),.
                                                                                                    two
                            that do not have multi-levels of quality. These part models generally havequality levels designatedas
                            "MIL-SPEC.",and"Lower".                     s
                                                           If the part i procured in complete accordance with the applicable
                            specification, the ZQ value for MIL-SPEC should be used.      If any requirements are waived, or if a
                                                                                     be
                            commercial part is procured, the value for Lower should used.
                                                            ZQ


                            The foregoing discussion involves the "as procured" part quality. Poor equipment design, production,
                            and testing facilities can degrade part quality. The use   of the higher quality parts requires a total
                            equipment design and quality control process commensurate with the high part quality.It would make little
                            sense to procure high quality parts only have the equipment production procedures damage the parts
                                                                    to
                            or introduce latent defects. Total equipment program descriptions as they might vary with different part
                            qualitymixes is beyond thescope of this Handbook. Reliability managementand quality control
                            procedures are described in other DoD standards and publications. Nevertheless, when a proposed
                            equipment development is pushing the state-of-the-art and has a high reliability requirement
                                                                W
                            necessitating high quality parts, the equipment program should be given careful scrutiny and not just



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                                                      MIL-HDBK-217F
          3. O          INTRODUCTION


          the parts quality. Otherwise, the low failure ratesas predicted by the models forhigh quality parts will not
                                                                                                                                                                                                                .
          be realized.
          3.4.3 Use Environment           - All part reliability models include the effects of environmental stresses
          through the environmental factor, K E , except for the effects of ionizing radiation. The descriptions of
          these environmentsare shown in Table 3-2.The zE factor is quantified within each part failure rate model.
          These environments encompass the major areas of equipment use. Some equipment will experience
          more than one environment during its normal use, e.g., equipment in spacecraft. In such a case, the
          reliability analysis should be segmented, namely, missile launch (ML) conditions during boost into and
          return from  orbit, and space flight(SF) while in orbit.


                                                                        Description
                                      Table 3-2: Environmental Symbol and

                                                          Equivalent .
                                                       MIL-HDBK-217E,
                                                           Notice 1
                      Environment         ITESymbol      RE Symbol                                      .Description




                                                                                                                                                              --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                                                                                                                                ~~       ~~




                 Ground, Benign                             GB             Nonmobile, temperature and humidity
                                                                           controlled environments readily accessible to
                                                                           maintenance; includes laboratory instruments
                                                                           and test equipment, medical electronic
                                                                           equipment, business and scientific computer
                                                                           complexes, and missiles and support
                                                                           equipment in ground silos,

                 Ground, Fixed                              GF            Moderately controlled environments such as
                                                                          installation in permanent racks with adequate
                                                                          cooling air and possible installation in unheated
                                                                          buildings; includes permanent installation air
                                                                                                                    of
                                                                          traff ¡c control radar and communications
                                                                          facilities.
                                                                             . .
                 Ground, Mobile                                            Equipment installed on wheeled or tracked
                                                                          vehicles and equipment manually transported;
                                                                          includes tactical missile ground support
                                                                          equipment, mobile communication equipment,
                                                                          tactical fire direction systems, handheld
                                                                          cammunications equipment, laser designations
                                                                          and range finders.

                 Naval, Sheltered                                                             below deck conditions on
                                                                          Includes sheltered or
                                                                          surface ships and equipment installed in
                                                                          submarines.

                 Naval, Unsheltered                                       Unprotected surface shipborne equipment
                                                                          exposed to weather conditions and equipment
                                                                          immersed in salt water. Includes sonar
                                                                          equipment and equipment installed hydrofoil
                                                                                                            on
                                                                          vessels.




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                                            Table 3-2: Environmental Symbol and, Descrlptlon (cont’d)

                                                                          Equivalent
                                                                       MIL-HDBK-217E,
                                                                           Notice 1
                              Environment                                “E Symbol                                                        Description


                            Airborne,’lnhabited,                                  AIC                           Typical conditions in cargo compartments
                            Cargo                                                                                                         an
                                                                                                                which can be occupied by aircrew.
                                                                                  AIT                           Environment extremes of pressure,
                                                                                                                temperature, shock and vibration are minimal.
                                                                                                                Examples include long mission aircraft such as
                                                                                                                the C130, C5,B52, and C141. This category
                                                                                                                also applies to inhabited areas in lower
                                                                                                                                                 as
                                                                                                                performance smaller aircraft such the T38.
                                             . .
                            Airborne, Inhabited,                                   AIF                          Same asAIC but installed on high performance
                            Fighter                                                                             aircraft such as fighters and interceptors.
                                                                                   AIA
                                                                                                                Examples include the F15, F1 F111, FIA 18
                                                                                                                                                6,
                                                                                                                and A l O aircraft.


                            Airborne, Uninhabited,                                 AUC                          Environmentally uncontrolled areas which
                            cargo                                                                               cannot be inhabited by an aircrew during flight.
                                                                                   Alm                          Environmental extremes,of pressure,
                                                                                   AUB                          temperature and shock may be severe.
                                                                                                                Examples include uninhabited areas of long
                                                                                                                                                  CS,
                                                                                                                mission aircraft such as the C130, B52 and
                                                                                                                C141, This category also applies to
                                                                                                                uninhabited areaof lower performance smaller
                                                                                                                aircraft such as the T38.

                            Airborne,                                              AUF                          Same as AUC but installed on high performance
                            Uninhabited,                                                                        aircraft such as fighters and interceptors.
                            Fighter                                                %A
                                                                                                                Examples include the F15, F16, F1 11 and A10
                                                                                                                aircraft.

                            Airborne, Rotary                                       ARW                          Equipment installed on helicopters. Applies to
                            Winged                                                                              both internally and externally mounted
                                                                                                                equipment such as laser designators, fire
                                                                                                                control systems, and communications
                                                                                                                equipment.

                            Space, Flight                                          SF                           Earth orbital. Approaches benign ground
                                                                                                                conditions. Vehicle neither under powered
                                                                                                                flight nor in atmospheric reentry; includes
                                                                                                                satellites and shuttles.




                                                              --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
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                                                                             fable 3-2:                                         (cont'd)
                                                                                             Environmental Symbol and Description
                                                                                                          Equivalent
                                                                                                        MIL-HDBKPl7E,
                                                                                                            Notice 1
                    Environment                                                                            % Symbol                                      Description
               ~~    ~




               Missile, Flight                                                                               MR             Conditions relatedto powered flight of air
                                                                                                                            breathing missiles, cruise missiles, and
                                                                                                             M~~            missiles in unpowered flight.
                                                                                                                                                   free


               Missile, Launch                                                                               ML             Severe conditions relatedto missile launch(air,
                                                                                                                            ground and sea), space vehicle boost into
                                                                                                             "SL            orbit, and vehicle re-entry andlanding by
                                                                                                                            parachute. Also applies to solid rocket motor
                                                                                                                            propulsion powered flight, and torpedo and
                    * . .                                                                                                   missile launch from submarines.


               Cannon, Launch                                                                                CL             Extremely severe conditions related to cannon
                                                                                                                            launching of 155 mm. and 5 inch guided
                                                                                                                            projectiles. Conditions apply.to the projectile
                                                                                                                            from launch to target impact.
                         --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                                                                                                   -
        3 . 4 . 4 Part Failure Rate Models Part failure rate models for microelectronic parts are significantly
        different from those for other parts and are presented entirely in Section 5.0. A typical example of the
        type of model used for most other part typesis the following one for discrete semiconductors:   .



                                                                                                   ~~=%XT~AXR~S~C"QXE

        where:
                         hp                                                isthepartfailurerate,

                         hb                                                                                         by
                                                                           is the base failure rate usually expressed a model relating the influence of electrical and
                                                                           temperature stresseson the part,
                         XE                                                and the other X factors modify the base failure rate for the category of. environmental
                                                                           application and other parameters that affect the part reliability..

        The zE and zQ factors are used in most all models and other factors apply onlyto specific models. The
                                                                  IC
        applicability of x factorsis identified in each section.
        The base failure rate (hb) models are presented in each part section along with identification of the
                                                        +,
        applicable model factors. Tables of calculated . values are also provided for use manual calculations.
                                                                                          in
        The model equations can, of course, be incorporated into computer programsfor machine processing.
        The tabulated values of are cut off at the part ratings with regard to temperature and stress, hence, use
        of parts beyond these cut off points will overstress the part. The use of the hb models in a computer



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                                                                                                                               3.0           INTRODUCTION


                                                                                      At,
                            program should take the part rating limits into account. The equations are mathematically continuous
                            beyond the part ratings but such failure rate values are in the overstressed regions.
                                                                                        invalid
                                                                        both                                      (ems., resistor
                            All the part models include failure data from catastrophic and permanent drift failures     a
                            permanently falling out of rated tolerance bounds) and are based upon a constant failure rate, except for
                            motors which showan increasing failure rate over time. Failures associated with connection
                                                                                                                     of parts into
                                                                                                           on connection reliability
                            circuit assemblies are not included within the part failure rate models. Information
                            is provided in Sections 16 and 17.

                                                        -
                            3.4.5 Thermal Aspects The use of this prediction methodrequires the determination of the
                            temperatures to which the parts are subjected. Since parts reliability is sensitive to temperature, the
                            thermal analysisof any design should fairly accurately provide the ambient temperatures needed   in using
                                                                                                             can
                            the part models. 0 course, lower temperatures produce better reliability but also produce increased
                                              1
                            penalties in terms of added loads on the environmental control system, unless achieved through
                            improved thermal design of the equipment. The thermal analysis should be partof the design process
                            and included in all the trade-off studies covering equipment performance, reliability, weight, volume,
                            environmental control systems, etc. References and 34 listed in Appendix C may be usedas guides in
                                                                             17
                            determining component temperatures.




                                                                                                                                                                     --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




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                                                                               MIL-HDBK-217F

                                                                                        4.0               RELIABILITY ANALYSIS EVALUATION


                            Table 4-1 provides a general c m t to be used as a gui& for evaluating a reliability prediction report.
                            For completeness, the checklist includes categories for reliability modeling and allocation, which are
                            sometimes delivered as part of a prediction report. It should be noted that the scope of any reliability
                            analysis depends on the specific requirements called out in a statement-of-work (SOW) or system
                            specification. The inclusion of this checklist is not intended to change the scope of these requirements.

                                                         Table 4-1:            Re1 bllityAnalysisChecklist
                                             Major Concerns                                                               Comments

                            dODELS
                                  Are all functional elements included the
                                                                     in                System design drawings/diagrams must be reviewed to
                                  reliability block diagram /model?                    be sure thatthe reliability model/diagram agrees with
                                                                                                                                          the
                                                                                       hardware.

                                  Are all modes of operation considered the
                                                                      in               Duty cydes, alternate paths, degraded conditions and
                                  mathnmdel?                                           redundant units mustbe defined and modeled.
                                                                                                  and
                                  Do the math model results show that the design Unit failure rates redundancy equations are used
                                  achieves the reliability requirement?                                           in
                                                                                 from the detailed part predictions the system math
                                                                                 model (See MIL-STD-756, Reliability Prediction and
                                                                                 Modeling).

                            4LLOCATION
                              .   Are system reliability requirements allocated        Useful levels are defined as: equipment for
                                  (subdivided) to useful levels?                       subcontractors, assemblies for sub-subcontractors,
                                                                                       circuit boards for designers.

                                  Does the allocation process consider                 Conservative values are needed to prevent reallocation
                                  complexity, design flexibility, and safety           at every design change.
                                  margins? .

                            PREDICTION
                                  Does the sum of the parts equal the value of         Many predictions neglectto include all the parts producing
                                  the moduleor unit?                                   optimistic results (check for solder connections,
                                                                                       connectors, circuit boards).

                                  Are environmental conditions and part quality        Optimistic quality levels and favorable environmental
                                              the
                                               of
                                               requirements?
                                  representative                         -             conditions are often assumed causing optimistic results.
                                  Are the circuit and part temperatures defined        Temperature is the biggest driver of part failure rates:
                                  and do they represent the design?                    low temperature assumptions will &use optimistic
                                                                                       results.

                                  Are equipment, assembly, subassembly and             Identification is neededso that corrective actions for
                                  part reliability drivers identified?                 reliability improvement can be considered.

                                  Are alternate (Non MIL-HDBK-217) failure rates       Use of alternate failure rates, if deemed necessary,
                                                                       their.
                                  highlighted along with the rationale for             require submission of backup    data to provide credencein
                                  use?                                                 the values.
                                                                                                                   be
                                                                                       Each component type should sampled and failure
                                  Is the levelof detail for the failure rate
                                                              part                     rates completely reconstructed for accuracy.
                                  models sufficient to reconstruct the result?
                                                                                       Prediction methods for advanced technology parts should
                                  Are critical components such as VHSIC,               be carefully evaluated for impact the module and
                                                                                                                       on
                                  Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits             system.
                                                                                                                                                                                --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                                  (MMIC), Application Specific Integrated
                                  Circuits (ASIC) or Hybrids highlighted?




                                                                                                                                                                         4- 1
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                                                                                                               MIL-HDBK-217F

                                                                                                                                     5.0          MICROCIRCUITS, INTRODUCTION


                                                                                                                models for the followingten major classes of microelectronic
                                                                      This section presents failure rate prediction
                                                                      devices:

                                                                         Section
                                                                           5.1       MonolithicBipolarDigitalandLinearGate/LogicArrayDevices
                                                                           5.1       MonolithicMOS      and    Gatenogic
                                                                                                  Digital Linear        ArrayDevices

                                                                             Monolithic
                                                                           5.1              and
                                                                                      Bipolar                         Microprocessor
                                                                                                            MOS Digital            Devices
                    --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                                                                             Monolithic
                                                                           5.2              and Memory
                                                                                      Bipolar MOS    Devices
                                                                           5.3       VeryHighSpeedIntegratedCircuit(VHSICNHSIC-LikeandVLSI)CMOSDevices                                                   (> 60K
                                                                                     Gates)
                                                                           5.4               GaAs Devices
                                                                                     Monolithic Digital
                                                                           5.4        Monolithic GaAs MMlC
                                                                            5.5        Microcircuits
                                                                                      Hybrid
                                                                            5.6            Acoustic Devices
                                                                                      Surface   Wave
                                                                            5.7           Bubble
                                                                                      Magnetic Memories
                                                                      In the title description each n&nolithic device type, Bipolar represents TTL, ASTTL, DTL, ECL, CML,
                                                                                             of                                                all
                                                                      ALSTTL, HlTL, RTL, F, LTTL, STTL, BiCMOS, LSTTL, IIL, 13L and ISL devices. MOS represents all
                                                                      metal-oxide microcircuits, which includes NMOS,PMOS,CMOS and MNOS fabricated on various
                                                                      substrates such as sapphire, polycrystalline or single crystal silicon. The hybrid model is structured to
                                                                      accommodate all of the monolithic chip device types and various complexity levels.
                                                                                                                        in the
                                                                      Monolithic memory complexity factors are expressed number of bits in accordance with JEDEC STD
                                                                      21A. This standard, which is used by all government and industry agencies that deal with microcircuit
                                                                                                             bits
                                                                      memories, states that memories of 1024 and greater shallbe expressed as K bits,. where 1 = 1024
                                                                                                                                                                    K
                                                                      bits. For example, a 16K memory has 16,384 bits, a 64K memory has 65,536 and a 1M memory has
                                                                                                                                               bits
                                                                      1,048,576 bits. Exact numbersof bits arenot used for memories of 1024 bits and greater.

                                                                      For devices havingboth linear and digital functions covered by MIL-M-38510 or MIL-1-38535, use the
                                                                                                                         not
                                                                      linear model. Line drivers and line receivers are considered linear devices. For linear devices not covered
                                                                                                                                                              of
                                                                      by MIL-M-38510 or MIL-1-38535, use the transistor count from the schematic diagram the device to
                                                                      determine circuit complexity.
                                                                                                                         or
                                                                      For digital devices not covered by MIL-M-38510 MIL-1-38535, use the gate count as determined from
                                                                      the logic diagram. A J-K or R-S flip flop is equivalent to 6 gates when used as of an LSI circuit. For the
                                                                                                                                                       part
                                                                      purpose of this Handbook, a gate is considered to be any one of the following functions: AND, OR,
                                                                      exclusive OR, NAND, NOR and inverter. When alogic diagram is unavailable, use device transistor count
                                                                      to determine gate count using the following expressions:

                                                                                      Technoloav
                                                                                      Bipolar                                      No. Gates= No. Transistors/3.0
                                                                                      CMOS                                         No. Gates= No. Transistors/4.0
                                                                                      All other MOS except CMOS                    No. Gates = No. Transistors/3.0




                                                                                                                                                                                                            5-1
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                                                    MIL-HDBK-21I F

            5.0         MICROCIRCUITS, INTRODUCTION


            A detailed form of the Section 5.3 VHSICNHSIC-Like model is included as Appendix B to allow more
            detailed trade-offs to be performed. Reference 30 should be consultedfor more information about this
            model.

            Reference 32 should be consulted for more information about the models appearing in Sections5.1, 5.2,
            5.4,5.5, and 5.6. Reference 13 should be consulted for additional information on Section 5.7.




                                                                                                                                                       --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




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                                                                 C                             = 9999970 OL9703Y                                           165
                                                                          MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                             NOTICE 2


                                         5.1                GATE/LOGIC
                                                MICROCIRCUITS,           MICROPROCESSORS
                                                                        AND
                                                                    ARRAYS

                                                                                  DESCRIPTION
                                                                                  1. Bipolar Devices, Digital and Linear Gate/Logic Arrays
                                                                                  2. MOS Devices, Digital and Linear Gate/Logic Arrays
                                                                                  3. Field ProgrammableLogicArray(PLA)and
                                                                                     Programmable Array Logic (PAL)
                                                                                  4. Microprocessors

                                                          h = ( C 1 q + C27tE) X Q ~ LFailures/lO 6 Hours
                                                           P


                                          r
                                          -       Digital and Linear Gate/Logic Array Die Complexity Failure Rate Cl                                       -
                                      Digital                                 Linear                                                               PLA/PAL
                                No. Gates                 C1         No. Transistors                        C1                                No. Gates                C1

                                 1   to     100          .o025          1   to     100                   .o1 o                            u p to 200                  .o1o
                               101   t o 1,000           .O050        101   to     300                   .o20                           201 to 1,000                  .o2 1
                             1,001   t o 3,000           .o1 o        301   t o 1,000                    .O40                         1,001 to 5,000                  ,042
                             3,001   t o 10,000          .o20       1,001   t o 10,000                   .O60
                            10,001   t o 30,000          .O40
                            30,001   t o 60,000          .O80


                                          MOS Linear and Digital Gate/Logic Array Die Complexity Failure Rate Cl*                                      -
                                      Digital                                 Linear                                                               PLA/PAL
                                No. Gates                 C1         No. Transistors                        C1                                No. Gates                C1

                                 1 to
                                 100                     .o1 o          1   to     100                    .o10                            Up to 500                   .O0085
                               101 t o 1,000             .o20         101   to     300                    .o20                         501 to 1,000                   .O017
                             1,001 t o 3,000             .O40         301   t o 1,000                     ,040                       2,001 to 5,000                   .0034
                             3,001 t o 10,000            .O80       1,001   t o 10,000                    .O60                      5,001 to 20,000                   .0068
                            10,001 t o 30,000            .16
                                   t o 60,000              30,001
                                                         .29


                            *NOTE: For CMOS gate counts above 60,000 use the VHSICNHSIC-Like model in Section 5.3


                                            MicroDrocessor                                                    All Other Model Parameters
                                     Die Complexity Failure Rate - Cl                                      Parameter              Refer to
                                                Bipolar             MOS
                              No. Bits                                                                                                                 Section 5.8
                                                                     C1     C1
                                                                                                                 c2                                    Section 5.9
                             Up to 8              .O60              .14

                             Up to 16             .12               .28                                          XE, ~          Q    I   XL            Section 5.1 O

                             Up to 32                               .56     .24



                            Supersedes page 5-3 of Revision F                                        --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---                    5-3
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                                                                                            MIL-HDBK-217F


                  5.2          MICROCIRCUITS, MEMORIES

                                                                                                   DESCRIPTION
                                                                                                   1. ReadOnlyMemories(ROM)
                                                                                                   2. Programmable Read Only Memories (PROM)
                                                                                                   3. UltravioletEraseablePROMs(UVEPROM)
                                                                                                   4. "Flash,"MNOSandFloatingGate      Electrically
                                                                                                      EraseablePROMs(EEPROM).Includes          both
                                                                                                      floating gate tunnel oxide (FLOTOX) and textured
                                                                                                             polysilicon type EEPROMs
                                                                                                   5. StaticRandomAccessMemories (SRAM)
                                                                                                   6. Dynamic Random Access Memories (DRAM)

                                                                   hp = (C1 XT + C2 X E          + hcyc) XQ    XL      Failures/106 Hours


                                                                                      Die Complexity Failure Rate- C,
                                                                                                        MOS                                                               Bipolar
                                                                                           PROM,                                     SRAM
                                                                                           UVEPROM,                                 (MOS &                     ROM,
                     Memory Size, B (Bits)                                        ROM      EEPROM,             DRAM                 BiMOS)                                             SRAM       PROM
                                                                                           EAPROM

                  Up to 16K                                                       .O0065                                   .O078 .O01 .O094
                                                                                                                     3 .O0085                   .O052
                  16K < B 5 64K                                                   .o01 3         7             .O025 .O01 .O1 6       .o1 9     .o1 1
                      < B S 256K                                                  .O026 64K .O034              .O050                  .O38 .O31 .o21
                       cBI1M                                                      .O052 256K .O068             .o1 o                            .O42 .O75 .O62
                                                                                                                                                                                                  I




                                A, Factor for kc c Calculation                                                        A2 Factor for hcyc Calculation
                                                                                                                                                                                              1
                     Total No. of
                    Programming
                     Cycles Over
                   EEPROMLife, C
                                                      T+      Flotoxl
                                                                                     Textured-
                                                                                       Poly2
                                                                                                                     Total No. of
                                                                                                                 Programming Cycles
                                                                                                                Over EEPROM Life, C
                                                                                                                                        Textured-Poly A2


                                                                                                                 Up to 300K                                                       O
                  u p to 100                                  .O0070                   .O097
                  100 c c 5 200                               .O01 4                   .O1 4                     300K < C S 400K                                                1.1
                  200 < C S 500                               .O034                    .O23
                  500cC51K                                    .O068                    .O33                      400K c C I500K                                                2.3
                  1K<C13K                                     .o20                     .O61
                  3K c C S 7K                                 .O49                     .14                                 All Other Model Parameters
                  7K<CI15K                                    .1o                      .30                              Parameter      I       Refer to
                                                              .14                      .30
                  15K C 5 20K
                  20K c C I 30K
                  30K C 5 100K
                                                              .20
                                                              .68
                                                                                       .30
                                                                                       .30                 I     *T
                                                                                                                                                        1         Section 5.8
                  lOOK < C S 200K
                  200K C 5 400K
                  400K < C I500K
                                                             1.3
                                                             2.7
                                                             3.4
                                                                                       .30
                                                                                       .30
                                                                                       .30
                                                                                                           I     XE,     XQI XL
                                                                                                                                                        I         Section 5.9
                                                                                                                                                                  Section 5.1O

                            1. A, = 6.817 X      (C)                                                             hcyc(EEPROMS                                     Page 5-5
                            2. No underlying equation for Textured-                                                 only)
                               Poly.
                                                                                                           1     hcyc= O             For all otherdevices




                  5-4
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                                                                                                           MIL-HDBK-217F
                 --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                                                                                             NOTICE 2
                                                                                                                                          5.2         MICROCIRCUITS, MEMORIES


                                                                                                                                    kYc
                                                                                        EEPROM ReadlWrite Cycling Induced Failure Rate                        -
                                                                                                                   I
                                                                                                                                                            k y c=O




                                                                      -
                                                                      All Memory Devices Except Flotox and
                                                                      Textured-Poly EEPROMs

                                                                      Flotox and Textured Poly EEPROMs
                                                                                                                                 &=[AI                  B1     +

                                                                                                          Flotox                                                       ed-Pdy
                                                                         A1                             Page 5-4                                                   Page 5-4
                                                                         B1                             Page 5-6                                                   Page 5-6
                                                                         A2                             Az=O                                                       Page 5-5
                                                                         B2                             BZ=O                                                       Page 5-6
                                                                                                        Section 5.10                                               Section 5.10

                                                                   Error Correction Code (ECC) Options:
                                                                       1. No On-Chip ECC
                                                                       2. On-Chip Hamming Code
                                                                       3. Two-Needs-One
                                                                           Redundant Cell Approach


                                                                      NOTES:     i . See Reference24 for modelingoff-chip error detection and correction
                                                                                     schemes at the memory system level.

                                                                                 2. If EEPROM type is unknown, assume Flotox.

                                                                                 3. Error Correction Code Options:Some EEPROM manufacturers have incorporated
                                                                                                                          their EEPROM devices. This is representedb)
                                                                                    on-chip error correction circuitry into
                                                                                    the on-chip hamming code   entry. Other manufacturers have  taken a redundantcell
                                                                                                                                          in every memory cell. This
                                                                                    approach which incorporates an extra storage transistor
                                                                                    is represented by the two-needs-one redundant entry.
                                                                                                                                     cell

                                                                                 4. The Ai and A2 factors shownin Section 5.2 were developed based on an assumec
                                                                                     system life of 10,000 operating hours. For EEPROMs used in systems with
                                                                                                                                     the
                                                                                     significantly longer or shorter expected lifetimes Al and A2 factors should be
                                                                                     multiplied by:

                                                                                                   System Lifetime Operating Hours
                                                                                                                10,000




                                               Supersedes
                                             page                                     5-5 of Revision F                                                                                              5-5

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                                                      MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                        NOTICE 2


                    5.2     MICROCIRCUITS, MEMORIES




                                                                                                                                 lY c          -




                                                                                                                                                   --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                    5-6                                                     Supersedes page 5-6 of Revision F
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                                                    NOTICE
                                         MIL-HDBK-ZL7F                                 L   RE            9999970 007bOq3 T
                                                                                       MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                                         NOTICE 1

                                                                   5.3                  VHSICNHSIC-LIKE
                                                                           MICROCIRCUITS,                                                                           CMOS
                                                                                                                                                              AND VLSl

                                                                                                          DESCRIPTION
                                                                                                          CMOS greater than60,000 gates



                                          Die Base Failure Rate-                                                       All Other Model Parameters
                                                                                                                  Parameter         i      Refer to
                                  Part Type                        I                        ]
                                                                                                                     %T                                        Section 5.8
                                  Logic and Custom                             0.16
                                                                                                                     "Es                                       Section 5.10
                                  Gate Array and Memory                        0.24
                                                                                                                                                 -
                                                                                                                    Package Type Correction Factor npT

                               Manufacturing Process Correction Factor ZMFG        -                    I                                     1              . .
                                                                                                                                                           ZPT                                1
                                                                                                            Packane Type                          Hermetic I Nonhermetic
                                           Process
                                  Manufacturing                I ~MFG                       1                                                                        1

                                  QML or QPL
                                  Non QMLor Non QPL



                                Feature Size
                                                                               *55
                                                                               2.0


                                                                                                 -
                                                                   Die Complexity Correction FactorICCD
                                                                                                            Pin Grid Array
                                                                                                            Chip Carrier
                                                                                                              (Surface Mount
                                                                                                              Technolo nv)
                                                                                                            DIP                                  I I i:! I
                                                                                                                                                      2.2
                                                                                                                                                      4.7

                                                                                                                                                      1,O



                                                                                                    Die Area (cm2)
                                  (Microns)          A I .4              .4 c A I .7                          I          2 0
                                                                                                     . 7 c A <1 . O c A S2 ..0 < A I 3 . 0
I                                    .8O              8.0                   14                            19                                                                      58    38
                                    1.o0              5.2                    8.9                          13                                                                      37    25
                                                      3.5 1.25               5.8                           8.2                  16                                                24
                                 xCD=   ((-& (e-
                                            )        (.64))+ .36          A Total Scribed Chip Die Areaincm2
                                                                               P                                                                  X, = Feature Size(microns)

                           I                                                                                                                                                                  I



                                                                                                                                                                                                  --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                 Die AreaConversion:cm2 = MIL2 f 155,000

                                        Package Base Failure Rate      - ARP
                                                                         W .
                                                                                                                  ElectricalOverstress Failure Rate Acne
                                                                                                                                                     LUV
                                                                                                                                                                                  -
                                    Number of Pins                          'B P                               VTH (ESD Susceptibility (Volts))*                                       AEOS
                                         24                                ,0026
                                         28                                ,0027                                                        0 - 1000                                       .065
                                         40                                .O029
                                         44                                .O030                                              > 1000 - 2000                                            .053
                                         48                                ,0030
                                         52                                .O031                                              > 2000 4000    -                                         .044
                                         64                                ,0033
                                         84                                .O036                                            > 4000 - 16000
                                        120                                .O043
                                        124                                ,0043
                                        144                                .O047
                                                                           ,0060

                                                                                                               VTH = ESD Susceptibility (volts)

                                              Number of Package Pins

                                Supersedes page 5-7of Revision F                                                                                                                          5-7

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                                                                                                                    MIL-HDBK-217F

                                                                       5.4                  GaAs
                                                                               MICROCIRCUITS,  MMlC                          DEVICES
                                                                                                                   AND DIGITAL

                                                                                                                         DESCRIPTION
                                                                                                                         Gallium Arsenide Microwave Monolithic Integrated Circuit
                                                                                                                         (GaAsMMIC) and GaAs Digital Integrated Circuits
                                                                                                                                                                       using
                                                                                                                         MESFET Transistors and Gold Based Metallization
                     --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                                                                             M:Die Complexity Failure Rates -      Cl                                 Device Application Factor ITA                    -
                                                                           Complexity
                                                                         (No. of Elements)
                                                                                                         C1                       I                           Application

                                                                                                                                      MMlC Devices
                                                                                1 to 100                                               Low Noise & Low Power ( 100 mW)
                                                                                                                                                               I
                                                                                                                                       Driver & High Power (> 100 mW)
                                                                                                                                       Unknown
                                                                       1 . Cl accounts for the following active
                                                                           elements: transistors, diodes.
                                                                                                                                 Digital Devices
                                                                                                                           Applications
                                                                                                                            Digital
                                                                                                                                  All                                                                          1.o

                                                                          U:Die Complexity Failure Rates -         Cl
                                                                                  Complexity                  Cl
                                                                               (No. of Elements)                                                    All Other Model Parameters
                                                                                                                                                Parameter       I       Refer to
                                                                                    1 to 1000
                                                                                                                                                KT                                          Section 5.8

                                                                        1. Cl accounts for the following active                                 c2                                          Section 5.9
                                                                           elements: transistors, diodes.
                                                                                                                                                XE, XLI XQ                                  Section 5.1 O




                                         5-8
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                                                                                                 NOTICE 2
                                                                                                                                    5.5                     HYBRIDS
                                                                                                                                                MICROCIRCUITS,

                                                                                                    DESCRIPTION
                                                                                                    Hybrid Microcircuits

                                                                           ,X = [ Z Nc kc J (1 + .2 K E ) KF KQ ‘tL Failures/l O6 HOUE
                                                                            ,

                                               Nc               =   Number of Each Particular Component
                                              LC                =   Failure Rateof Each Particular Component

                               The general procedure for developing an overall hybrid failure rateto calculate an individual failure rate
                                                                                                     is
                               for each component type used in the hybrid and then sum them. This summation is then modified to
                               account for the overall hybrid function (zF), screening level (W),and maturity (xL). The hybrid package
                               failure rate is a function of the active component failure modified by the environmental factor(¡.e., (1 + .2
                               zE) ). Only the component types listed in the following table are considered to contribute significantly to
                               the overall failure rate of most hybrids. All other component types (e.g., resistors, inductors, etc.) are
                               considered to contribute insignificantlyto the overall hybrid failure rate, and are assumedhave a failure
                                                                                                                           to
                               rate of zero. This simplification is valid for most hybrids; however,if the hybrid consistsof mostly passive
                               components then a failure rate should be calculated for these devices. If factoring in other component
                               types, assume KQ = 1, X;E=1 andTA = Hybrid Case Temperature these calculations.
                                                                                                   for

                                                                                             Determination of h,
                                                                                                               -
                                        Determine LCfor These                         Handbook Section     Make These Assumptions When Determining
                                          Component Types                                                                                                 AC

                                     Microcircuits                                              5                 C2 = O, KQ = 1, ZL = 1, TJ as Determined from
                                                                                                                  Section 5.12,      = O (for VHSIC).

                                     Discrete Semiconductors                                    6                 ZQ    = 1, xA = 1, TJ as Determined from Section
                                                                                                                  6.14, ICE= 1.

                                     Capacitors                                              10                   XQ    = 1, TA = Hybrid Case Temperature,

                                                                                  I
                                                                                                                  np=       1.

                                NOTE:                           If maximum rated stress fora die is unknown, assume the same as for a discretely package
                                                                                                                             on
                                                                die of the same type. If the same die has several ratings based the discrete packaged
                                                                type, assume the lowest rating. Power rating                      on
                                                                                                              used should be based case temperature
                                                                for discrete semiconductors.

                                                                                 -
                                                           Circuit Function Factor nF
                                                            Circuit Type                     “F                                                                  Refer
                                                                                                                                                                5.10 to Section

                                          Digital                                            1.o

                                          Video, 10 MHz c f c 1 GHz                          1.2

                                                                    f > 1 GHz               2.6 Microwave,

                                          Linear, f c 10 MHz                                5.8

                                          Power                                            21


                                 Supersedes page 5-9 of Revision F, Notice 1                                                                                                           5-9
              --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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                              flIL-HDBK-2L7F        CHG N O T I C E 2     rn        q q q q q 7 0 0397039 7 4 7

                                                             MIL-HDBK-217F


               5.6          MICROCIRCUITS, SAW DEVICES
                                                                    DESCRIPTION
                                                                   'SurfaceAcoustic Wave Devices


                                                      A., = 2.1 ZQ XE FailuresllO6 Hours


                                 Quality Factor-   TCQ                                              Environmental Factor -                        E
               Screening Level                               "Q                           Environment                                                        "E
                                                                                                         GB                                                  .5
               1O Temperature Cycles (-55°C   to             .1o
               +125"C) with end point electrical                                                         GF                                                 2.0
               tests at temperature extremes.
                                                                                                         GM                                                 4.0
               None beyond best commerical                  1 .o                                                                                            4 .O
               practices.                                                                                NS
                                                                                                         NU                                                 6.0
                                                                                                                                                            4.0




                                                                                                                                                                   --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                                                                                         AIC
                                                                                                         AIF                                                5 .O
                                                                                                         AUC                                                5 .O

                                                                                                         AUF                                                8 .O

                                                                                                         ARW                                                8 .O

                                                                                                         SF                                                  .50

                                                                                                         MF                                                 5 .O
                                                                                                         ML                                            12

                                                                                                         CL                                         220




               5-1O

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                                                                                                                                MIL-HDBK-217F

                                                                                                                          5.7    MICROCIRCUITS,
                                                                                                                                             MAGNETIC
                                                                                                                                                    BUBBLE                                                          MEMORIES

                                                                           The magnetic bubble memory device in its present form is a non-hermetic assembly consisting of the
                                                                           following two major structural segments:
                         --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                                                                                 1.            A basic bubble chip or die consisting of memory or a storage area (e.g., an array of minor
                                                                                               loops), and required control and detection elements (e.g., generators, various gates and
                                                                                               detectors).

                                                                                 2.            A magnetic structure to provide controlled magnetic fields consisting of permanent magnets,
                                                                                               coils, and a housing.

                                                                           These two structural segments of the device are interconnected by a mechanical substrate and lead
                                                                           frame. The interconnect substrate in the present technology is normally a printed circuit board. It should
                                                                           be noted that this model does not include external support microelectronic devices requiredfor magnetic
                                                                           bubble memory operation. The model      is based on Reference 33. The general form of the failure rate
                                                                           model is:

                                                                                                                       hp = hl + h2     Failures/106 Hours

                                                                           where:
                                                                                      X, = Failure Rate of the Control and Detection Structure



                                                                                      h,   = Failure Rateof the Memory Storage Area



I

                                                                                               Chips Per Package NC-                                Device Complexity Failure Rates for Control and
                                                                           I                                                        1                     Detection Structure C, . and Ca,
                                                                                                                                                                                 I                   -

                                                                           I
                                                                               NC          =     Number of Bubble
                                                                                                  Packaged Device
                                                                                                                 Chips per

                                                                                                                                    I
                                                                                                                                    I
                                                                                                                                                          C11 =

                                                                                                                                                           C21 =
                                                                                                                                                                               .00095(N1).40

                                                                                                                                                                              .0001(N1)*226
                                                                                               Temperature Factor- "T

                                                                                                                                                           N1         =       Number of DissipativeElements
                                                                                                                                                                               on aChip (gates, detectors,
                                                                                                                                                                               generators, etc.), N1 I 1000
                                                                               Use:
                                                                               Ea =              .8 to Calculate

                                                                               Ea      =         55 to Calculate nT2

                                                                               TJ      =        JunctionTemperature (OC),
                                                                                                25 I T J I 1 7 5




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                                     MIL-HDBK-217F N O T I C E I RE                     7777970 0076078 7
                                                                         MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                           NOTICE 1


                      5.7                  MAGNETIC
                                MICROCIRCUIT,                          BUBBLE MEMORIES


                                                           -
                                     Write Duty Cycle Factor nW                             Device Complexity Failure Rates for Memory
                                               1OD                                               Storage Structure- C12 and CZ2
                            “W       =     -   .”


                                           ( R N ).3




                                                                                                                                                                       --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                                                                               C12 =              .00007(N2)*3
                            “W       =     1         for D I.O3or R/W 2 2154
                                                                                               c22 =              .00001(~~)~3
                                            Avq. Device Data Rate
                            D        =                               “
                                           Mfg. Max. Rated Data Rate
                                                                                               N2         =       Number of Bits, N2 I 9 x                       lo6
                            WW =           No. of ReadsperWrite

                            NOTE:
                                 For seed-bubble generators, divide                                 All Other Model Parameters
                                      nw by 4, or use 1, whicheveris                           Parameter                  Section
                        Ireater.
                                                                                               c2
                                                                                                                                            I           5.9


                                                          -
                                          Duty Cycle Factor “D                                                                              I           5.10




                            D    =
                                           Avg. Device Data Rate
                                         Mfg. Max. Rated Data Rate
                                                                        I,




                      5-12                                                                    Supersedes page 5-12 of Revision F

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                                                                          MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                            NOTICE 1

                                                                                    5.8        MICROCIRCUITS,                         KT      TABLE FOR ALL




                            0        1            I




                                       I           I




                                       I           I




                            Supersedes page 5-13 of Revision F                                                                                                   5-13
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                                  UIL-HDBK-ZL7F N O T I C E L RE                      9799970 0 0 7 b L O O 3
                                                                      MIL-HDBK-217F


                   5.9           MICROCIRCUITS,        Cp TABLE FOR ALL

                                                     Package Failure Rate for all Microcircuits - c2
                                                                      Package Type
                                              Hermetic: DlPs                                 I                                                  i   Nonhermetic:
                                                w/Solder or
                        Number of             Weld Seal, Pin DlPs with Glass Flatpacks with                               cans4                      DIPS, PGA,
                        Functional               Grid Array      Seal2       Axial Leads on                                                         SMT (Leaded
                         Pins, Np              ( P G A ) ~SMT
                                                          ,                 150 Mil Centers3                                                            and
                                               (Leaded and                                                                                          N~nleaded)~
                                                Nonleaded)
                                                                                                                                         i
                                  3                .O0092           .O0047                .o0022                         .O0027                           .o01 2
                                  4                .O013            .O0073                .O0037                         .O0049                           .O01 6
                                  6                ,0019            .O013                 .O0078                         .o01 1                           .0025
                                                   ,0026            ,0021                 .O013                          ,0020                            .0034




                                                                                                                                                                     --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                  8
                                  10               ,0034            .O029                 .o020                          .O031                            .0043
                                  12               .O041            .O038                 .O028                          .O044                            ,0053
                                  14               .O048            .O048                 .O037                          ,0060                            .0062
                                  16               .O056            .O059                 .O047                          .O079                            ,0072
                                  18               .O064            .O071                 .O058                                                           .0082
                                 22                ,0079            .O096                 .O083                                                           .o1 o
                                 24                .O087            .o 1 1                .O098                                                           .o1 1
                                 28                .o1o             .O14                                                                                  .O13
                                 36                .O13             .o20                                                                                  .O17
                                 40                .O 15            .O24                                                                                   ,019
                                 64                .O25             .O48                                                                                  .032
                                 80                .O32                                                                                                    .041
                                 128               .O53                                                                                                   .068
                                 180               .O76                                                                                                    .098
                                 224               .O97                                                                                                     2
                                                                                                                                                           .i




                            NOTES:

                            1.     SMT: Surface Mount
                                                    Technology
                            2.                 ln-Line
                                       DIP: Dual     Package

                            3.         If DIP Seal type is unknown, assume glass

                            4.     The package failure rate (C2) accounts for failures associated only withthe package itself.
                                   Failures associatedwith mounting the package a circuit board are accounted in
                                                                                    to                             for
                                   Section 16, Interconnection Assemblies.




                   5-14
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                                                                                             MIL-HDBK-217F                  RE               9999970 0070728 8



                                                                                                                       MIL-HDBK-217F

                                                                                                                5.10      MICROCIRCUITS, ZE, AL AND                                  ZQ      TABLES FOR ALL

                                                                                 Environment Factor- ICE                                                           Quality Factors                - zc

                                                                     .F
                                                                         Environment                               "E                                           Description                                         "Q
                                                                                                                   50
                                                                                                                  2.0         I              Glass S Cateaories:

                                                                              GM                                  4.0                            1:     Procured in full accordance
                                                                                                                                                        with MIL-M-3851 Class S
                                                                                                                                                                          O,
                                                                               NS       ..                        4.0                                   requirements.
                                                                               NU                                 6.0
                                                                                                                                                2.      Procured in full accordance                                 .25
                                                                               AIC                                4.0                                   with MIL-1-38535 and
                                                                                                                  5.0                                   Appendix B thereto (Class U).
                                                                               AIF
                                                                               AUC                                5.0                            3.Hybrids:(Procured    to Class
                                                                                                                  8.0                                S requirements (Quality Level
                                                                               *U.F                                                                  K) of MIL-H-38534.
                                                                             . ARW
                                                                                                                  8.0
                                                                               SF                                   SO.
                                                                                                                                             Class R Cateaories;
                                                                               MF                                 5.0
                                                                               ML                                12                              1.     Procuredin full accordance
                                                                                                                                                        with MIL-M-38510, ClassB
                                                                               CL                               220                                     requirements.

                                                                                                    -
                                                                                    Learning Factor "L                                           2.Procured   in full accordance
                                                                                                                                                     with MIL-1-38535, (ClassQ).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1.o

                                                                              Years in Production, Y             "L
                                                                              I.1
                                                                              ~.                                  2.0                            3.Hybrids:Procured     to Class B
                                                                                                                                                     requirements (Quality Level
                                                                              .5                                  1.8
                                                                                                                                                     H) of M1L.H-38534.
                                                                              1 .o                                1.5
                                                                              1.5                                 1.2
                                                                     I        2 2.0                     I          1 .o
                                                                                                                              I              Glass ß-1 CategpIy;
                                                                            nL = .O1 exp(5.35 - ,35Y)       -                                    Fully compliant with all
                                                                                                                                                 requirements of paragraph 1.2.1
                                                                                                                                                 of MIL-STD-883 and procured a  to                                  2.0
                                                                            Y = Years generic devicetype has been                                MIL drawing, DESC drawing   or
                                                                                in production                                                    other government approved
                                                                     I                                                        1                  documentation. (Does not include
                                                                                                                                                 hybrids), For hybrids use custom
                                                                                                                                                 screening section below.
                   --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                                                                                                                                                                                                                          5-15
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                                                                                     MIL-HDBK-217F        RE        9 9 9 9 9 7 0 0070729 T



                                                                                                           . MIL-HDBK-217F

        5.10                                                         MICROCIRCUITS, ZE,ZL AND               ZQ   TABLES FORALL

                                                                                                                                                  m
                                                                                 Qualii Factors (cont'd): len Calculation for Custom Screening Pro!                           s
                   --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




               Group                                                                                                                                                          Point Valuation


                                                 1.                              ior Hybrids) (FinalElect&als @ Temp Extremes) and TM 1014                                     50
                                                                                 (Seal Test,Cond A, B, or C) and TM 2009 (Extemal Visual)
                                                                                 TM 101O (Temwrature Cycle, Cond B Minimum) or TM 2001
                                                                                 (Constant' Acceleration,Cond B Minimum)
                                       2'                                        TM 5004 (or 5008 for Hybrids) (Final ElectricalsTemp Extremes)
                                                                                                                              @                                                37
                                                                                 and TM 1014 (Seal Test, Cond B, or C) and TM2009 (External
                                                                                                               A,
                                                                                 Visual)
                                                                                 Pre-Bum in Electricals
                                                                     3           TM 1015 (Burn-in B-LeveVS-Level) and TM 5004 (of 5008 for                                     30          (B
                                                                                                                                                                                           Level)
                                                                                 Hybrids) (Post Bum-in Electricals Temp Extremes)
                                                                                                                  @                                                            36          (S Level)

                                                                                 TM 2820 Pind(ParticleImpactNoiseDetection)               .                                    11

                                                                                 TM 5004 (or 5008 for Hybrids) (Final Electncals Temperature
                                                                                                                              @                                                11           (Note 1)
                                                                                 Extremes)
                                                                     6           TM 2010/17 (InternalVisual)                                                                      7
                                                           7.                    TM 1014 (Seal Test, Cond A, B, or C)                                                             7         (Note 2)

                                                                                 TM 2012 (Radiography)                                                                            7
                                                                                 TM 2009 (ExtemalVisual)                                                                          7         (Note 2)

                                                 10                              TM 5007/5013 (GaAs) (Wafer Acceptance)                                                           1

                                                     11                          TM 2023 (Non-Destructive Bond Pull)                                                              1

                                                                                            89
                                                                         ZQ=2+
                                                                                 .       Valuations
                                                                                      Point

         'NOT APPROPRIATE FOR PLASTIC PARTS.

         NOTES:
           1 . Point valuation only assignedused independent of Groups 1, 2 or 3.
                                            if
           2. Point valuation only assigned used independentof Groups 1 or 2.
                                            if
           3. Sequencing of tests within groups , 2 and 3 must be followed.
                                                1
           4. TM refers to the MIL-STD-883 Test Method.                                                                                                                                                           r


           5. Nonhermetic parts should used only in controlled environments(Le., GB and other
                                        be
               temperature/humidity controlled environments).


         EXAMPLES:
                                                                                                                                        87
         1.                                                              Mfg. performs Group 1 test and Class B bum-in:   XQ   =2   + 50+30          = 3.1
                                                                                                                                                                          87
         2.                                                              Mfg.performsinternalvisualtest,sealtestandfinalelectricaltest:                 RQ = 2 +                         = 5.5
                                                                                                                                                                        7+7+1
                                                                                                                                      I

                                                                         Other Commercialor Unknown Screening Levels
                                                                                                                                      I                ZQ =       10


         5-16
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                                                                                                                      MIL-HDBK-217F


                                                                                                 5.11   MICROCIRCUITS, TJ DETERMINATION, (ALL EXCEPT HYBRIDS)


                                                                         Ideally, device case temperatures should be determined from a detailed thermal analysis of the
                                                                         equipment. Device junction temperatureis then calculated with the following relationship:




                                                                                 TJ      =            Junction
                                                                                             Worst Case                (“C).
                                                                                                             Temperature

                                                                                 TC      =                          f
                                                                                             Case Temperature (“C). I not available, use the following default table.


                                                                                                        Defautt Case Temperature(Tc) for all Environments
                       --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                                                                         I   Tc(OC)       I 35     45     50   I 45   50   I 60        60         75           75           60         I 35          50         60   45


                                                                                         =   Junctionto-case thermalresistawe (OCrWatt) for a device soldered into a printed circuit
                                                                                             board. If eJJc i pot available, use a value containeda specification for closest
                                                                                                            s                                   in                  the
                                                                                             equivalent deviceor use .the following table.


                                                                                                               Die Area> 14,400 mi12 eJC
                                                                                       Package Type
                                                                                       (Ceramic Only)
                                                                                                                           (W

                                                                                      Dual-ln-Line                         11                                                       28
                                                                                      Flat Package                         10                                                       22
                                                                                      Chip Carrier                         10                                                       26
                                                                                      Pin GridArray                        10                                                  .    20
                                                                                      Can                                   -                                                       70



                                                                                  P      =   The maximum power dissipation realized in a system application. If the applied power is
                                                                                                                                                                     for the
                                                                                             not available, use the maximum power dissipation from the specification closest
                                                                                             equivalent device.




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                                                                                                MIL-HDBK-217F


          5.12                                                  MICROCIRCUITS, TJ DETERMINATION, (FOR HYBRIDS)


          This section describes a method for estimating junction temperature (TJ) for integrated circuit dice

                                                                         or
           mounted in ahybrid package. A hybrid is normally made up of one more substrate assemblies mounted
                                                                                                         or
          within a sealed package. Each substrate assembly consists of active and passive chips with thick thin
          film metallization mountedon the substrate, which in turn may have multiple layers of metallization and
          dielectric on the surface. Figure                                              5-1 is a cross-sectional view of a hybrid -with a single multi-layered
          substrate.The                                                   layers within the hybrid aremade up of various materials with different thermal
          characteristics. The table following Figure 5-1 provides a list of commonly used hybrid materials with
                                                                    (K).
          typical thicknesses and corresponding thermal conductivities If the hybrid internal structure cannot be
    . determined, use the following default values for the temperature rise from case to junction: microcircuits,
           10°C;transistors, 25°C; diodes, 20°C. Assume capacitors areBt Tc.




                                                                          CHIP (A)
              --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




           SUBSTRATE (D)


                                                                                                                                                                               PACKAGE

                                                                                     CASE (F)




                                          Figure' 5-1:                    Cross-sectional View of a Hybrld with a Slngle Multl-Layered Substrate
                                                                                                                                                                                                    c




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                                                                                   MIL-HDBK-~II~F OTICE
                                                                                                 N                      II RE m 9 9 9 7 9 7 0 007bLOL 5
                                                                                                                        MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                                                                          NOTICE 1




                                                                                                                   Typical Hy! id Characteri CS
                                                                                                                                                                                      Thermal
                                                                                                                                                                                    Conductivity,
                                                                                                                                 Typical                   Feature                            Ki
                                                                                  Material                Typical Usage         Thickness,               From Figure
                                                                                                                                  Li (in.)                   5-1
                                                                                                                                                                                        (%)                        lin* WW)
                                                                        Silicon                      Chip Device                   0.01 o                          A                     2.20                       ,0045
                                                                        GaAs                         Chip Device                   0.0070                          A                        .76                     .O092
                                                                        Au Eutectic                  Chip Attach                   0.0001                          B                     6.9                        .o00014
                                                                        Solder                       Chip/Substrate Attach         0.0030                        B/E                     1.3                        .O023
                                                                        Epoxy (Dielectric)           Chip/Substrate Attach         O. 0035                       B/E                        .O060                   ,58
                                                                        Epoxy (Conductive)           Chip Attach                   0.0035                          B                        -15                     .O23
                                                                        Thick Film Dielectric        Glass Insulating Layer        0.0030                          C                        .66                     .O045
                                                                        Alumina                      Substrate, MHP                 0.025                           D                       .64                     ,039
                      --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                                                                        Beryllium Oxide              Substrate, PHP                 0.025                           D                    6.6                        .O038
                                                                        Kovar                        Case, MHP                      0.020                           F                       .42                     .O48
                                                                        Aluminum                     Case, MHP                      0.020                           F                    4.6                        .O043
                                                                        Copper                       Case, PHP                      0.020                           F                    9.9                        ,0020
                                                                                                                                P



                                                                            NOTE: MHP: Multichip Hybrid Package, PHP: Power Hybrid Package (Pwr:                                        2 2W, Typically)




                                                                                  n        P   Number of Material
                                                                                                               Layers

                                                                                  Ki       =   ThermalConductivity of thMaterial     (E)               (UserProvided or FromTable)

                                                                                   Li      =   Thickness of thMaterial(in)(UserProvided or FromTable)
                                                                                  A        =   Die Area (in2). If Die Area cannot be readily determined, estimate as follows:
                                                                                                                                                +
                                                                                               A = [ ,00278 (No. Die Active Wire Terminals) .041q2
                                                                                                                  of




                                                                            TC          = Hybrid Case Temperature (OC). If unknown, use the TC Defautt Table shown in Section 5.1 1.
                                                                            8JC = Junction-to-Case Thermal Resistance (“Cm                    (As determined above)
                                                                            PD = DiePowerDissipation (W)



                                                                        page
                                                                        Supersedes                 5-19 of Revision F                                                                                                     5-19
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                                MIL-HDBK-ZL7F                N O T I C E L RE               9977970 0076102 7
                                                                             MIL-HDBK-217F


                       5.13                 EXAMPLES
                                MICROCIRCUITS,

                       Example 1: CMOS DlgltalGateArray

                       Given:    A CMOS digital timing chip (4046) in an airborne inhabited cargo application, case temperature
                                 48OC, 75mW power dissipation. The device is procured with normal manufacturer's screening
                                 consisting of temperature cycling, constant acceleration, electrical testing, seal test and external
                                 visual inspection, in the sequence given. The component manufacturer also performs a B-level
                                                                                                            to
                                 burn-in followed by electrical testing. All screens and tests are performed the applicable MIL-
                                 STD-883 screening method. The packageis a 24 pin ceramic DIP with a glass seal. The device
                                 has been manufacturedfor several years and has 1000 transistors.




                                c,       =    .o20                                                          C,
                                                                           1O00 Transistors = 250 Gates, MOS Table, Digital Column

                                "T       =    .29                          Determine TJ from Section 5.11
                                                                           TJ = 48OC + (28"C/W)( .075W) 50°C
                                                                                                      =
                                                                                                                MOS Column.
                                                                           Determine "T from Section 5.8, Digital

                                                                           Section 5.9

                                                                           Section 5.10




                                                                                                                                                                        --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                                                           Section 5.1 O
                                                                           Group 1 Tests                                      50 Points
                                                                           Group 3 Tests
                                                                                     (B-level)                                aQedm
                                                                           TOTAL                                              80 Points

                                                                                    87
                                                                           I C Q = ~ + - = 3.1
                                                                                    80

                                "L       =    1                            Section 5.1O

                                                    hp = [ (.020)(.29) + (.Oll) (4)] (3.1)(1) = .15 Failure/106 Hours

                       Example 2:            EEPROM

                       Given:        A 128K Flotox EEPROM that is expected to have aTJ of 80°C andexperience 10,000
                                     read/write cycles over the life of the system. The part is procured to all requirements of
                                     Paragraph 1.2.1, MIL-STD-883,Class B screeninglevelrequirementsandhasbeen                      in
                                                                                                                and will be usedin an
                                     production for three years. It is packaged in a 28 pin DIP with a glass seal
                                     airborne uninhabited cargo application.

                                                        tcp = (C1 XT + C2 XE + Awe)                XL              Section 5.2


                                C1       =    .O034                        Section
                                                                          5.2
                                XT      =     3.8                          Section 5.8
                                C2      =:    .O14                         Section 5.9


                      5-20
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                                                                                 MIL-HDBK-217F

                                                                                                              5.13           MICROCIRCUITS, EXAMPLES

                                      ICE   '   =    5.0                       Section 5.1 O
                                      "Q             2.0                       Section 5.10
                                      "L        =    1.0                       Section 5.10
                                      hcyc =         .38                       Section 5.2:



                                                                                  = B2 = O for Flotox
                                                                               Assume NO ECC, XECC = 1
                                                                               Al ='.1 , 7K I 5 15K Entry
                                                                                             C
                                                                               B1 = 3.8 (Use Equation    i at bottom of B1 and B2 Table)
                                                                               Acvc A1 (.1)(3.8)
                                                                                          B1          = .38



                                                     3p = [ (.0034)(3.8) + (.014)(5.0) + .38] (2.0)(1) = .93 Failures/106 Hours

                            Example 3: GaAs MMlC
                            Given:         A MA4GM212 Single Pole Double Throw Switch, DC - 12 GHz, 4 transistors, 4 inductors, 8
                                           resistors, maximum input PD 30 dbrn, 16 pin hermetic flatpack, maximum TCH 145OC in a
                                                                     =                                                =
                                                                                                        for
                                           ground benign environment. The part has been manufactured 1 year and is screened      to
                                           Paragraph 1.2.1 of MIL-STD-883, Class B equivalent screen.

                                                                % = [ C1n-p~+ C p E I X L ~ Q                          Section 5.4


                                      c1        =     4.5                      Section 5.4, MMlC Table, 4 Active Elements (See Footnote
                                                                                                                                     to
                                                                               Table)
                                      XT        =     .O61                     Section 5.8, TJ= TCH = 145°C
                                  '   "A        =     3.0                                      Application
                                                                               Section 5.4, Unknown
                                      C2        S.    .O047                    Section 5.9
                                      'FE       =     .50                      Section 5.1 O
                                      "L        =     1.5                      Section 5.1 O
                                      KQ        =     2.0                      Section 5.10

                                                    %=     [(4.5)(.061)(3.0)   + (.0047)(.5)]    (1.5)(2.0) = 2.5 Failures/106 Hours
                                                                                                                                                                                 --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                            NOTE: The passive elements are assumed contribute negligibly the overall device failure
                                                                to                     to                        rate.
                            Example 4:              Hybrid
                            Given:         A linear multichip hybrid driver a hermetically sealed Kovar package. The substrate is alumina
                                                                          in
                                           and there are two thick film dielectric layers. The die and substrate attach materials are
                                           conductive epoxy and solder, respectively. The application environment is naval unsheltered,
                                                                                            in                  two
                                           65OC case temperature and the device has beenproduction for over years. The device is



                                                                                                                                                                          5-21
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          5.13                                                        MICROCIRCUITS, EXAMPLES

                                                                       screened to MIL-STD-883, Method5808, in accordance with TableVIII, Class B requirements.
                                                                       The hybrid contains the following components:

                                                                       Active Components:           1    -   LM106 Bipolar              er
                                                                                                                          Comparator/Buff Die (13 Transistors)
                                                                                                    1    -   LM741ABipolarOperationalAmplifierDie (24 Transistors)
                                                                                                         -
                    --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                                                                                                    2             Transistor
                                                                                                             Si NPN
                                                                                                    2    -   Si PNP
                                                                                                                  Transistor
                                                                                                    2    -                    Diodes
                                                                                                             Si General Purpose
                                                                       Passive Components:         2     -         Chip
                                                                                                             CeramicCapacitors
                                                                                                  17 .   -   Thick Film Resistors



              1.                                                       Estimate Active Device Junction Temperatures
                                                                       If limited informationis available on the specific hybrid materials and'construction characteristics
                                                                                                                               in the
                                                                       the default case-to-junction temperature rises shown introductionto Section 5.12 can be
                                                                       used. When detailed information becomes available the following Section 5.12 procedure
                                                                       should be used to determine the junction-to-case(eJC) thermal resistance and TJ values for
                                                                       each component.        .



                                                                                                             (Equation 1)



                                                                               Layer                     Figure 5-1 Feature


                 Silicon Chip                                                                                    A                                                             .O045
                 Conductive Epoxy                                                                                B    '                                                        .O23
                 Two Dielectric Layers                                                               (2)(.0045) C                                          =                    .o09
                 Alumina Substrate                                                                               D                                                             ,039
                 Solder Substrate Attachment                                                                     E                                                             .O023
                 Kovar Case                                                                                      F                                                             948
                                                                                                                                                                               .1258



                                                                       A   =    Die Area = [ .O0278 (No, Die Active Wire Terminals)         + .O4172                           (Equation 2)
                                                                       TJ =     TC+~JCPD                       3)
                                                                                                             (Equation




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                                                                                                                             NOTICE 2

                                                                                                                                                          5.13            MICROCIRCUITS, EXAMPLES


                                                                                                LM 106         LM741A         Si NPN                Si PNP                Si Diode                          Source

                                                                     No. of Pins                8              14             3                     3                      2                  Vendor Spec. Sheet

                                                                     Power Dissipation,             .33             .35           .6                    .6                     .42            Circuit Analysis
                                                                       (W)
                                                                     Area of Chip (in.2)            .O041           .O065         .O025                 .O025                  .o022          Equ. 2 Above

                                                                     eJC    rCw                30.8            19.4          50.3                 50.3                  56.3                   Equ. 1 Above

                                                                     TJ ("c)                   75              72            95                   95                    89                    Equ. 3 Above


                                                                       2.              Failure
                                                                               Calculate         for Component:
                                                                                             Rates Each

                                                                               A) LM1 06 Die,13 Transistors (from Vendor Spec. Sheet)

                                                                                    c =[ E
                                                                               X T +%2 Xc 1l X Q n L                                                           Section 5.1
                   --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                                                                                    Because C2 = O;
                                                                                    hp = C1 XTZQ XL                                                            XT: Section 5.8; X Q , XL Default to 1.O
                                                                                           =   (.01)(3.8)(1)(1) = .O38Failures/106Hours

                                                                               B) LM741 Die, 23 Transistors. Use Same Procedure as Above.

                                                                                               kp =       Cl   XTXQ XL =     (.01)(3,1)(1)(1) = .O31 Failures/106 Hours

                                                                               C) Silicon NPN Transistor, Rated Power = 5W (From Vendor Spec. Sheet),VCENCEO                                                           =   .6,
                                                                                    Linear Application

                                                                                               hp =       % P T ~ A X R ZSXQXE                                       6.3;
                                                                                                                                                               Section                                   to
                                                                                                                                                                                       XA, X Q , XE DefauR                 1.O
                                                                                                    =     (.00074)(3.9)(1.0)(1.8)(.29)(1)(1)
                                                                                                    =     .O015 Failures/106 Hours

                                                                               D) Silicon PNP Transistor, Same as C.

                                                                                               Xp =       .O015Failures/106Hours

                                                                               E) Silicon General Purpose Diode (Analog), Voltage Stress= 60%, Metallurgically Bonded
                                                                                  Construction.

                                                                                               hp =       V T X S xc        XQXE                                     6.1
                                                                                                                                                               Section               : XQ, XE Default
                                                                                                                                                                                                   to                1.O
                                                                                                    =     (.0038)(6.3)(.29)(1)(1)(1)
                                                                                                    =     .O069Failures/106Hours




                                                                     Supersedes page 5-23of Revision F                                                                                                                 5-23
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                               VIL-HDBK-217F                     CHG N O T I C E 2                               9997970 OL7704L 3T5

                                                                                     MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                                       NOTICE 2


              5.13          MICROCIRCUITS, EXAMPLES

                             F) Ceramic Chip Capacitor, Voltage Stress = 50°/0,
                                TA = TCASE forthe Hybrid, 1340 pF, 125°C Rated Temp.

                                         Ap   =       hbXCVRQ5CE                                                   Section 1O. 11; K Q , ICEDefault to 1.O
                                              =       (.0028)(1.4)(1)(1)
                                              =       .O039 Failures/106 Hours

                             G) Thick Film Resistors, per instructionsin Section 5.5, the contribution of these devices is
                                considered insignificant relativeto the overall hybrid failure rate and they may ignored.
                                                                                                                be




                                                                                                                   Section 5.10
                                                                                                                   Section 5.5
                                                                                                                   Section 5.10
                                                                                                                   Section 5.1 O

                                         Ap       =         [ (1)(.038) + (1)(.031) + (2) (.0015) + (2)(.0015)
                                                            + (2)(.0069) + (2)(.0039)](1 +                                    (1)(1)
                                                                                                                 .2(6.0)) (5.8)

                                         hp       =         1.2 Failures/l O6 Hours




               5-24                               --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                                                                                           Supersedes page 5-24of Revision F
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                                                                   MIL-HDBK-217F


                                                            6. O     DISCRETE SEMICONDUCTORS,
                                                                                           INTRODUCTION


                           The semiconductor transistor, diode and opto-electronic device sections present the failure rates on
                       the basisof device type and construction. An analytical model the failure rate is also presentedfor each
                                                                                    of
                       device category. The various types of discrete semiconductor devices require different failure rate
                       models that vary to some degree. The models apply      to single devices unless otherwise noted. For
                                                                           in
                       multiple devices ina single package the hybrid model Section 5.5 should be used.

                           The applicable MIL specification for transistors, and optoelectronic devices is MIL-S-19500. The
                       quality levels (JAN, JANTX, JANTXV) are as defined in MIL-S-19500.

                           The temperature factor (ET) is based on the device junction temperature. Junction temperature
                       should be computed based on worse case power (or maximum power dissipation) and the device junction
                       to case thermal resistance. Determination junction temperatures is explainedin Section 6.14.
                                                                of

                           Reference 28 should be consulted for further detailed information on the models appearing in this
                       section.




                                                                                                                                                                  6- 1
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                                MIL-HDBK-237F C H G N O T I C E 2                       H 9799970 0397043 37B

                                                                               MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                                  NOTICE 2


              6.1      DIODES, LOW FREQUENCY

              SPECIFICATION                                                   DESCRIPTION
              MIL-S-19500                                                     Low Frequency Diodes: General Purpose Analog, Switching,
                                                                              Fast Recovery, Power Rectifier, Transient Suppressor, Current
                                                                              Regulator, Voltage Regulator, Voltage Reference


                                                           ,
                                                           h = hbn Tn Sn Cn Qn E Failuredl O6 Hours

                          Base Failure Rate-                                                                           Temperature Factor - 9
          r    Diode Type/Application                            I        ‘
                                                                          b
                                                                                                           (Voltage Regulator,Voltage Reference,
                                                                                                                   and CurrentRegulator)

               General Purpose Analog                                .O038                                        1            =T                           TJ (“c)
               Switching                                             ,0010
               Fast Recovery Power Rectifier                         .O25                                                       1.o                         105         3.9
               Power Rectifier/Schottky                              .O030                       30                             1.1                         110         4.2
                Power Diode                                                                      35                             1.2                         115         4.5
               Power Rectifierwith                                   .O0501                      40                             1.4                         120         4.8
                 High Voltage Stacks                                 Junction                    45                             1.5                         125         5.1
               Transient SuppressorNaristor                          .O013                       50                             1.6                         130         5.4
               Current Regulator                                     .O034                       55                             1.8                         135         5.7
               Voltage Regulator and Voltage                         ,0020                       60                             2.0                         140         6.0
                 Reference (Avalanche                                                            65                             2.1                         145         6.4
                 and Zener)                                                                      70                             2.3                         150         6.7
                                                                                                 75                             2.5                         155         7.1
                                  Temperature Factor - zT                                        80                             2.7                         160         7.5
                                                                                                 85                             3.0                         165         7.9
               (General Purpose Anak , Switching, Fast Recovery,                                 90                             3.2                         170         8.3
                     PC              mient supe ssor)                                            95                             3.4                         175         8.7
               TJ (“c)               zT               T J (“C)            nT                    1O0                             3.7

                 25                  1.o                  105          9.0
                 30                  1.2                  110         10
                 35                  1.4                  115         11
                 40                  1.6                  120         12                           -
                                                                                                   I       =          JunctionTemperature (“C)
                 45                  1.9                  125         14                              J


                 50                  2.2                  130         15                   L
                 55                  2.6                  135         16
                 60                  3.0                  140         18
                 65                  3.4                  145         20
                 70                  3.9                  150         21
                 75                  4.4                  155         23
                  ao                 5.0                  160         25
                 a5                  5.7                  165         28
                90                   6.4                  170         30
                95                   7.2                  1 75        32
               1O0                   8.0


                            =             3091   (   TJ
                                                           1
                                                          + 273 -
                                                                      1
                                                                     E)       )
                    TJ =                Temperature (“C)
                                 Junction


                                                                                                                                                                              I

           6-2                                                                                                   Supersedes page 6-2 of Revision F
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                                                                                                MIL-HDBK-217F               RE         9 9 9 9 9 7 0 0070740 9



                                                                                                                            MIL-HDBK-217F

                                                                                                                                                               6.1            DIODES, LOW FREQUENCY


                                                                                                          -
                                                                                   ElectricalStress Factor xs                                                                  Quality Factor- x
                                                                   r      Stress
                                                                                                    "
                                                                                                               "S                                          Quality                                                         "Q
                                                                       Transient Suppressor,                                                               JANTXV                                                          0.7
                                                                       Voltage Regulator, Voltage
                                                                       Reference, Current                                                                  JANTX                                                           1 .o
                                                                       Regulator                               1.o
                                                                                                                                                           JAN                                                             2.4

                                                                       All Others:                                                                         Lower                                                           5.5
                                                                            ,
                                                                           V 5 .30.                            0.054
                                                                           . e V 5 .40
                                                                             3 ,                               0.1 1                                       Plastic                                                         8.0
                                                                           .4 V, 5 .50                         0.19
                                                                                ,
                                                                           .5 e V 5.60                         O .29
                                                                                ,
                                                                           .6 V 5 .70                          O .42
                                                                           .7 v, 5 .ao                         0.58                                               Environment Factor- zc                               1

                                                                                 ,
                                                                           .8 c v 5.90                         0.77                                       .Environment
                 --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                                                                                                                                                                                         KE
                                                                           .9<vs51.00                          1.o
                                                                                                                                                                                         1 .o
                                                                                                    L
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           6.0
                                                                       For All Except Transient Suppressor, Voltage                                                                                                .       9.0
                                                                       Regulator, Voltage Reference, or Current                                                          GM
                                                                       Regulator                                                                                          NS                                               9.0

                                                                                                                                                                          NU                                               19
                                                                            zS = .O54             (V, I.3)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           13
                                                                            "s   =   ,
                                                                                     v   2.43     (.3¿   ..vss 1)                                                         AIC
                                                                                                                                                                          AIF                                              29
                                                                                                     Voltage Applied                                                      AUC                                              20
                                                                        V = Voltage Stress Ratio =
                                                                         ,                                                                                                                 '
                                                                                                      Voltage Rated
                                                                                                                                                                        .AUF-                                              43
                                                                        Voltage is Diode Reverse Voltage                                                                  ARW                                              24

                                                                                                                                                                          SF                                                    .50

                                                                                                                                                                          MF                                               14
                                                                              Contact Consttuction Factor      -   v                                                      ML                                               32




                                                                   I                                       !
                                                                         Contact Construction                          "C                                                                                              320
                                                                                                                                                                          CL
                                                                         Metallurgically Bonded
                                                                         Non-Metallurgically and1
                                                                                        Bonded
                                                                          Spring Loaded Contacts
                                                                                                                     i:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6-3
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  6.2        DIODES, HIGH FREQUENCY (MICROWAVE,                                                                                 RF)
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  SPECIFICATION                                                                                                  . DESCRIPTION
  MIL-S-19500                                                                                                         Si IMPATT;Bulk Effect, Gunn; Tunnel, Back: Mixer, Detector,
                                                                                                                      PIN, Schottky: Varactor, Step Recovery


                                                                                                                               Failures/l O6 Hours

                                                                         Base Failure Rate -                                                           Temperature Factor- ”T
      Diode                                                                                           I                                                      (IMF 1
                                                                                                                                    TJ (“c)               ‘
                                                                                                                                                          T          TJ (“c)  7ct
     Si IMPAlT ( 35 GHz)
                 I                                                                                        .22
     Gunn/Bulk
             Effect        .                                                                              .8i                             25     .            1.o                    105                  42
     Tunnel and Back (Including                                                                                                           30                 1.3                     110                  50.
        Mixers, Detectors)                                                                                .O023   ’                       35                 1.8                     115                  60
     PIN                                                                                                  .O081                           40                 2.3         ‘           120                  71
     Schottky Barrier (Including                                                                                                          45                 3.0                     125                  a4
       Detectors) and Øoint Contact                                                                                                       50                 3.9                     130                  99
       (200 MHz s Frequency I 35 GHz)                                                                     .O27                          .55                  5.0                     135                 120
     Varactor and Step Recovery                                                                           .O025                           60                 6.4                     140                 140
                                                                                                                                         .65                  8.1                    145                 160
                                                                                                                                          70               10                        150             .   1ao
                                                                                                                                          75               13                        155                 21o
                                                                                                                                         ao                16                        160                 250
                       Temperature Factor - zT                                                                                           a5                19                        165                 280
                       [All Types Ex pt I M P A T                                                                                        90                24                        170 .               320


                                                                                                                                  -
                                                                                                                                         95                29                        1 75                370
     TJ Cc)                 ’LT         TJ (“c)                                                                                         1O0                35

         25                                                                 1.o              105           4.4
         30                                                                 1.l              110           4.8                                                                                           1
         35                                                                 1.3            . 115           5.1
         40                                                                 1.4              120           5.5                      ,    T
                                                                                                                                         ‘             e x p [ 5 2 6T J + ! 2 7 3 - K ) )
                                                                                                                                                                    0(
         45                                                               . 1.6              125           5.9
         50                                                                 1.7              130           6.3                           TJ    =              Temperature (“C)
                                                                                                                                                       Junction
         55                                                                 1.9              135           6.7
         60                                                                 2.1              140           7.1
         65                                                                 2.3              145           7.6
         70                                                                 2.5              150           8.0
        75
        80
                                                                            2.8
                                                                            3.0
                                                                                             155
                                                                                             160
                                                                                                           8.5
                                                                                                           9.0
                                                                                                                                                      Application Factor                   - ICA
                                                                                                                                                                                              __
        85                                                                  3.3              165           9.5                       Diodes
                                                                                                                               Application                                                             “A
        90                                                                  3.5              1 70         10
        95                                                                  3.8              1 75         11                       Voltage
                                                                                                                                   Varactor,
                                                                                                                                  Control                                                                .50

   -   1O0                                                                  4.1


                                                                            1                 1
                                                                                                                          Multiplier Varactor,
                                                                                                                                    All Other
                                                                                                                                  Diodes
                                                                                                                                                                                                      2.5

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1.o

        ‘
        T                                                                       2100   (   TJ + 273
                                                                                                          E))
         TJ =                     Temperature (“C)
                           Junction




  6-4
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                                             ’   .        MIL-HDBK-217F                                          RE M 9 9 9 9 9 7 0 0070742 2 M                                                 :




                                                                                                    MI-HDBK-217F

                                                                                                            6.2       DIODES, HIGH FREQUENCY (MICROWAVE, RF)


                                  Power Rating                                                                                                                  Quality Factor “Q           -
                             Rated Power, Pr (Watts)                                “R
                                                                                                                                                                        (Schot         r)
                                                                                                                                            Quality’                                                  W
                            PIN Diodes
                                Pr I 10                                              .50                                                    JANTXV                                                     .50
                                10 < Pr I 100                                     1.3                                                       JANTX                                                     1.o
                                100 < Pr S 1000                                  2.0
                                                                                                                                            JAN                                                       1.a
                                1000 < Pr 9 3000                                 2.4
                                                                                                                                            Lower                                                     2.5
                             All Other Diodes                                     1.o                                                       Plastic                                                   -

                             PIN Diodes              K R = .326 &Pr)                    - .25                                               For high frequency part classes not specified to
                                                                                                                                            MIL-S-19500 equipment quality classes are
                                                                                                                                            defined as devices meeting the same
                             All Other Diodes        nR   5:   1 .O                                                                         requirements as MIL-S-19500.



                                                                                                                                                   Environment Factor                            - -
                                                                                                                                            Environment                                                     “E
                                    (All Types Except Sch, ky)
                             Quality                           “Q                                                                                          GB                                                1.o
                                                                                                                                                           GF                                                2.0
                             JANTXV                                                  .50 .
                                                                                                                                                           GM                                                5.0
                             JANTX                                                1.o
                                                                                                                                                           NS                                                4.0
                             JAN                                                  5.0                                                                                                                       11
                                                                                                                                                           NU
                              Lower                                            25                                                                          AIC                                               4.0

                              Plastic                                          50                                                                          *IF                                               5.0

                                                                                                                                                           AUC                                               ?.O
                              For high frequency patt classes not specified to                                                                             AUF                                              12
                              MIL-S-19500 equipment quality classeq are
                              defined as devices meeting the same                                                                                          ARW                                              16
                              requirements as MIL-S-19500.
                                                                                                                                                          .                                                      .50
                                                                                                                                                           MF                                                9.0

                                                                                                                                                           ML                                               24

                                                                                                                                                           CL                                             250




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                                                                     NIL-HDBK-217F                   RE        9999970 0070743 4                                                   ,
                                                                                                                                                                                                       1   1
                                                                                                                                                                                                       i


                                                                                                  MIL-HDBK-217F

     6.3          TRANSISTORS, LOW FREQUENCY, BIPOLAR

      SPEClFlCATlON                                                                                       DESCRIPTION
      MIL-S-19500                                                                                         NPN (Frequency 200 MHz)
                                                                                                          PNP (Frequency c 200 MHz)


                                                                                                           Failures/lO6 Hours

                                 Base Failure Rate                        -h                                                   Application Factor "A .
                                                                                                                                                   .             -
                                                                                                           I    Application                                          I                             I
ci       NPN                                                                             ,00074             Linear
                                                                                                          Amplification                                                      I.5
                                                                                                           . Switching                                                            -70

                                 Temperature Factor                                 -I                                 Power Rating Factor                           - KR
                                    5ET                           T J PC)                   7ET                 Rated Power (Pr, Watts)                                            "R
                                                                                                                                                                 "

             25                     1.o                                105                  4.5
             30                     I .1                               110                  4.8                     Pr< .1                                                         .43
             35                     1.3                                115                  5.2
             40                     1.4                                120                  5.6                     Pr = .5                                                        .77
             45                     1.6                                125                  5.9
             50                     1.7                                130                  6.3                     Pr = 1.0                                                      1.o
             55                     1.9                                135                  6.8
             60                     2.1                                140                  7.2                 '   Pr= 5.0                                                       1.8
             65                     2.3                                145                  7.7
             70                     2.5                                150                . 8.1                     Pr = 10.0                                                     2.3
             75                     2.8                                155                  8.6
             80                     3.0                                160                  9.1
             85                     3.3                                165                  9.7                     Pr = 50.0              .                                      4.3
            90                      3.6                                1?O                 10
            95
           1O0
                                    3.9
                                    4.2


                                       1
                                                                       175



                                                                        1
                                                                                         - 11                       Pr = 100.0

                                                                                                                    Pr     500.0                                              10
                                                                                                                                                                                  5.5




                           exp(-2114(                         TJ+273-=))                                        ZR = .43                               Rated Power 5.1 W
             TJ =                 Temperature ("C)
                           Junction                                                                             ER       (P,)*37                       Rated Power> .1W




      6-6                         --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---



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                                                                                                                                                  63
                                                                                                                                                   .        TRANSISTORS, LOW FREQUENCY, BIPOLAR


                                                                                    Voltage Stress Factor ICS            -                                                           Environment
                                                                           Applied VCE/Rated VCEO                                                                             Environment                                                 nE
                                                                                                            *S
                                                                                                                                                                                            GB                                            1 .o
                                                                            o < vs I   .3                                       .li
                     --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                                                                            .3   <vs I .4                                       .16                                                         GF                                            6.0
                                                                            .4   c v, I .5                                      .21                                                         GM                                            9.0
                                                                            .5      ,
                                                                                   V I .6                                     . .29                                                                                                      9.0
                                                                                                                                                                                            NS
                                                                            .6     V, 5 .7                                       .39
                                                                                                                                                                                            NU                                           19
                                                                            .7   c V, I .8                                      .54
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ~




                                                                                                                                          .
                                                                            .8      ,
                                                                                 c V I .9                                       .73                                                         AIC                                          13
                                                                            '9   c v, s 1.0                                    1.o.                                                                                                      29
                                                                                                                                                                                            AIF
                                                                                                                                                                                            AUC.                                    .    20      .

                                                                            ns       =   ,045   exp (3.1(Vs))       (O       V, I 1 .O)                                                                                                  43
                                                                                                                                                                                            AUF
                                                                            v
                                                                            ,        = Applied
                                                                                             VCE / Rated VCEO                                                                               ARW                                          24

                                                                                                                                                                                            SF                                                50
                                                                            VCE      = Voltage, Collector to Emitter
                                                                                                                                                                                            "F                                           14
                                                                            VCEO = Voltage, Collector to Emitter, Base                                                                                                                   32
                                                                                                                                                                                            ML
                                                                                         Open
                                                                                                                                                                                            CL                                          320


                                                                                         Quality Factor     - XQ
                                                                       ,    Quality
                                                                                                                I                             i
                                                              I             JANTXV
                                                                                                                I               .70           I




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   6.4         TRANSISTORS, LOW FREQUENCY, Si FET

   SPECIFICATION                                                                                                DESCRIPTION
   MIL-S-19500                                                                                                                                         5 400 MHz)
                                                                                                                N-Channel and P-Channel Si FET (Frequency

                                                                                                    b c 7A c 7 E
                                                                                               hp= h 7 T t 7 Q c Failuredl O6 Hours
                       --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                 Base Failure Rate &,
                                    -                                                      -                                                 Application Factor ICA                    -
                                                                                                                                          Application
      Transistor Type                                                                          I                                    (Pr,Power)
                                                                                                                                     Output
                                                                                                                                    Rated                                                             . "A
       MQSFET                                                                                        .o1 2
                                                                                                                                   Linear
                                                                                                                       Amplification                                                                    1.5
      JFET                                                                                           .O045                             (Pr               W
                                                                                                                              Signal
                                                                                                                         Switching Small                                                                  -70
                                                                         Temperature Factor    -I                                     Power F E T ~
        f J ("C)                                                                       TJ ?c)
                                                                                                                                         (Non-linear, P, 2 2w)
                                                                           ZT                             ZT
                                                                                                                                                                                                       2.0
          25                                                              1.o          105                3.9
          30                                                              1.1          110                4.2
          35                                                              1.2          115                4.5                                                                                          4.0
          40                                                              1.4          120                4.8
          45                                                              1.5          125                5.1                                50 <.Pr        C   %OW            ,                       0.0
          50                                                              1.6          130                5.4
          55                                                              1.a          135                5.7                           10 Pr 2 250W
          60                                                              2.0          140                6.0
          65                                                              2.1          145                6.4
          70                                                              2.3          150                6.7
          75                                                              2.5          155                7.1                                Environment Factor-
          80                                                              2.7          160                7.5
          85                                                              3.0          165                7.9                         Environment              1                                      Xe
          90                                                              3.2          170                8.3
                                                                          3.4          175                                                                                                           1 .o

                                                                                                     -
          95                                                                                              8.7                                       GB
        1O0                                                               3.7
                                                                                                                                                                                                     6.0
                                                                                                                                                    GF
                                                                                                                                             '      GM                                               9.0
                                                                            1              1
          *T                                                                   (T~+
                                                                           (-lg2' 2 7 3             -=))                                            NS
                                                                                                                                                    Nu                                             19
                                                                                                                                                                                                     9.0

          TJ =                                                              Temperature
                                                                     Junction                      (OC)                                                                                            13
                                                                                                                                                    AIC
                                                                                                                                                    AIF                                            29
                                                                                       -
                                                                          Quality Factor 'CQ                                                        AUC                                            20
 I        Quality                                                                                                                                   AUF                                           43

          JANTXV                                                                                                                                    ARW                                            24
          JANTX                                                                                                                                     SF                                                  .50
          JAN
                                                                                                                                                    MF                                             14
                                                                                                                                                    ML                                            32
          Lower
                                                                                                                                                    CL                                          320
          Plastic


   6-8
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                                                                                                    MIL-HDBK-2L7F RE W 9999970 0070746 T



                                                                                                                                     MIL-HDBK-217F
                         --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




    I       .                                                                                                                                                           6.5         TRANSISTORS, UNIJUNCTION

                                                                           SPECIFICATION                                                          DESCRIPTION
                                                                           MIL-S-19500                                                            Unijunction Transistors


                                                                                                                    h, = hbnTnQnE
                                                                                                                                Failures/l O6 Hours

                                                                                        Base Failure Rate I+,-                                                                          Quality Factor            - XQ
                                                                                                                                                                    Quality

                                                                                                                                                                    JANTXV                                                   ,   .70
                                                                                                                                                                    JANTX                                                    1 .o

                                                                                                                        _ .                                         JAN                                                      2.4
                                                                                        Temperature Factor          -                                               Lower                                                    5.5
                                                                            T J ec)                       TJ (Oc)
                                                                                                                                                                     Plastic                                                 8.0
                                                                             25             1.o           105
                                                                             30             1.1           110
                                                                             35             1.3           115                                                                       EnvironmentFactor - xE
                                                                                                                                      I
                                                                                                                                                                                .
                                                                             40             1.5           120
                                                                             45             1.7           125                  7.5
                                                                                                                               8.1                          I        Environment                                                 "E
                                                                             50             1,9           130                  8.8                                                                                    "




                                                                             55             2.1           135                  93                                                                                                I.o




                                                                                                                        "I
                                                                             60             2.4           140                 10                                                                                                 6.0.
                                                                             65             2.7           145                 11
                                                                             70             3.0           150                 12                                                                                                 9.0
                                                                             75             3.3           155                 13                                                                                      "




                                                                             80             3.7           160                 13                                                                                                 9..o
                                                                             85             4.0-          165                 14                                                                                             19
                                                                             90             4.4           170                 15                                                                                      "



                                                                             95             4.9           175                 16                                                                                             13
                                                                            1O0             5.3
                                                                                                                                                                            .       AIF                                      29
                                                                                                                                                                                    AUC                                      20

                                                                             'T   a   *'P   (- 2483 (TJ      273         Z)
                                                                                                                          ä)
                                                                                                                          1
                                                                                                                                                                                    AUF                                     43
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             24
                                                                                                                                                                                    ARW                               "
                                                                             TJ =            Temperature
                                                                                      Junction                          ("C)                                                                                                      .50
I       .                                                                                                                                                                           SF
                                                                                                                                                                                    MF                                       14


I -                                                                                                                                                         I                       ML
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            32

                                                                                                                                                            l                       CL                                -     320




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6-9
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                                                                                                               MIL-HDBK-217F


 6.6           TRANSISTORS, LOW NOISE, HIGH FREQUENCY, BIPOLAR
                  --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




 SPECIFICATION                                                                                                        DESCRIPTION
 MIL-S-19500                                                                                                          Bipolar, Microwave RF Transistor
                                                                                                                      (Frequency > 200 MHz, Power 1W)


                                                                                         h, = h b ~ T ~ R ~Failures/l O6 Hours
                                                                                                            S ~ Q ~ E

 Application Note: The model appliesto a single die (for multiple die use the hybrid model). The model does
 apply to ganged transistors on a single die.             ..
                                                                       Power Rating Factor ICR
                                                                                             ..                                                                                -
             Base Failure Rate A,,                              Rated Power (Pr,Watts)   -       “R
                                                                                                                                 Pr i . I                                                    .43
                                                                                                                                 . < Pr I .2
                                                                                                                                   I                                                         .55
                                                                                                                                 .2 < Pr I. 3                                                .64
                                                                                                                                 . < Pr S .4
                                                                                                                                  3                                                          .71
                                                                                                                                 .4 < Pr S -5                                                .77
                                                                     Temperature Factor      - nT                                .5 < Pr I.6                                                 .83
                                                                                                                                 .6 < Pr I.7                                                 .88
    TJ Fc)                                                                               vc)
                                                                                                                        -
                                                                       *T           TJ                   *T                      .7 < Pr S .8           .                                    .92
                                                                                                                                 .8 < Pr I.9                                                 .96
        25                                                             i.o          1o5                 4.5
        30                                                             1.1          i10                  .
                                                                                                        48
        35                                                             1.3          115                 5.2
        40                                                               .
                                                                        14          120                 5.6




                                                                                                                                                                                   r
        45                                                              1.6         125             ’   5.9
        50                                                              1.7         130                 6.3
        55                                                              i.9         135                  .
                                                                                                        68
        60                                                              2.1         140                  .
                                                                                                        72
        65                                                              2.3         145                 7.7
        70                                                              2.5                              .
                                                                                                        81                                Voltage Stress Factor - xS
                                                                                                                                               -
                                                                                    1.50
        75                                                             .2.8         155                  8.6             Applied VCE/Rated VCEO
        ao                                                             3.0          160                  9.1                                                                                 “S
        as                                                             33
                                                                        .           165                  9.7
        90                                                             3.6          170                 10                   o  <v,      I .3                                                 .11
        95                                                              .
                                                                       39           î 75                11               .        ,
                                                                                                                             .3 < v      1 .4                                                 .16
      1 O0                                                             4.2
                                                                                                                             .4 < v,      I .5                                                .2 1
                                                                                                                             .5   V,        .6                                                .29
                                                                                      1             1                        .6 < V,      S -7                                                .39
        ‘
        T       a                                                   exp(-2114( T J + 2 7 3 . - E ) )                         .7 c v,      I.8                                                 .54
                                                                                                                                  ,
                                                                                                                             .a c v       I   .9                                              .73
        TJ                                                                 Temperature
                                                                    Junction         (“C)
                                                                                                                                  ,
                                                                                                                             .9 < v
               3
                                                                                                                                          I 1.0                                             1.o

                                                                                                                             IC, =            .O45 exp (3.1
                                                                                                                                                          (Vs))                    (O   ,
                                                                                                                                                                                        V 1 1.O)

                                                                                                                             ,
                                                                                                                             V                  VCE / Rated VCEo
                                                                                                                                        = Applied

                                                                                                                             VcE                 Collector to Emitter
                                                                                                                                        = Voltage,

                                                                                                                             VcEo       = Voltage,Collector to Emitter,Base
                                                                                                                                          Open




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                                                                                                                           MIL-HDBK-217F

                                                                                                              6.6        TRANSISTORS, LOW NOISE, HIGH FREQUENCY, BIPOLAR



                                                                                        Quality Factor -                                                                 Environment Factor -
                                                                              Quality                               “Q                                    Environment
                                                                                                                                                                                                             i         “E
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       1 .o
                                                                            JANTXV        .                         .50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       2.0
                                                                            JANTX                                1.o                                                                                                   5.0
                                                                            JAN                                  2.0                                                                                                   4.0
                                                                            Lower                                5.0                                                                                                   11
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       4.0
                                                                          NOTE: ‘For these devices, JANTXV quality class
                                                                          must include IR Scan for die attach and screen for                                                                                           5.0
                                                                          barrier layer pinholes on gold metallized devices.                                                                                           7.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            .50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  .    9.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      24
                        --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                                                                                                                                                                                                                      250




                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6-1 1
Document provided by IHS.                                                                                                       Document provided by IHS Licensee=Lockheed Martin/4667500100, 05/05/2004
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                                                                                                                                       MIL-HDBK-217F

          6.7         TRANSISTORS,                                                                      HIGH POWER, HIGH FREQUENCY, BIPOLAR

          SPECIFICATION                                                                                                                               DESCRIPTION
          MIL-S-19500                                                                                                                                 Power, Microwave, RF Bipolar Transistors
                                                                                                                                                      (Average Power2 1W)

                                                                                                              h, = hbzTzAz,,pQzEFailuresA O6 Hours

                                                                                                                                  Base Failure Rate A+,
                                                                                                                                                      -  -
t           Frequency
              (GHz)           1.o                                                                       5.0                   10 300 50200           100                                               400                     500            600
              ,040
           5 0.5    .O39 .O38                                                                                                       ,050             .O67           .12 1.1              .62
                                                                                                                                                                                       .20             .36
                1      .O47 .O46                                                                            ,060            ,048        .42            .24
                                                                                                                                                     ,080           .14                                                        .74            1.3
                2       .O67 .O65                                                                          ,086             .O69                     .ll
                                                                                                                                                     .35            a20
                3      .O95 .O93                                                                           .12              .O98                     -16            .28                       o
                4        .14 .13                                                                              -             ,14     .17              .23


                +,    =                                                       exp(.354(F)
                                                                             .O32                       + .00558(P))
                                                                                                                ‘F                          =    Frequency (GHz)                        P         =    Output
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Power                   (W)
           NOTE: Output power refersto the power level for the overall packaged device and not
                                                                                            to individual transistors within
                           --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




           the package (if more than one transistorganged together). The output power represents the power output from the
                                                 is
                                                         cycle
           active device and should not account for any duty in pulsed applications. Duty cycle is accounted for when
           determining zk
                                                                                                                       - .
                                                                             Temperature Factor                   -   leT
                                                                                                                        ..                                             Temperature Fadtor ICT                      -
                                                                                (Gold Metállization)                                                                    .
                                                                                                                                                                       (Aluminum Metallization)
                                                                                       ,
                                                                                       V (VCE~~CES)                                                                               ,
                                                                                                                                                                                 V (VCEIBVCES)
           TJ (“c)                                                           5.40                 .45                 .50        .55                         TJ (“C)    5.40      . -45      .50                                        .55
           a l O0                                                               o
                                                                               .i                 .20                   .30        .40                         1.1
                                                                                                                                                              s1O0 -.75 .38                                                             1.5
            110                                                                .12                25                    -37        .49                         110      2.3 7 1.7 .1.1
                                                                                                                                                                          5
            120                                                                .15                .30                   .45        .59           20            1          ,84       1.7     2.5                                         3.3
            130                                                                .18                .36                   .54        .71                         130       1.2        2.4     3.6                                         4.8
            140                                                                .21            .   .43 6.8               .645.1     .853.4       1.7            140
            150                                                                .25                .50                 ’ .75
                                                                                                                         7.1      1.04.7        2.4            150                                                                      9.5
            160                                                                .29                .59                   -88       1.2             9.7          160
                                                                                                                                                                 6.5     3.3                                                           13
            170                                                                .34                .68 18              1,O .
                                                                                                                         13       1.4 4.4
                                                                                                                                 8.8             70            1
            180                                                                AO         -       .79                 1.2         1.6           5.9            180
                                                                                                                                                               23       18        12
            190                                                                .45                i91                 1.4         1.8                          190
                                                                                                                                                               31        7.8
                                                                                                                                                                        23        15
            200                                                                                                                     20          10             200                        30                                           40

                                                                                                                                                                                                           1               *    &))I



                                                                                                                                                             ILT= .38exp( 5794 (TJ                       +     273
                                                                                                                                                                            (Vs 5 .M)
                                                                                      1                           1                                                                         1                          1
      I
      I
          XT
                  2 (VS -35)  exp 2903
                      (.4 c v 5.55)
                            ,
                                                     -                                (-                          +   273     - K))s                    RT 7.55 (vs
                                                                                                                                                                               -
                                                                                                                                                                            (.4 < v
                                                                                                                                                                                  ,
                                                                                                                                                                                        exp
                                                                                                                                                                                        s 55)
                                                                                                                                                                                                (-                     +   273         - E))    I




      i
               VS                                                                 VCE;
                                                                               = BVCES                                                                        VS                   =    VCE~BVCES
               VCE                                                             =     Operating (Volts)
                                                                                           Voltage                                                            VCE                  =          Voltage
                                                                                                                                                                                        Operating (Volts)
               BVCES                                                           =                   Breakdown
                                                                                     Collector-Emitter                                                        BVCES                =    Collector-Emitter Breakdown
                                                                                     Voltage with Base Shorted to                                                                       Voltage with Base Shorted to
                                                                                     Emitter (Volts)                                                                                    Emitter (Volts)
               TJ                                                              I     Peak Temperature
                                                                                      Junction                                   (OC)                         TJ                   =     Junction
                                                                                                                                                                                        Peak Temperature                                (“C)

          6-12
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                                                                               MIL-HDBK-217F             RE              7 9 9 9 7 7 0 0070750                            L                     .




                                                                                                       MIL-HDBK-217F

                                                                                      6.7   TRANSISTORS, HIGH POWER, HIGH FREQUENCY, BIPOLAR

                                                                                                                                                             Quality Factor - XQ
                                       Application Factor ‘CA                     -                                                      Quality                                I
                                                                                                                                                                                “Q
                            Application          Duty Factor                                   XA
                            cw                    NIA                                          7.6                                       JANTXV                                                      .so
                            Pulsed                                         I 1%                  .46                                     JANTX                                                      1 .o
                                                                            5%                   .70
                                                                          10%                 1.o                                        JAN                                                        2.0
                                                                          15%                 1.3
                                                                          20%                 1.6                                        Lower                                                      5.0
                                                                          25%                 1.9


                             XA            .=         7.6,CW
                                                                         2 30%
                                                                                       1    - 2.2
                                                                                                                                     NOTE: For these devices, JANTXV quality class
                                                                                                                                     must include IR Scan for die attach and screenfor
                                                                                                                                     barrier layer pinholes on gold metallized devices.


                              ICA =                   .O6 (Duty Factor YO)+ .40 , Pulsed

                                                                                                                                                        Environment Factor - 7 c
                                                                                                                                                                              c

                                                                                                                                         Environment
                                      Matching Network Factor                          - “M
                                        Matching                                            “M

                              Input and Output                                              1.o                                                         GM                                                 5.0

                              Input                                                         2.0
                              None                                                          4.0




t




                             --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---                                                                                                                                     6-13
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       6.8                                            FET
                      TRANSISTORS, HIGH FREQUENCY, GaAs

       SPECIFICATION                                                                    DESCRIPTION
       MIL-S-19500                                                                      G Low Noise, Driver and PowerFETs (r 1GHz)
                                                                                        a&
                                                       h, = hbnTnAnMnQnE
                                                                       Failuredl O6 Hours

                                                                       Base Failure Rate       -L
            Operating                                                       Average Output Power(Watts)
5                  .1
          Frequency (GHz)                    e .1                                       .    1                             2                       4                        6

                 1                           .O52                "              "                  1                       "                       "                        "



                 4                           .O52            .O54
                                                             ,084               ,066     .36                              .14                                             .96
                 5                           .O52            ,083               .1o               .13                     .21                     .56                    1.5
                 6                           ,052            .13                .6
                                                                                 I                .20                     .32                     .85                    2.3
                                                                                                                                                                       , 3.5
                  7                          .O52        .30 .20                .24                                       50                    1*3                    '
                 '8                          ,052            .30                .37               .47          2.0    '.76                                 '

               9                             .O52            .46 ,72            .56                        '          1.2
              10                             ,052            .71
                                                           1.1                  .87                                   1.8


               A. =
                t,              ,052     .                                  1 $F$lO,
                                                                           Pe.1
               A+,    =         .O093
                                    exp(.429(F)     + .486(P))              4sFs10,           .1 < P 1 6




                                                                                                                                                                                                --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
               F      P         Frequency (GHz)                             P    I     Average
                                                                                             Output   (Watts)
                                                                                                  Power
               The average output power represents the power output from the active device and should not account for any duty
               cycle in pulsed applications.


                                Temperature Factor      - z-                              ,
                                                                                                          Application Factor - ITA
                                                                                                                                 ..
           T ("C)
            c                       KT              Tc ("c)           ZT

                                                                                         I
                                                                                               Application (P I 6W)                                            1           ZA
                                                                                                                                                                                           1
              25
              30
                                   1.o
                                   1.3
                                                    105
                                                    110
                                                                      24
                                                                      28
                                                                                                  All LowPower Pulsed
                                                                                                             and
                                                                                                                                                               I '                         I
              35
              40
              45
                                   1.6
                                   2.1
                                   2.6
                                                    115
                                                    120 .
                                                    125
                                                                      33
                                                                      38
                                                                      44
                                                                                          I       cw                                                           I       '
                                                                                                                                                                   ~~~~~
                                                                                                                                                                            4
                                                                                                                                                                                   ~   ~
                                                                                                                                                                                            I
              50
              55
             60
             65
                                   3.2
                                   4.0
                                   4.9
                                   5.9
                                                    í30
                                                    135
                                                    140
                                                    145
                                                                      50
                                                                      58
                                                                      66
                                                                      75
                                                                                         I     P = Average Output Power (Watts)
                                                                                                                                                                                           1
             70                    7.2              150               85
             75                    8.7              155               97
             80                   10                160              110
             85                   12                165              120
             90                   15                170              140


                                                                 -
             95                   18                175              150
            1O0                   21




      I      Tc Temperature
            Channel                                    ("C)




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                                     IIL-HDBK-217F           NOTICE 3 RE                       9999970 0076303                                     9

                                                                        MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                           NOTICE 1

                                                                             6.8       TRANSISTORS, HIGH FREQUENCY, GaAs FET



                                   Matching Network Factor-                                                   Environment Factor
                                   Matching                  I        "M
                                                                                                      Environment

                                                                                                                     GB                                               1 .o
                            Input and Output                          1 .o
                                                                                                                     GF                                               2.0
                                                                                                                                                                                 -
                            Input Only                                2.0                                                                                             5,O
                                                                                                                     GM
                            None                                      4.0                                            NS                                               4.0

                                                                                                                     NU                                              11

                                                                                                                     AIC                                              4.0
                                                      - na
                                         Quality Factor                                                                                                               5.0




                                                     T
                                                                                                                     AIF
                              Quality                            "Q                                                                                                   7.0
                                                                                                                     AUC
                                                                                                                     *UF                                             12
                            JANTXV                                .50
                                                                                                                     ARW                                              16
                            JANTX                                1 .o
                                                                                                                     SF                                                    .50
                            JAN                                  2.0                                                                                                  9.0
                                                                                                                      MF
                            Lower                                5.0                                                  ML                                              24

                                                                                                                      CL                                             250




                                                                                                                                                                                     --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                    Supersedes
                   page                        6-15 of Revision F                                                                                                            6-15

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                                                                                                                            MIL-HDBK-217F

                   6.9                                                                   HIGH
                                                                               TRANSISTORS, FREQUENCY,                          I
                                                                                                                                S    FET

                   SPECIFICATION                                                                                                          DESCRIPTION
                   MIL-S-19500                                                                                                            Si FETs (Avg. Power c 300 mW, Freq. > 400 MHz)

                                                                                                       ,
                                                                                                       h = h 7 T Q C Failures/l O6 Hours
                                                                                                            bC X 7 E



                                                                                   Base Failure Rate   -   +-,                                                            Quality Factor- XQ
                      Transistor Type                                                                                                    I                                                         i                           1
                       --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                                                                                                                                                      Quality

                      MOSFET                                                                                                              I               JANTXV                                                    .50
                      JFET                                                                                           .O23                                 JANTX                                                    1.o

                                                                                                                                                          JAN                                                      2.0

                                                                                  Temperature Factor       -   IZT                                        Lower                                                    5.0
                      TJ                                                 vc)        “T          TJ (“c)                 XT


                           25                                                       1.o          105                    3.9
                           30                                                       1.1          110                    4.2                               Environment Factor                              -
                           35                                                       1.2          115                    4.5
                           40                                                       1.4          120                    4.8
                                                                                                                                                  Environment                                                        “E
                           45                                                       1.5          125                    5.1
                           50                                                       1.6          130                    5.4                                       GB                                                 1.o
                           55                                                       1.8          135                    5.7
                           60                                                       2.0          140                    6.0                                      GF                                                  2.0
                           65                                                       2.1          145                    6.4
                           70                                                       2.3          150                    6.7                                      GM                                                  5.0
                           75                                                       2.5          155                    7.1
                           80                                                       2.7          160                    7.5                                       NS                                                 4.0
                           85                                                       3.0          165                    7.9
                                                                                                                                                                  NU                                                11

                                                                                             --
                           90                                                       3.2          170                    8.3
                           95                                                       3.4          175                    8.7                                                                                          4.0
                          1O0                                                       3.7
                                                                                                                                                                  AIF                                                5.0
                                                                                                                                                                  %C                                                 7.0
                                                                                                                                                                  AUF                                               12
                                                                                                                                                                  AFIW                                              16
                                                                                                                                                                  SF                                                     .50
                                                                                                                                                                  MF                                                 9.0
                                                                                                                                                                  ML                                                24
                                                                                                                                                                 CL                                                250




                  6-1 6
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                                                    NIL-HDBK-217F                                     RE W 9997770 0070754 9


                                                                                               MIL-HDBK-217F

                                                                                                                                                    6.1 O THYRISTORS AND SCRS

                         SPECIFICATION                                                                   DESCRIPTION
                         MIL-S-19500                                                                     Thyristors
                                                                                                         SCRs, T r i m


                                                            ,
                                                            h = h b ~ T ~ R n S ~ Q ~ E Hours
                                                                              Failures/l O6

                                         Base Failure Rate --                                                                        Current Rating Factor                             - ZR.
                                                                                                                                                                                          .
                     I
                Type Device                                      I                                                               Rated Forward Current
                                                                                                                                         (
                                                                                                                                     Ifrms (Amps))
                     1
                     I
                            All Types                             I
                                                                  I
                                                                            .o022                    I
                                                                                                     I                                             .O5                                      .
                                                                                                                                                                                                “R.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  ,30
                                                                                                                                                   .1o                                          . .40
                                                                                                                                                   .50                                           ,76
                                         Temperature Factor       -:                                                                         .   1.0                                            1.o
                                                                                                                                                 5.0                                            1.9
                            TJ (“c)        %T         TJ (“c)                                                                                   10                                              2.5
                                                                                                                                                20                                              3.3
                            25             1.o        105                                                                                       30        ’                            L        3.9
                            30             1.i        110                                                                                       40                                              4.4
                         . 35              1.4-       115                                                                                       50                                              4.8
                            40             1.6        120                                                                                       60                                              5.1
                            45‘            1.9        125                                                                                       70                                              5.5
                            50             2.2        130                                                                                       80                                              5.8
                            55             2.6        135                                                                                       90 .                                            6.0
                            60             3.0        140                                                                                      1O0                                              6.3
                            65             3.4        145                                                                                      110                                              6.6
                            70             3.9        150                                                                                      120                                              6.8
                            75             4.4        155                                                                                      130                                              7.0
                            80             5.0        160                                                                                      140                                              7.2
                            85             5.7        165                                                                                      150                                              7.4
                            90             6.4        170                                                                                      160                                              7.6
                            95             7.2        175                                                                                      170                                              7.8
                           1O0
                                        -  8.0                                                                                                 175                                              7.9




                                                                                                                                                =      RMS RatedForwardCurrent(Amps)
                                                                                                                                  ’frms
                              TJ =             Temperature
                                        Junction         (“C)




                                                                                                                                                                                                        6-1 7
                                                            --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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                                                        .       . -      ..
                                                                                         ' MIL-HDBK-217F               RE   m   7797770 070755
                                                                                                                                       0                                    O    m
                 --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                                                                                                    MIL-HDBK-217F


  6.1 O THYRISTORS AND SCRS



                                                                                        -
                                                                    Voltage Stress Factor ns                                                          Environment
       V, (Blocking Voltage Applied/                                                                                                   Environment                                                     XE
           Blodcing Voltage Rated)
                                                                                                  -         nS                                        GB                                               1 .o
                                                                                                                                                                                                       6.0
              V, I .30
                  ;                                                                                         .io                                       GF
              .3 <    1 .4 .                                       us                                       .la                                       GM                                               9.0
              .4 < Vs I .5
                       ;                                                                                    .27                                       NS                                               9.0
              .5 Vs S .6                                                                                    .3a                                                                                      19
                                                                                                                                                      NU
        .     .6 Vs I .7
                       ;                                                                                    .51
                                                                                                                                                                                                     13
              .7 vS I.a                                                                                     .65                                       AIC
              .a e vS s .9                                                                                  .a2                                       AIF                                            29
              ,9 e Vs i 1.0 -                                                        '                  1 .o                                          %C                                             20
                                                                                              -
                                                                                              -                                                       AUF                                            43
                                                                                                                                                      ARW                                            24
                                                                                                      (Vs < 0 3
                                                                                                                                                 '
            IrS'.10                                                     .                                    .)
                                                                                                                                                      SF                                                  .50
            "s                                                                                        (V,      0.3)                                   MF                                             14

                                                                                                                                                      ML                                             32

                                                                                                                                                      CL                                          320
                                                                            Quality Factor - XQ
            Quality                                                                                          "Cl
            JANTXV                                                                                           0.7

            JANVX                                                                                            1 .o

            JAN                                                                                              2.4

            bower                                                                                            5.5
            Plastic                                                                                          8.0




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                                                                          MIL-HDBK-217F                            RE W 9 9 9 9 7 7 0 O070756 2



                                                                                                               MIL-HDBK-217F

                                                                                      6.1 1                                    ISOLATORS,
                                                                                                      OPTOELECTRONICS, DETECTORS,                                                                       EMITTERS

               SPECIFICATION                                                                                       DESCRIPTION
      Photodetectors,
pto-isolators, MIL-S-19500


                                                                                            h, = lLbzTxQxE Failures/l O6 Hours

                                          Base Failure Rate                           -               -                                                            Quality Factor- ZQ
                               Optoelectronic Type
                                                                                                      -                                        Quality                                             1     "Q

                               Photodetectors
                               Photo-Transistor                                                           ,0055
                                                                                                                                       I       JANTXV
                                                                                                                                                                                                   I      .70           I
                               Photo-Diode                                                                .o040

                               Opto-Isolators
                               Photodiode
                                        Output, Device
                                             Single                                               '       ,0025
                               Phototransistor Output, Single Device                                       .O13
                               Photodarlington Output, Single Device                                       ,013
                               Light Sensitive Resistor, Single Device                                    .O064
                               Photodiode Output, Dual Device                                             .O033
                               Phototransistor Output, Dual Device                                         .O17
                                                                                                                                                       Environment Factor- xE
                               Photodarlington Output, Dual Device                                         .dl 7
                                                                                                                                                Environment                                               "E.
                               Light Sensitive Resistor, Dual Device                                      .o086
                                                                                                                                                              GB                                         1;o
                               Emitters
                                Infrared Light Emitting Diode (IRLD)                                      .O013                                               GF                                         2.0
                               Light Emitting Diode (LED)
                                                                                                      -
                                                                                                      00023                                                   GM                                         8.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                         5.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                ,




                                                                                                                                                              NS
                                                                                            - nT




                                                                  I
                                            Temperature Factor
                                                                                                                                                              NU                                         12
                               TJ ?c)            zT
                                                                                                                                                              AIC                                        4.0
                                25              1.o                             35                    3.8                                          .          AIF                                        '6.0
                                30              1.2                             80                .   4.3
                                35              1.4                             85                    4.8                                                     AUC                                        6.0
                                40              1.6                             90                    5.3                                                                                                8.0
                                45              1.8                             95                    5.9                                                     AUF
                                50              2.1                            1O0                    6.6                                                     ARW                                        17
                                55              2.4                            105                    7.3
                                60              2.7                            110            .       8.0                                                      SF                                             .50   .

                                65                                             115                    8.8

                          -
                                                3.0                                                                                                                                                      9.0
                                70              3.4                                                                                                            MF
                                                                                                                                                               ML                                        24
                                                                                     1                1                                                        CL                                       450
                                                                                   + 273 - E))
                                 nT
                                 TJ =
                                                 2790
                                                 Temperature ("C)
                                          Junction
                                                                      (    TJ




                                                                                                                                                                                                                6-1 9
                                          --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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                       -         .                            MIL-HDBK-2L7F RE                    9999970 0070757 I.I

                                                                                                                                                                                            !
                                                                                       MIL-HDBK-217F

   6.12                           ALPHANUMERIC
                    OPTOELECTRONICS,        DISPLAYS

   SPECIFICATION                                                                        DESCRIPTION
   MIL-S-19500                                                                          Alphanumeric Display

                                                                          ,
                                                                          h = hbnTnQnEFailures/l O6 Hours

                                     Base Failure Rate X,,            -                                                   Temperature Factor                  -:
          Number
              of
       Characters
                1
       1 wRogicChip
                                                            Ib
                                                      Segment
                                                      Display
                                                       ,00043
                                                         .O0047
                                                                      I1         Ib
                                                                              Diode Array
                                                                                Display
                                                                               .O0026
                                                                               .O0030
                                                                                                      TJ (“c)
                                                                                                      25
                                                                                                      30
                                                                                                      35
                                                                                                                            %T
                                                                                                                              1.o
                                                                                                                              1.2
                                                                                                                              1.4
                                                                                                                                                    TJ
                                                                                                                                                    75
                                                                                                                                                    80
                                                                                                                                                    85
                                                                                                      40                      1.6                   90
            2                                            .O0086                .o0043                 45                      1.8                   95
       2 wLÖ& Chip                                       ,00090               ,00047
            3                                            ,0013        .       .O0060
                                                                                                      50                      2.1                  1O0                      6.6
       3 w/LÖgic Chip                         *          .O013                .O0064                  55       -              2.4                  105
                4                                        .O017                 .o0077                 60                      2.7          .       110        ‘             8.0
       4 wkogic Chip                                     .o018                 .O0081                 65                      3.0                  115                      8.8
                5                                        .o022                ,00094                  70                      3.4
                6                                        ,0026                .o01 1
                7                                        .O030                .Oß13                                                                  1
                8                                        ,0034                ,0015                   *T
                9                                        .O039                .O016                                                                                 298
               10                                        .o043                .OP1 8
                                                                                                                     ’
                                                                                                                     P-
                                                                                                                     ,(          2790 (TJ           + 273
               11                                        .O047                ,0020
               12
               13
               14
                                                         .O052
                                                         ,0056
                                                         .O060
                                                                              ,0021
                                                                              .O023
                                                                              ,0025
                                                                                                  I    TJ = .Junction Temperature
                                                                                                                                (“C)
                                                                                                                                                                                        1
               15                                        .O065                .O026
                                                                                                              Environment Factor “E                       -
       A+, =.00043(C) + +, for Segment Displays                                                        Environment                                                     “E
       A+, = .O0009 + .00017(C) + A DMe Array Displays
                                   ,
                                   o                                                                                 GB                                                1 .o
           C          a         Number of Characters                                                                 =F                                               2.0
           .
           A
           c
           ,          P
                                ,000043 for Displays with a
                                                          Logic Chip                                                 GM                                               8.0
                      =         0.0 for Displays without Logic Chip                                                  NS                                               5.0
          NOTE: The number of characters in a display is the                                                         NU                                             12
          number of characters contained a && sealed
                                      in
          padtage. For example, a 4 character display                                                                AIC                                              4.0
          comprising 4 separately packaged single characters
                                  be 6.0 character displays,
          mounted together would 4-0119                                                                              AIF
          not 1-four character display.
                                                                                                                     AUC               .                              6.0      .

                                                                                                                     AUF                                              8.0
                                     Quality Factor ’FQ           -
                                                                                                                     ARW                                            17
  I       Quality                                                         I     “A

          JANTXV                                                                                                     SF                                                  50
                                                                                0.7
          JANTX                                                                 1.o                                  MF                                               9.0
          JAN                                                                   2.4                                  ML                                             24
          Lower                                                                 5.5                                  CL                                           450
          Plastic                                                               8.0


                --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




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                                            .'    MIL-HDBK-217F                      RE    = 9999978 8[378758 b
                                                                                     MIL-HDBK-217F

                                                                                                         6.13           OPTOELECTRONICS, LASER DIODE                                                                                               í


                         SPECIFICATION                                                DESCRIPTION
                         MIL-S-19500                                                  Laser Diodes with Optical Flux Densities
                                                                                                                    <
                                                                                       3 MW/cm2 and Forward Current 25 amps

                                                         L, = hbRTAQnlXARp7cE Failuredl O6 Hours

                                       Base Failure Rate  - +,                                                      Forward Current Factor,
                                                                                                                                          1

                                 Laser Diode Type                                                           Forward Peak Current (Amps)                                            "I
                                                                                                                      .O50                                                        0.13
                            GaAdAI GaAs                                                                                .O75                                                       0.1 7
                                                                                                                       .1                                                         0.21
                            In GaAYln
                                    GaAsP                                                                              .5                                                         0.62
                                                                                                                .    1.0                                                          1.o
                                                                                                                     2.0                                                          1.6




                                                                                                                                                                                                 --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                                                                                                               3.0                                                2.1
                                         Temperature Factor    - nT                                                           4.0
                                                                                                                              5.0
                                                                                                                                                                                  2.6
                                                                                                                                                                                  3.0    .
                                                               %T                                                            10                                                   4.8
                                                                                                                             15                                                   6.3
                                    25                           1.o                                                         20                                                   7.7
                                    30                           1.3                                                         25                                                   8.9
                                    35                           1.7
                                    40                           2.1                                           Tc1 =          (ï)a68
                                    45                           2.7
                                    50                           3.3       -                                    I      =                         (Amps), I I 2 5
                                                                                                                              Forward Peak Current
                                    55                           4.1
                                    60                           5.1                                        NOTE: For Variable Current Sources, use the Initial
                                    65                           6.3                                        Current Value.
                                    70                           7.7
                                    75                           9.3
                                                                                                                               Application Factor X .A.
                                                                                                            Application                      Duty Cycle                            *A
                                                                       1                                                                        """""-                            4.4
                             '
                             T         exp(- 4635 (TJ   +! - g ))
                                                         273                                                Pulsed                              .    .I
                                                                                                                                                     .2
                                                                                                                                                                                   .32
                                                                                                                                                                                   .45
                             TJ =             Temperature
                                       Junction         ("C)                                                                                   .     .3                            .55       -
                                                                                                                                                     .4                            .63.
                                                                                                                                                     .5                            .71
                                                                                                                                                     .6                            .77
                                                                                                                                                     .7                            .a4
                                          Quality Factor- XQ                                                                                         .8                            .89
                                                                                                                                                     .9                       -    ,95
                     I       Quality                                I           nn     I                                                            1.o                  J        1.00

                            Hermetic Package                                   1.o                                  XA     = 4.4,    cw
                            Nonherrnetic with Facet Coating                    1.o                                  "A = Duty Cycle                        Pulsed
                                                                                                            NOTE: A duty cycle one in pulsed application
                                                                                                                                of
                            Nonhermetic without Facet Coating                  3.3                          represents the maximum amountit can be driven in
                                                                                                            a pulsed mode. This is different from continuous
                                                                                                            wave application whichwill not withstand pulsed
                                                                                                            operating levelson a cöntinuous basis.




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                                                 ~.

                                         MIL-HDBK-ZE7F R E               9999970 0670759 B W



                                                                   MIL-HDBK-217F


 6.13           OPTOELECTRONICS, LASER DIODE


                  Power Degradation Factor
                          -                      - ICE,                                            Environment
                Ratio P P s                                                         Environment
                                                           nP
                            0.00                           .so                                     GB
                             .O5                           .53                                     6,                                               2.0
                             .I o                          .56
                             .15                           ,4
                                                           59                                      GM                                               8.0




                                                                                                                                                                --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                             .20                             .63
                             .25                             .67                                   NS                                               5,O
                             .30                             .71                                                                                  12
                             .35                             .77                                   NU
                             AO                              .83                                                                                    4.0
         o                   .4S                           .91                                     AIC
                             .50                          1.o                                                                                       6.0
                             .55                          1.1                                      AIF
                             .60.   .,                    1.3                                      AUC                                              6.0
                             .65                          1.4
                             .70                          1.7                                      AUF                                              8.0
                             .75                          2.0
                             .ao                          2.5                                      ARW                                            17
                             .85                           .
                                                          33                                                                                             .50

                                                      -
                             .90                          50
                                                           .                                       SF                                                '




                             .95                          10                                                                                        9.0
                                                                                                   MF.
                                                                                                   ML                                             24

                                                                                                   CL                                          450


         PS             Rated
                            Optical Output
                                 Power                (mw)

         Pr =           RequiredOpticalPowerOutput        (mw)
      NOTE: Each laser diode must be replaced when
      power outputfalls to Pr for failure rate prediction to
      be valid.




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                                                  MIL-HDBK-217F              RE     m         9 9 9 9 9 7 6 0870760 4                               m


                                                                          MIL-HDBK-217F

                                                             6.1 4           SEMICONDUCTORS, DETERMINATION
                                                                      DISCRETE             TJ
 -
                            Ideally, device case temperatures should be determined from a detailed thermal analysis of the
                                                                  is
                            equipment. Device junction temperature then calculated with the following relationship:
                                                                           TJ = T c + OXP

                            where:
                                       TJ    =          Temperature
                                                 Junction         (“C)

                                       TC- =     Case Temperature (“C). If no thermal analysis exists, the default case
                                                 temperatures shownin Table 6-1 should be assumed.
                                       eJC =     Junction-to-Case Thermal Resistance (“Cm. Thisparametershouldbe




                                                                                                                                                                           --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                                 determined from vendor, military specification sheets or Tablewhichever is
                                                                                                              6-2,
                                                                                                         of
                                                 greater. It may alsobe estimated by taking the reciprocal the recommended
                                                 derating level. For example, a device derating recommendation of W/”C would
                                                                                                                   .16
                                                 result in a OJC of 6.25 OCM. If eJC cannot be determined assumea eJC value of
                                                 70”CM.
                                     . P     =        Worse Case Power
                                                 Device              Dissipation (W)

                            The ‘models are not applicable to devices at overstress conditions. I the calculated junction temperature
                                                                                                f
                            is greater than the maximum rated junction temperature on the MIL slash sheets or the vendor’s
                            specifications, whichever is smaller, then the device is overstressed and these models ARE NOT
                            APPLICABLE.



                                         Table 6-1:    Default Case Temperat-ures (TC) for All Environments

                                                         .     Environment                                  TC (“c)

                                                                     GB                                        35
                                                                     GF                                        45
                                                                     GM                                        50
                                                                     NS                                        45
                                                                     NU                                        50
                                                                     AIC                                       60
                                                                     AlF                                       60
                                                                     AUC .                                     75
                                                                     AUF                                       75
                                                                     ARW                                       60
                                                                     SF                                        35
                                                                     MF                                        50
                                                                     ML                                        60
                                                                     CL                                        45




                                                                                                                                                                    6-23
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                                                                                                       MIL-HDBK-217F

         6.1 4                SEMICONDUCTORS, DETERMINATION
                       DISCRETE             TJ


         Table 6-2:                                                          Approximate Junction-to-CaseThermalResistance                       (eJ c )       for Semiconductor                         t
                                                                                                                                                                                                         1
                                                                                          Devicesin VariousPackageSizes*                                                                                 .   c




              Package
            Type                                                                            eJC          eJC      Package
                                                                                                               Type

                                                                          TO-1                ?O                    TO-205AD                                        - 70
                                                                          TO-3                10                    TO-205AF                                         70
                                                                          TO-5                70                    T01220                                            5
                                                                          TO-8                70                    DO-4                                              5
                                                                          TO-9                70                    DO-5                                              5
                                                                          TO-1 2              70                    DO-7                                          -. 1o
                                                                          TO-18               70                    DO-8                                              5
                                                                          TO-28                5                    DO-9                                              5
                                                                          TO-33               70                    DO-13 .                                          10
                                                                                                                                                                      '



                                                                          TO-39               70                    DO-14                                             5
                                                                          TO-41               10                    DO-29                                            10
                                                                          TQ-44               70                    DO-35                                            10
                                                                          TO-46               70                    DO-41                                            10
                                                                          TO-52               70                    DO-45                                             5
                                                                          TO-53                5                    DO-204MB                                         70
                                                                          TO-57-               5                    DO-205AB                                          5
                                                                          TO-59                5   '                PA-42A,B                                         70
                       --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                                                                           TO-60               5                    PD-36C                                           70
                                                                           TO-61               5                    PD-50                                            70
                                                                           TO-63               5                    PD-77                                            70
                                                                           TO-66              10                    PD-180                                           70
                                                                           TO-71              70                    PD-319 .                                         70
                                                                           TO-72              70                    PD-262                                           70
                                                                           TO-83               5                    PD-975                                           70
                                                                         . TO-89              22                    PD-280                                           70
                                                                           TO-92              70                    PD-21 6                                          70             '


                                                                           TO-94               5                    PT-2G                                            70
                                                                           TO-99              70                    PT-GB    .                                       70
                                                                           TO-1 26-            5                    PH-1 3                                           70
                                                                           TO-127              5                    PH-1 6                                           70
                                                                          TO-204              10                    PH-56                                            70
                                                                          TO-204AA            10                    PY-58                                                 70
                                                                                                                    PY-373                                                90


          'When available, estimates must be based miliary specification sheetor vendor values, whichever Jc
                                                   on                                                   8
          s higher.




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                                                                                  MIL-HDBK-217F           RE     m 9979970                         00707b2 8                     m


                                                                                                   MIL-HDBK-217F

                                                                                                     6.1 5 DISCRETE             EXAMPLE
                                                                                                                  SEMICONDUCTORS,
I -
                                 Example
                                           Given:                        Silicon dual transistor (complementary), JAN grade, rated for 0.25 W at 25%, one side
                                                                         only, and 0.35 W at 25"C, both sides, with Tmax = 2OO0C, operating in linear service at
                                                                         55°C case temperature in a sheltered naval environment. Side one, NPN, operating at
                                                                         0.1 W and 50 percent of rated voltage and side two, PNP, operating at 0.05 W and 30
                                                                         percent of rated voltage. The device operates at less than 200MHz.
                                 Since the device is a bipolar dual transistor operating at low frequency (c200 MHz), it falls into the
                                 Transistor, Low Frequency, Bipolar Group and the appropriate model is given in Section 6.3. Since the
                                                                                                                             sum them
                                 device is a dual device, it is necessary to compute the failure rate each side separately and
                                                                                                    of
                                 together. Also, since 0JJc is unknown, eJC = 70°C/W will be assumed.

                                 Based on the given information, the following model factors are determined from the appropriate tables
                                 shown In Section 6.3.

                                                                                xb 3      ,00074     -

                                                                                "T1 =     2.2                         Side 1, TJ =TC + 0Jc P = 55 + 70(.1) = 62°C
                                                                                "T2 =     2.1                         Side 2, TJ = 55 + 70(.05) = 59°C
                                                                                "A  =     1.5
                                                                                XR  =     .68                            equation with
                                                                                                                      Using shown             nR table, P = .35W
                                                                                                                                                         ,
                                                                                "st =     .21                                      Stress
                                                                                                                      Side 1,50% Voltage
                                                                                "s2 =     . l
                                                                                            I                         Side 2,30% Voltage Stress.
                                                                                ZQ    =   2.4
                                                                                "E    =   9

                                                                                SIDE 1                         SIDE 2-
                                                              hp           =   % "T1 "A "R "SI ".Q XE -b % "T2 "A ".S2"Q "E
                                                              hp           =    . 0 7 ) 2 2 ( . ) . 8 ( 2 ) 2 4 (+)
                                                                               ( 0 0 4 ( . ) 1 5 ( 6 ) . 1 ( . ) 9 (.00074)(2.1)(1s)(.68)(.11)(2.4)(9)
                                                                           =   .O1 1 Failures/lO6 Hours




                                                                                                                                                                                            6-25
                       --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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                                       MIL-HDBK-217F          NOTICE       L RE      = 9999970 0076L0.5 2 W
                                                                       MIL-HDBK-217F


                                                                 7.1     TUBES, ALL TYPES EXCEPT TWT AND MAGNETRON

                                                                        DESCRIPTION
                                                                        All Types Except Traveling Wave Tubes and Magnetrons.
                                                                        Includes Receivers, CRT, Thyratron, Crossed Field Amplifier,
                                                                        Pulsed Gridded, Transmitting, Vidicons, Twystron, Pulsed
                                                                        Klystron, CW Klystron

                                                             +, hbxLzE Failures/106 Hours
                                                              =

                                                                  Base Failure Rate              -
                                                    (Includes Both Randorn and Wearout Failures)
    Type                      Tube                            I                      Tube Type
                          Receiver                                             Klystron, Low Power,
                           Tetrode,
                           Pentode
                            Triode,                                  5 .O           (e.9. Local Oscillator)                    YU
ectifier                    Power                                   10
                          CRT                                        9.6       Klystron, Continuous Wave4
                          Thyratron                                 50            3K3000LQ                                      9.0
                          Crossed Field Amplifier                                 3K50000LF                                    54
                            QK681                                  260            3K21OOOOLQ                                  150
                            SFD261                                 150            3KM300LA                                     64
                          Pulsed Gridded                                          3KM3000LA                                    19
                                                                                  3KM50000PA                                  110
                     I      2041
                            6952
                            7835 140
                                                                 I 140
                                                                   390
                                                                     - "
                                                                                  3KM50000PA1
                                                                                  3KM50000PA2
                                                                                                                              120
                                                                                                                              150
                          Transmitting                                            4K3CC                                       61 O
                            Triode,
                                 Peak Pwr. I 2 0 0   KW.
                             Pwr. 2 2KW, Freq. I 200 MHz
                                                        Ava.        75            4K3SK
                                                                                  4K50000LQ
                                                                                                                               29
                                                                                                                               30
                            Tetrode & Pentode, Peak Pwr.           1O0            4KM50LB                                      28
                             I200 KW, Avg. Powers 2KW,                            4KM50LC                                      15
                             Freq. I 200 KW                                       4KM50SJ                                      38
                                                                                  4KM50SK                                      37
                          Vidicon                                                 4KM3000LR                                   140
                            Antimony Trisulfide(Sb&)                              4KM50000LQ                                   79
                                                                                  4KM50000LR                                   57
                             Photoconductive Material                             4KM170000LA
                                                                                        '                                      15
                            Silicon Diode Array Photoconductive




                                                                                                                                                                           --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                                                                  8824                                        130
                             Material                         I     48            8825                                        120
                          Twystron                                                8826                                        280
                      I     VA 1 44
                            VA145E
                            VA145H
                                                                 I 850
                                                                   450
                                                                   490
                                                                                  VA800 E
                                                                                  VA853
                                                                                  VA8568
                                                                                                                               70
                                                                                                                              220
                                                                                                                               65
                            VA91 3A                                230            VA888E                                      230
                          Klystron, Pulsed*
                            ~KMP~OOOOLF                             43
                            8568                                   230            Ifthe CW Klystron of interest is not listedabove,
                            L3035                                   66          use the Alternate Klystron ly, Table on the
                                                                                                  CW
                            L3250                                   69          following page.
                            L3403                                   93
                            SAC42A                                 1O0
                            VA842                                   18
                            2501OA                                 150
                            ZM3038A                                190
                             I the pulsed Klystron interest is not listedabove,
                              f                  of
                                                            hb
                           use the Alternate Pulsed Klystron Table on
                           the following page.


                                                                                                                                                                    7- 1

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                                                  MIL-HDBK-217F                         NOTICE       L RE I 9 9 7 9 7 7 0 0 0 7 6 3 0 6 Y

                                                                                                    MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                                                      NOTICE 1

                  7.1                   ALL    EXCEPT AND
                                    TUBES, TYPES    TWT MAGNETRON


                    Altern; :e* Base Failure Rate for Pulsed Klystrons - A                                                                        Learning Factor - nL

                   Po                     .2          .4             .6   .8
                                                                               F(GHz)
                                                                                 1.0    2.0   4.0    6.0          I                   T (years)                        1
                        .o 1            16          16             16     16      16 16 16
                                                                                   16                                                                                                        10
                        -30             16          16             17     17      17 20 18           21
                       .80              16          17             17     18      18 25 21           30
                      1,o               17          17             18     18      19 2822            34
                     3.0                18          20             21     23      25    34     51
                    5.0                 19          22             25     28      31    45     75
                    8.0                 21          25             30     35      40    63    110
                   10                   22          28             34     40      45    75
                   25                   31          45             60     75      90 160                                          XL =                    1
                                                                                                                                                 10(T)-2.1,            ITS3
                                                                                                                                     =           10,    T <1
                            hb =              2.94(F)(P) + 16                                                                             =      1,T23

                            F       =         OperatingFrequency in GHz, 0.2 5 F I 6                               I              T       =      Number of Years sinceIntroduction
                            P       =         PeakOutputPowerin MW, .O1 IP s 25 and                                I                             to Field Use
                                              P I490 F-2*95
                      'See previous page for other Klystron Base Failure                                                                      Environment Factor - xE
                        Rates.
                                                                                                                           Environment                                                         "E
                                                                                                                                          GB                                                        .50
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 .o
                     Alternate* Base Failure Rate for CW Klystrons -                                 +,                                   GF
                                                                                                                                                                                               14
                                                        F(MHz)                                                                            GM
                                        300 500 800 1000
                                                       2000    4000 6000 8000                                                                                                                     8 .O
                                                                                                                                          NS
                       o. 1             30             31          33     34      30 47       57     66                                   NU                                                  24
                       1.o              31             32          33     34      39 48       57     66
                       3.0              32             33          34     35      40 58
                                                                                     49                                                   AIC                                                     5 .O
                      5.0               33             34          35     36      41 50
                      8.0               34
                                         3530
                                          37                                      42                                                      AIF                                                     8.0
                     10                 35             30
                                                        39
                                                       36                         43                                                                                                              6 .O
                     30                 45
                                         46                        48     49                                                              AUC
                     50                 55             56          58     59                                                                                                                   12
                    80                  70             71          73                                                                     *UF
                   1O0                  80             01                                                                                                                                     40
                                                                                                                                          ARW
                                                                                                                                                                                                    -20
                            +,=              0.5P + .0046F                + 29                                                            SF
                                                                                                                                                                                              22
                                                                                                                                          MF
                            P       =                                 W
                                             Average Output Power in K , 0.1 IP 4 100
                                                                                                                                          ML                                                  57
                                             and P s 8.0(1O)6(F)-1*7
                            F      =         Operating
                                                     Frequencyin MHz,                                                                     CL                                                 1O00
                                             300SF18000

                     'See previous pagefor other Klystron Base Failure
                       Rates.




                 7-2                                                                                                                Supersedes page 7-2 of Revision F
                       --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---



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                                                C N
                                    MIL-HDBK-217F HG OTICE                                                    2                   777q770 L711%?044 004
                                                                                                          MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                                                             NOTICE 2

                                                                                                                                                          7.2        TUBES, TRAVELING WAVE

                                                                                                             DESCRIPTION
                                                                                                             Traveling Wave Tubes

                                                                                                    h, = hbzE Failures/106 Hours


                                                   Base Failure Rate                       -                                                                 Environment Factor- nc
                                                                                                                                                                                  L



                  4 (W)
        1410 8 6Power2 1 .1
                                                                        Frequency (GHz)
                                                                                                              18
                                                                                                                                          Environment
                                                                                                                                                                                                     I    "E
                                                                                                                                                       GB                                                      .5
                               10         11          12        13          16        19       24 29    42   61
                              1O0         11          12        13          16        20       24 29    42   61                                        GF                                                 1.5
                              500         11          12        13          16        20       24 29    42   61                                                                                           7.0
                             1O00         11          12        13          16        20       24 29    42   62                                        GM
                             3000         11          12        14          17        20       24 29    43   63                                                                                           3.0
                             5000         12          13        14          17        20       25 30    44   64                                        NS
                             8000         12          13        14          17        21       26 31    45   66                                                                                          10
                            1O000         12          13        15          18        22       26 32    46   68                                        NU
                            15000         13          14        15          19        23       27 33    49   71                                                                                           5.0
                                                                                                                                                       AIC

                            -
                            20000         14          15        16          20        24       29 35    51   75
                            30000         15          16        18          22        26       32 39    56   83                                        AIF                                                7.0
                            40000         17          18        20          24        29       35 43    62   91
                                                                                                                                                       AUC                                                6.0

                              h"           ll(l.ooool)p (1.1)F
                                                                                                                                                       AUF                                                9.0
                              P     5      Rated Power in Watts (Peak, if Pulsed),                                                                     ARW                                               20
                                           .O01 I P I40,OOO                                                                                                                                                    .O5
                                                                                                                                                       SF
                              F     a      Operating Frequencyin GHz, .1 5 F < 18                                                                                                                         11
                                                                                                                                                       MF
                              If the operating frequency a band, ortwo different
                                                       is                                                                                              ML                                                33
                                                              the
                              values, use the geometric mean of end point
                              frequencies when using table.                                                                                            CI                                                500




                            Supersedes page 7-3 of Revision F                                                                                                                                                   7-3
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               7.3           MAGNETRON
                         TUBES,

                                                                                                       DESCRIPTION
                                                                                                       Magnetrons, Pulsed and Continuous Wave (CW)

                                                                          h,       = hbxUxCxEFailures/106 Hours


                                                                                                                      -
                                                                                                      Base Failure Rate
           r                    I                                                                                Frequency (GHz)                                                                                   1
          P(MW)      .1     .5    1 30 5 20 10                                                                       . 40 .    .
                                                                                                                               50                    60            70             80             90          100
             7.6
7 41 24 .o1 4.6 1.4
             10                    230 34
            .O5 6.3 1.9 30028026056 210180150120 93
              12
110 64 39 .1 7.2 2.2
              15
130 80 48 .3 9.0 2.8
             17       410              54
            .5 10 3.1 370 330 290 240 200 150 89                                                                                                                                                440          480
 230 100 62 19 11 3.5
0 170      1                                                                                                                                                                                      O          550
           3        4.424 14           77
                  680630580530470410350280210130
           5        4.9 26 16           31 140
                                       85 230                                                                     520 390
                                                                                                                580 460
                                                                                                                  O                                                              640 760
                                                                                                                                                                                       700

                                                                                                                    I
                                                                                                                    I

                Pulsed
                     Magnetrons:
                     hb =            I~(F)*'~
                                           (P)-2o
                                                                                                                                          (Rated
                                                                                                                               CW Magnetrons Power
                                                                                                                                                        %=I8
                                                                                                                                                                                               5 KW):
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   1
                     F    =          Operating Frequency in GHz, .15 F s 100




                                                 -
                               Utillization Factor xu                                                                                Environment Factor- nE
                Utilization (Radiate Hours/
                      Filament
                   Hours)                                         I                     RI I                1               Environment

                                                                                                                                           GB
                                                                                                                                                                                                  "E
                                                                                                                                                                                                 1.o
                               o .o                                                      .44
                                                                                                                                                                                                 2.0
                               0.1                                                       .50                                               GF
                               o .2                                                      .55
                                                                                                                                           GM                                                    4.0
                               0.3                                                       .61
                               O-4                                                       .66                                               NS                                                  15
                               O .5                                                      .72
                               0.6                                                       .78                                               NU                                                  47
                               O.7                                                       .83                                                                                                   10
                               0.8                                                       .89                                               AIC
                               o .9                                                      .94                                               AIF                                                 16

                                                                                                                                           %C                                                  12

                     RU =            0.44 + 0.56R                                                                                          AUF                                                 23

                                                                                                                                           ARW                                                 80
                     R     =                Hours/Filament
                                      Radiate            Hours
                                                                                                                                           SF                                                          .50

                           Construction Factor- "C                                                                                         MF                                                  43
                                                                                                            a

                Construction                                                                                                               ML                                               133
                                                                                             "C
                                                                                                                                           CL                                             2000
                CW (Rated Power 5 KW)
                                 c                                                         1.o
                Coaxial Pulsed                                                             1.o
                Conventional Pulsed                                                        5.4




               7-4                                  --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                       !
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                                                       MIL-HDBK-217F RE                                             9 9 9 9 9 7 0 00707b7 7                          -   ,




                                                                         MIL-HDBK-217F

                                                                                                                       8 .O          LASERS, INTRODUCTION

                                                                  in
                            The models and failure rates presented this section apply to Jaserpeculia-, ¡.e.,         those items
                                                                                 In
                            wherein the lasing action is generated and controlled.addition to laser peculiar items, there are other
                            assemblies used with lasers that contain electronic parts and mechanical devices (pumps, valves, hoses,
                                                   for                                                           as
                            etc.). The failure rates these parts should be determined with the same proceduresused for other
                                                             in
                            electronic and mechanical devices the equipment or system of which the laser is a part.
                            The laser failure rate models have been developed at the "functional," rather than "piece part" level
                            because the available data were not sufficient for "piece part" model development. Nevertheless, the
                            laser functional models are included in this Handbook in the interest of completeness. These laser
                            models will be revisedto include piece part models and other laser types when the data become available.
                            Because each laser familycan be designed using a variety of approaches, the failure rate modelshave
                            been structuredon three basic laser functions which are common to most laser families, differ in
                                                                                                                 but may
                                                       of
                            the hardware implementation a givenfunction. These functions are the lasing media, the laser pumping
                            mechanism (or pump), and the coupling method.
                            Examples of media-related hardware and reliability influencing factors are the solid state rod, gas, gas
                            pressure,vacuumintegrity,gasmix,outgassing,andtubediameter.The                 electrical discharge,the
                                                                       of
                            flashlamp, and energy level are examples pump-related hardware and reliability influencing factors. The
                            coupling function reliability influencing factors are the switch, mirrors, windows, crystals, substrates,
                                                                                    "Q"
                            coatings, and levelof dust protection provided,
                            Some of the laser models require the number                                                    An
                                                                         otactive optical surfaces as an input parameter. active
                            optical surfaceis one with which the laser energy (or beam) interacts. Internally reflecting surfaces are not
                            cwnted. Figure 8-1 below illustrates examples of active optical surfaces and count.   .




                                                   Flgure 8-1:    Examples of Active Optical
                                                                                           Surfaces


                                                                  --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                                                                                                                                                             8- 1
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                              .        M I L = H D B K = 2 L 7 F RE m 9999970 0070768 9 m


                                                          MIL-HDBK-21I F


   8.1                         ARGON
              LASERS, HELIUM AND

                                                            DESCRIPTION
                                                           ‘Helium Neon Lasers
                                                            Helium Cadmium Lasers
                                                            Argon Lasers

                                            hp = XMEDIA‘CE   +   ~ O U P L I N G ~Failures/l O6
                                                                                  E                                Hours

               Lasing Media Failure Rate     -
                                        AMEDIA                                               Environment
                                                                                      Environment
          Type        .                 I        AMEDIA                                                                                                  “E

                                                                                                    =B                                                    .30
                                                                                                    =F                                                   1 .o

                                                                                                    GM.                                                  4.0

                                                                                                    NS                                                   3.0
                                                                                                    NU                                                   4.0

                                                                                                    AIC                                                  4.0

                                                                                                    AIF                                                  6.0

               Coupling FailureRate - b u P L I N G                                                  AUC                                                 ?,O
                                                                                                     AUF                                                 9.0

                                                                                                     ARW                                                 5.0
           Helium
                                                                                                     SF                                                   .1 o
           Argon
                                        I          6
                                                                                                     MF                                                  3.0
                                                                                                                                                         8.0
                                                                                                                                                                 ’




                                                                                                     ML
       NOTE: The predominant argon laser failure                                                                                                         NIA
                                                                                                     CL
                                           (as
       mechanism is related to the gas media
       reflected in AMEDIA; however, when the
       tube is refilled periodically (preventive
       maintenance) the mirrors (as part   of
       ~OUPLING)       can be expectedto deteriorate
       after approximately104 hours of operationif
       in contactwith the discharge region.
       ~OU~LING        is negligible for helium lasers.




    8-2                                                                                                --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




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                                                         MIL-HDBK-ZL7F                         RE                99999700070769                                  O


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    II
                                                                                        MIL-HDBK-217F

                                                                                                             8.2         LASERS,, CARBON DIOXIDE, SEALED

                                                                                            DESCRIPTION
                                                                                                                Wave Lasers
                                                                                            CO2 Sealed Continuous


                                                         h               ~        =n;onBnE +~ nOsnE Failures/106Hours
                                                                                       h     10
                                                                                                ~  ~     ~    ~
                                                      h,,,,,
                              Lasing Media Failure Rate          -       ...    ..
                                                                                .
                                                                                                                                                   -
                                                                                                                              Optical Surface Factor "0s
                                                                                                                                               I "OS


                                                                                                                                                                                             1
                                                                             "




                                                                                                                          Optical
                                                                                                                       Active Surfaces
                            Tube Current (mA)                I                 AMEDIA
                                           10                                   240                                                      1                                       1.
                                           20                                   930
                                           30                                  1620                                                      2                                       2
                                           40                                  2310     .
                                           50   0                              3000
                                       1 O0                                    6450                                       nos       = Number of Active Optical Surfaces
                                       150                               . .9900
                                                                                                                          NOTE: Only active optical surfaces are
                              AMEDIA                -
                                           = 69(l) 4 0                                                                    counted. An active optical surface is one with




                                                                                                                                                                                                  --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                                                                                                          which the laser energy or beam interacts.
                              I = Tube Current (mA), 1O s I 5 150                                                         Internally reflecting surfaces are not counted.
                                                                                                                          See Figure 8-1 for examples on determining the
                                                                                                                          number of optical surfaces.
                                  Gas Overfill Factor "0
                                                     =
                            CO2 Overfill Percent (%)         I                   "O
                                                      I                                                                          Environment Factor- zC
                                       O                             *         1.0                                        Environment
                                       25                                        .75                                                     GB
                                                                                                                                         GF
                                                                                                                                         GM
                              n = 1 - .O1 ("hOverfill)
                               o
                                                                                                                                .        NS
                            Overfill percentis based onthe percent increase                                                              NU
                            over the optimum  CO2 partial pressure which is
                                                 of
                            normally in the range 1.5 to 3 Torr (1 Torr = 1                                                              AIC
                            m m Hg Pressure) for most sealed lasers.
                                                             C02                                                                         AIF
                                                                                                                                         AUC




                                                                                                                                                                                 i
                                       Ballast Factor    - XB                                                                            AUF
                            Percent of Ballast                                                                                           ARW
                            Volumetric Increase                                  "6
.                                                                                                                                        SF
                                            O                                  1 .o                                                      MF
                                           50                                    .58
                                       1 O0                                      .33                                                     ML
                                       150                                       .19                                                     C,                                      .    8.0
                                                                                                                                                                                      NIA




                                                                                                                                                                                            8-3
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                                  MIL-HDBK-217F              RE       999997[3 0070770 7



                                                       MIL-HDBK-217F


 8.3         LASERS, CARBON DIOXIDE, FLOWING
                                                                                                                                                                                                              :   x


                                                            DESCRIPTION
                                                            CO2 Flowing Lasers

                                            hp = ~ C O U P L I N G ~ OE Failures/lO6 Hours
                                                                     II:
                                                                         S


              Coupling Failure Rate- XWUPLING                                                  Environment Factor xc                -   L


                                                                                Environment
                                         UPL LING                                                                                               “E
                                                                                               GB                                                  -30

                                                                                               GF .                                             1 .o
                    1.o                     300                                                                                                 4.0
                                                                                               GM




                                                                                                                                                            --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                                                                               NS                                               3.0
                                                                                               NU                                               4.0
             P = Average Power CSutputin M .O1 S P I l .D
                                          ,                                             ’



                                                                                               AIC                                              4.0
      Beyond the1KW range other glass failure mechanisms
                                                                                               AIF                                              6.0
                                      XCOU~L~NG
     begin to predominate and alter the           values.
     It should also be noted that flowing laser optical
                                CO2                                                            AUC                                              7.0
     devices are the primary source of failure occurrence.                                     AUF .                                            9.0
     A tailored optical cleaning preventive maintenance                                                                                         5.0
                                                                                               ARW
     program on optic devices greatly extends laser life.
                                                                                               SF                                                  .1o

                                                                                               MF                                               3.0
                                                                                               ML                                               8.0
                 Optical Surface Factor %OS -                                                                                                  NIA
                                                                                               CL
         Active Optical Surfaces        Inos
                            1                     1

                            2                     2


         nos = Number of Active Optical Surfaces

         NOTE: Only active optical surfaces are counted.
         An active optical surface is one which the laser
                                        with
         energy or beam interacts. Internally reflecting
         surfaces are not counted. See Figure 8-1 for
         examples on determining the number of optical
         surfaces.




  8-4
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                                                                                                                                                        ~    ~   ~~~~~~




                                                        MIL-HDBK-237F               RE     m        9999970 070773
                                                                                                           0                                                     9        m


                                                                              MIL-HDBK-217F


                                                                              8.4                                  AND
                                                                                         LASERS, SOLID STATE, ND:YAG                                                                     RUBY ROD

                                                                               DESCRIPTION
                                                                               Neodymium-Yttrium-Aluminum-Gamet (ND:YAG) Rod Lasers
                                                                               Ruby Rod Lasers


                                                      X,    PUMP ~ E D I A 16.3 z
                                                             (          + +                              ~      znE Failures/l O6
                                                                                                                   ~ ~ )                                         Hours
                                      Pump Pulse Failure Rate - h p u ~ p                                         Pump Pulse Failure Rate h p " ~ p                           -
                                             (Xenon Flashlamps)

                            The formula
                            empirical used               to determine                '             The empirical
                                                                                                              formula to
                                                                                                                    used       for
                                                                                                                       determine
                            (Failures/l06 Hours) for Xenon lamps is:                               Krypton lamp is:


                                                                                                        +
                                                                                                        ~
                                                                                                        ,
                                                                                                        P
                                                                                                        u              is the failure rate contributionof the krypton
                                                                                                                       flashlamp or flashtube. The flashlamps
                                                                                                                       evaluted herein are the continuous wave    (CW)
                                       p                             of
                            l c p ~ ~is the failure rate contribution the Xenon                                        type and are most widely used for commercial
                                     flashlamp or flashtube. The flashlamps                                            solid state applications. They are approx-
                                     evaluated herein are linear types used for                                        imately 7mm in diameter and5 to 6 inches long,
                                     military solid state laser systems. Typical
                                     default model parameters are given below.                          P                   average powerkilowatts.
                                                                                                                       is the     input in        Default
                                                                                                                       value: P = 4.
                            PPS         is therepetitionpulserate in pulsesper
                                  *     second. Typicalvaluesrangebetween1and                           L                              or        arc
                                                                                                                       is the flashlamp flashtube lengthin
                                        20 pulses per second.                                                          inches. Default value: L = 2.

                            Ej          is the flashlamp or flashtube energy
                                                                      input     per                      m
                                                                                                        z L            isthecoolingfactordue to variouscooling                                 '

                                        pulse, in joules. Its value is determined from                                 media immediately surrounding the flashlamp
                                        the actual or design Input energy. For values
                                        less than30 joules, use Ej = 30. Default                                       or flashtube. z c m ~ = 1 for any air or inert gas
                                        value: E 40.                                                                  . cooling,         zmt                = .1 .for all liquid designs.
                                                i'
                                                                                                                       Default value: zCmL = .1, liquid cooled.
                            is
                             the       or
                            d flashlampflashtube      diameter,
                                                 inside
                                     in millimeters. Default value: d = 4.
                            L           is ttie flashlanip flashtube length
                                                         or        arc         in                                       Media Failure Räte - AMEDIA
                                        inches. Defautt value: L = 2.                               Laser Type.                                                           .       &MEDIA
                            t                truncated width
                                        is the       pulse           in microseconds.
                                        Use t= 1O0 microseconds for any truncated                   ND:YAG                                                                           O
                                        pulse width exceeding 100 microseconds. FOI
                                        shorter duration pulses, pulse width to be
                                        measured at1O percent of the maximum
                                                                             is                     Ruby                                           I         (3600) (PPS) [43.5 F2*52]
                                        current amplitude. Default value: t I 100.
                                                                                               1    PPS           -                of
                                                                                                                           is numberpulses
                                                                                                                            the                                               per
                                                                                                                                                                                second
                                                                                                                                                                                                   I
                            WOOL        is the cooling factor due to various cooling
                                        media immediately surrounding the flashlamp
                                                                                                    F             -        is the energydensity in Joulesper
                                                                                                                           cm.2/pulse over the cross-sectional   area
                                        or flashtube. zCwL I1.O for any air or inert                                       of the laser beam, whichis nominally
                                        gas cooling. z c m ~ .1 for all liquid cooled                                      equivalent to the cross-sectional area of
                                                                                                                           the laser rod, andits value is determined
                                        designs. Default value: nCmL = .1 , liquid                                                                            of
                                                                                                                           from the actual design parameter the
                                        cooled.                                                                            laser rod utilized.

                                                                                               I    NOTE: hEDlA is negligible for ND:YAG lasers.
                                                                                                                                                                                                   I
                                                                                                                       --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                                                                                                                                                                             8-5
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                                                                        MIL-HDBK-2L7F    RE E 9 9 9 9 9 7 0 8 7 0 7 7 2
                                                                                                           0                                      O E




                                                                                MIL-HDBK-217F

 8.4           LASERS, SOLID STATE,   AND ROD
                                 ND:YAG RUBY

                                                                                                      Environment Factor xE                -
                                                                                nc            Environment                   "E

    Rigorous cleanliness procedures                                              1                      'GB                                            .30
    and trained maintenance
    personnel. Belbws providedovw                                                                       GF                                           1 .o
    optical train,                                                                                 .%A                                               4.0
    Minimal procau&r duhg o o i g  p nn ,                                       30                      NS                                           3.0
    maintenaco, r o p a u . urd tosting.
    Bdbm pt0vid.d ovor opticaltnin.                                                                     NU                                           4.0
    Minimalpr.cuttionr during op.ning,
    maintenance, ropair, md tuting. No
                                                                                80                      *IC                                         4.0
    belbm providd v o r opticrl tmin.                                                                   +F                                        . 6.0

                                                                                                        AUC                                          7.0
                                                                                                                                                     9.0
                                                                                                        ARW                                          5.0
                                                                                                        SF                                              .1o
                                                                                                        MF                                           3.0
                                                                                                        ML                                           8.0
                  --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                                                                                                        CL                                          NIA




                                                                                     I
                                                                    1       1

                                                                    2       2




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                                                                                MIL-HDBK-217F            CHG NOTICE 2                         9999770 0397046 987

                                                                                                                       MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                                                                          NOTICE 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                    9.1           RESISTORS



                                                                                                           'P = 'bzTRP        S QR E Failures/106 Hours
                                                                                                                             X X:



                                                                                                                                                                                                        XT Table           ns Table
                                                                        Resistor Style   ;pecification                       Description
                                                                                            MIL-R-                                                                                       %                Use                Use
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Column:            Column:
                                                                       RC                  11            Resistor, Fixed, Composition (Insulated)                                      .o017               1                  2
                                                                       RCR                 39008         Resistor, Fixed, Composition (Insulated) Est. Rel.                            .o017                      1            2
                                                                       RL                  22684         Resistor, Fixed, Film, Insulated                                              .O037                  2                1
                                                                       RLR                 39017         Resistor, Fixed, Film (Insulated), Est. Rel.                                  .O037                      2             1
                                                                       RN (R, C or N)      551 82        Resistor, Fixed, Film, Established Reliability                                .O037                      2             1
                                                                       RM                  55342         Resistor, Fixed, Film, Chip, Established Reliability                          .O037                      2             1
                                                                       RN                   10509        Resistor, Fixed Film (High Stability)                                         .O037                  2                 1
                                                                       RD                   11804        Resistor, Fixed, Film (Power Type)                                            .O037           NIA,           =1        1

                                                                       RZ                   8340 1       Resistor Networks, Fixed, Film                                                .o01 9                     1        VIA, X s = 1

                                                                       RB                   93           Resistor, Fixed, Wirewound (Accurate)                                         .O024                      2             1
                                                                       RB R                 39005        Resistor, Fixed, Wirewound (Accurate) Est. Rel.                               .O024                      2             1
                                                                       RW                   26           Resistor, Fixed, Wirewound (Power Type)                                       .O024                      2             2
                                                                       RWR                  39007                                                   Rel.
                                                                                                         Resistor, Fixed, Wirewound (Power Type) Est.                                  .O024                      2             2
                                                                       RE                   18546        Resistor, Fixed, Wirewound (Power Type, Chassis                               .O024                      2            2
                                                                                                         Mounted)
                     --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                                                                       RE R                 39009        Resistor, Fixed, Wirewound (Power Type, Chassis                               .O024                      2             2
                                                                                                         Mounted) Est. Rel.
                                                                       RTH                  23648        Thermistor, (Thermally Sensitive Resistor),                                   .o019           NIA, XT = 1 NIA, XS = 1
                                                                                                         Insulated
                                                                       RT                   27208        Resistor, Variable, Wirewound (Lead Screw                                     .O024                      2             1
                                                                                                         Activated)
                                                                       RTR                  39015        Resistor, Variable, Wirewound (Lead Screw                                     .O024                      2             1
                                                                                                         Activated), Established Reliability
                                                                       RR                   1 2934       Resistor, Variable, Wirewound, Precision                                      ,0024                      2             1
                                                                       RA                   19           Resistor, Variable, Wirewound (Low Operating                                  .O024                      1             1
                                                                                                         Temperature)
                                                                       RK                   39002        Resistor, Variable, Wirewound, Semi-Precision                                 .O024                      1             1
                                                                       RP                   22           Resistor, Wirewound, Power Type                                               .O024                      2             1
                                                                       RJ                   22097        Resistor, Variable, Nonwirewound                                              .O037                      2             1
                                                                       RJ R                 39035        Resistor, Variable, Nonwirewound Est. Rel.                                    .O037                      2             1
                                                                       RV                   94           Resistor, Variable, Composition                                               .O037                      2             1
                                                                       RQ                   39023        Resistor, Variable, Nonwirewound, Precision                                   .O037                      1             1
                                                                       RV C                 23285        Resistor, Variable, Nonwirewound                                              .O037                      1             1




                                                                       Supersedes Section 9.0 - 9.17 of Revision F                                                                                                            9-1
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                               flIL-HDBK-ZL7F                  CHG N O T I C E 2                                     9 9 9 9 9 7 0 0197047 813


                                                                                     MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                                        NOTICE 2


            9.1             RESISTORS


                               Temperature Factor       - XT                                                                             Power Factor- XP
                     TW)             Column 1                     Column 2                                Power Dissipation (Watts)                                          "P
                     20                  .88                            .95                                                     .o01                                        .o68
                     30                 1.1                           1.1                                                       .o1                                          .i
                                                                                                                                                                              7
                     40                 1.5                            .
                                                                      12                                                        .13                                          .44
                     50                 1.8                           1.3                                                       .25                                          .5a
                     60                 2.3                           1.4                                                       .50                                          .76
                     70                 2.8                           1.5                                                       .75                                          .89
                     ao                 3.4                           1.6                                                     1.o                                            1.o
                     90                 4O
                                         .                            1.7                                                     2.0                                            1.3
                     1 O0               4.8                           1.9                                                     30
                                                                                                                               .                                             1.5
                     110                5.6                           2.0                                                     40
                                                                                                                               .                                             1.7
                     120                6.6                           2.1                                                     5.0                                            1.9
                     130                7.6                           2.3                                                   10                                              2.5
                     140                8.7                           2.4                                                   25                                              3.5
        -            150             10                               2.5                                                   50                                              4.6
                                                                                                                          1O0                                               6.0
                                  -Ea             1
                       exP
        I       nT            8.617 x 10-                                                                                 150                                               7.1

            Column 1: Ea = .2                                                                                np = (Power D i s ~ i p a t i o n ) . ~ ~
            Column 2: Ea = .O8

            T   PResistor Case Temperature. Can be.approximated
                as ambient component temperature for low
                power dissipation non-power type resistors.

            NOTE: 'CTvalues shown should only be used up to
                  the temperature ratingof the device. For
                  devices with ratings higher than 150°C, use
                  the equation to determine x,-.




            9-2                                                                                   Supersedes page Section 9.0 - 9.17 of Revision F
                                                --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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                                     MIL-HDBK-217F            CHG N O T I C E 2                                9999970 0397048 7 5 T

                                                                                         MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                                               NOTICE 2

                                                                                                                                                                        9.1      RESISTORS

                                             Power Stress FactorI  -       C ~                                                Environment Factor- IC€
                                                                                                                      Environment                                                  ICE
                            Power Stress           Column 1                Column 2




                                                                                                                                                                                                --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                                                                                                                     GB                                            1 .o
                                  .1                  .79                          ‘66
                                                                                                                                     GF                                            4.0
                                   .2                 .88                          .81
                                                                                                                                     GM                                           16
                                   .3                 .99                      1.o
                                                                                                                                     NS                                           12
                                   .4               1.1                        1.2
                                                                                                                                     NU                                           42
                            1.5   .5                1.2
                            1.8    .6               1.4                                                                                                                           18

                                   .7               1.5                        2.3                                                   AIF                                          23

                            2.8 .8                  1.7                                                                              AUC                                          31

                                   .-
                                   .cl         I    1.9            I           3.4                                                   AUF                                          43
                                                                                                                                     ARW                                          63
                             Column 1 : zs = .71e1.1( S )                                                                                                                               .50
                                                                                                                                     SF
                                                                                                                                     MF                                           37

                                                                                                                                     ML                                           87
                                     Actual Power Dissipation                                                                        CL                                          1728
                             S =
                                          Rated Power


                                               Quality Factor- I       C   ~

                                     Quality                                   I         ICQ
                             Established Reliability Styles
                                     S
                                         R
                                                                               I     0.1
                                                                                         .O3


                                         P                                           0.3
                                         M                                           1.o

                             Non-Established Reliability
                             Resistors (Most Two-Letter Styles)                      3.0

                             Commercial or Unknown Screening
                             Level                                                  10

                             NOTE: Established reliability styles are failure
                             rate graded(S, R, P, M) based on life testing
                             defined in the applicable military device
                             specification. This category usually applies only
                             to three-letter styles with an “R”Suff ¡x.



                            Supersedes Section 9.0 - 9.17 of Revision F                                                                                                                       9-3
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                                             MIL-HDBK-ZL7F CHG N O T I C E 2                                      9 9 9 9 9 7 0 0397049 b7b

                                                                                               MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                                                  NOTICE 2

                                                                                                                                                                     10.1             CAPACITORS


                                                                                 'P=%         T C V SR 'TCQ7cE Failures/106 Hours
                                                                                          X 'TC 7~ 'TC




                                                                                                                                   'ETTable -            zc Table -            E
                                                                                                                                                                               ',
                                                                                                                                                                                ,      Table -
                               Capacitor
                                Style                    I    Spec.
                                                              MIL-C-
                                                                                Description

                                                                     Capacitor, Fixed, Paper-                  .O0037
                                                                                                                                      Use
                                                                                                                                    Column:
                                                                                                                                             1
                                                                                                                                                            Use
                                                                                                                                                           Column:
                                                                                                                                                                 1
                                                                                                                                                                                      U se
                                                                                                                                                                                     Column:
                                                                                                                                                                                        1
                                                                                                                                                                                                 %R
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1
                                                                     Dielectric, Direct Current
                                                                     (Hermetically Sealed in Metal
                                                                     Cases)                                                              ~




                                                                     Capacitor, By-pass, Radio -               .O0037                        1                   1                                1
                                                                     Interference Reduction, Paper
                                                                     Dielectric, AC and DC
                                                                     (Hermetically sealed in Metallic
                                                                     Cases)
                              cz, cm                          1 1693 Capacitor, Feed through, Radio            .O0037                        1                   1                      1         1
                                                                     Interference Reduction AC and
                                                                     DC (Hermetically sealed in metal
                                                                     cases), Established and
                                                                     Nonestablished Reliability
                              CQ,       CQR                   19978 Capacitor, Fixed Plastic (or               .O0051                        1                   1                      1         1
                                                                     Paper-Plastic) Dielectric
                                                                     (Hermetically sealed in metal,
                                                                     ceramic or glass cases),
                                                                     Established and Nonestablished
                                                                     Reliability
                              ai                              18312 Capacitor, Fixed, Metallized               .O0037                        1                   1                      1         1
                                                                     (Paper, Paper Plastic or Plastic
                                                                     Film) Dielectric, Direct Current
                                                                     (Hermetically Sealed in Metal
                                                                     Cases)
                              CHR                             39022 Capacitor, Fixed, Metallized               .O0051                        1                   1                      1         1
                                                                     Paper, Paper-Plastic Film or
                                                                     Plastic Film Dielectric
                              m                               555 14 Capacitor, Fixed, Plastic (or              .O0051                       I                   1                      1         l
                                                                     Metallized Plastic) Dielectric,
                                                                     Direct Current in Non-Metal Case:




                             T
                                                                     Capacitor, Fixed Supermetallized           .O0051                                                                  1         1
                                                                     Plastic Film Dielectric (DC, AC or
                                                                     DC and AC) Hermetically Sealed
                                                                     in Metal Cases, Established
                                                                     Reliability
                                                                     Capacitors, Fixed, Mica Dielectric
                                                              39001 Capacitor, Fixed, Mica Dielectric,
                                                                                                                .O0076
                                                                                                                .O0076
                                                                                                                                             2
                                                                                                                                             2
                                                                                                                                                                 1
                                                                                                                                                                 1
                                                                                                                                                                                        2
                                                                                                                                                                                        2
                                                                                                                                                                                                 -
                                                                                                                                                                                                 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1

                                                                     Established Reliability
                                                              10950 Capacitor, Fixed, Mica Dielectric,          .O0076                       2                   1                      2         1
                                                                     Button Style
                              CY                              11272 Capacitor, Fixed, Glass Dielectric          .O0076                       2                   1                      2         1

                                                         I           Capacitor, Fixed, Glass
                                                              23269 Dielectric, Established Reliability
                                                                                                                .O0076                       2                   I                      2
                                                                                                                                                                                                 -
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1




                              Supersedes Section 10.1
                     --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                                                                - 10.20 of Revision F                                                                                            10-1
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                                                                          MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                             NOTICE 2


        10.1           CAPACITORS


                            I             I
                                                           Description


         CK                     1 1O1 5       Capacitor, Fixed, Ceramic
                                              Dielectric (General Purpose)
        CKR                          4        Capacitor, Fixed, Ceramic 3901                            .o0099
                                              Dielectric (General Purpose),
                                              Established Reliability
        C C , CCR               20            Capacitor, Fixed, Ceramic                                 .o0099
                                              Dielectric (Temperature
                                              Compensating), Established and
                                              Nonestablished Reliabilihr
                                              Capacitor, Chip, Muttiple Layer,                          .o020
                                              Fixed, Ceramic Dielectric,
                                              Established Reliability
         CSR                    39003         capacitor, Fixed, Electrolytic                            .O0040
                                              (Solid Electrolyte), Tantalum,
                                              Established Reliability

         CWR                    55365         Capacitor, Fixed, Electrolytic                            .O0005
                                              (Tantalum), Chip, Established
                                              Reliability

         CL                     3965          Capacitor, Fixed, Electrolytic                            ,00040
                                              (Nonsolid Electrolyte), Tantalum
         CLR                    39006         Capacitor, Fixed, Electrolytic                            .O0040
                                              (Nonsolid Electrolyte), Tantalum,
                                              Established Reliability
        CRL                     83500         Capacitor, Fixed, Electrolytic                            .O0040
                                              (Nonsolid Electrolyte), Tantalum
                                              Ca?hode
                                              Capacitor, Fixed, Electrolytic                            .o0012
                                              (Aluminum Oxide), Established
                                              Reliability and Nonestablished
                                              Reliability
        CE                                    Capacitor, Fixed Electrolytic (DC,                  62.o0012
                                              Aluminum, Dry Electrolyte,
                                              Polarized)
        cv                      81            Capacitor, Variable, Ceramic                              .O079
                                              Dielectric (Trimmer)
        PC                      14409         Capacitor, Variable (Piston Type,                         .O060
                                              Tubular Trimmer)
        (TT                                   Capacitor,    Variable,    Air        Dielectric 92
                                                                                              .O000072
                                              (Trimmer)
        CG                           83       Capacitor, Fixed or Variable, 231 .O060
                                              Vacuum Dielectric




        10-2                                                                                      Section
                                                                                                Supersedes                                         10.1 - 10.20 of Revision F
                                                                               --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---


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                                                                                  MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                                    NOTICE 2

                                                                                                                                                         10.1             CAPACITORS


                                             Temperature Factor   -   XT                                                          Capacitance Factor TC               -
                                                                                                                                                                      r
                                                                                                                                                                      .
                                                                                                          Capacitance,
                                 T(%)             Column 1             Column 2                              C(cLF)                            Column 1               -    Column 2
                                  20                 .91                    .79                             .000001                                   .29                     .04
                                  30                1.1                    1.3                              .o0001                                    .35                     .07
                                  40                1.3                    1.9                              .o001                                     .44                     .12
                                  50                1.6                    2.9                               .o01                                     .54                     .20
                                  60                1.8                    4.2                               .o1                                      .66                     .35
                                  70                2.2                    6.0                               .O5                                      .76                     .50
                                  80                2.5                    8.4                               .1                                       .81                     .5 9
                                  90                2.8                    11                                .5                                       .94                     .85
                                  1O0               3.2                    15                                1                                      1 .o                     1 .o
                                  110               3.7                    21                                3                                      1.1                      1.3
                                  120               4.1                    27                                8                                      1.2                      1.6
                                  130               4.6                    35                                18                                     1.3                      1.9
                                  140               5.1                    44                                40                                     1.4                      2.3
                                  150               5.6                    56                                200                                    1.6                      3.4
                                                                                                             1O00                                   1.9                      4.9
                            nT   = exp   (                      1
                                                             T + 273
                                                                   298                                       3000                                   2.1                      6.3
                                                                                                             1O000                                  2.3                      8.3
                            Column 1: Ea = .15
                                                                                                             30000                                  2.5                     11
                            Column 2: Ea = .35                                                               60000                                  2.7                     13
                            T = Capacitor Ambient Temperature                                                120000                   s
                                                                                                                                                    2.9               -
                                                                                                                                                                      A
                                                                                                                                                                            15
                            NOTE: 1. zT values shown should only be use
                                                                 of
                                      up to the temperature fating the
                                                                                                          Column 1:           7tc = c .o9
                                      device.
                                                                                                          Column 2: TC = c.23
                                    2. For devices with ratings higher than
                                       150°C, use the equation to determin
                                       ~ C(for applications above 15OOC).
                                           T
                                                                                                                                                                                       --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                            Supersedes Section 10.1 - 10.20 of Revision F                                                                                                            10-3
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                                                                                                    9 9 9 9 90 1 9 7 0 5 2                                  180

                                                                          MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                             NOTICE 2

         10.1           CAPACITORS

                                                                   Voltage Stress Factor xv  -
            Voltage Stress                   Column 1         Column 2           Column 3                     Column 4                                  Column 5
                    0.1                        1 .o                1 .o            1 .o                            1 .o                                       1 .O
                    0.2                        1 .o                1 .o            1 .o                            1 .o                                       1.1
                    0.3                        1 .O                1 .o            1 .1                            1 .O                                       1.2
                    O .4                       1 .1                1 .O            1.3                             1 .O                                       1.5
                    0.5                        1.4                 1.2             1.6                             1 .O                                       2.0
                    0.6                        2.0                 2.0             2.0                             2.0                                        2.7
                    0.7                        3.2                 5.7             2.6                           15                                           3.7
                    0.8                       5.2              19                                             130           3.4                               5.1
                    0.9                       8.6              59                  4.4                        990                                             6.8
                                                                                   5.6                     5900                                               9.0


                Column 1:          'zv = (    3 5     +   1


                Column 2:          nv = ($)'O         +1

                 column 3:         'zv =   (2>"+ 1                                S =
                                                                                           Operating Vpltage
                                                                                            Rated Voltage

                                                 of
                Note: Operating voltage is the sum applied DC voltage and peakAC voltage.


                          Series Resistance Factor
                                                   -
                (Tantalum CSR Style Capacitors Only)xSR
                                                               L


                Circuit Resistance, CR (ohms/volt)
                                                               -
                        >0.8                                              .66
                        >0.6 to 0.8                                   1 .O

                        >0.4 to 0.6                                   1.3

                        >0.2 to 0.4                                   2.0

                        >0.1 to 0.2                                   2.7

                        o to 0.1                               -      3.3


                            Eff. Res. Between Cap. and Pwr. Supply
             CR =                 Voltage Applied to Capacitor




         10-4                                                                   Supersedes Section 10.1 - 10.20 of Revision F
                                                                                                                         --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




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                                                                         MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                            NOTICE 2


                                                                                                                                                             10.1       CAPACITORS


                                                                                                                            Environment Factor X-                   -




                                                                            ~~~




                             Non-Established Reliability
                             Capacitors (Most Two-Letter Styles)       3.0


                             Commercial or Unknown Screening
                             Level                                    1o.

                             NOTE: Established reliability styles are failure
                             rate graded (D, C, S, etc.) basedon life testing
                             defined in theapplicable military device
                             specification. This category usually applies only
                             to three-letter styleswith an "R" Suff¡x.




                            Supersedes Section 10.1 - 10.20 of Revision F                                                                                                      10-5
                                                                                                                  --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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                              VIL-HDBK-217F                                 CHG NOTICE 2       H 9997970 0397054
                                                                                                               T53

                                                                                     MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                                        NOTICE 2


              10.2                  EXAMPLE
                            CAPACITORS,

             Example

                     Given:      A 400 VDC ratedcapacitortypeCQ09AlKE153K3isbeingusedinafixedground
                                 environment, 50°C component ambient temperature, and200 VDC applied with50 Vrms @
                                 60 Hz. The capacitoris being procured in full accordance with the applicable specification.

             The letters "CQ"in the type designation indicate that the specificationMIL-C-19978 and that is a Non-
                                                                                    is                      it
             Established Reliability quality level. The "E" in the designation correspondsto a 400 volt DC rating. The
             "153" in the designation expresses the capacitance in picofarads. The first two digits are significant and
             the third is the number of zeros to follow. Therefore, this capacitor has a capacitance of 15,000
             picofarads. (NOTE: Pico = 1O-1 2, p = 1O-6)


             Based on the given information the following model factors are determined from the tables shown in
             Section 10.1.

                            hb     =        .O0051

                            XT     =        1.6

                            xc     =        .69                                                                       pF
                                                                                        Use Table Equation (Note 15,000 = .O15 pF)


                            xv              2.9                                         S = DC Volts Applied + fi (AC Volts Applied)
                                                                                                      DC Rated Voltage

                                                                                              200 + fi (50) =
                                                                                        S =
                                                                                                    40 O

                            nSR             1

                            XQ     =       3.0

                            XE     =        10




             10-6                  --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                                                                        Supersedes Section 10.1                          - 10.20of Revision F
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                                    flIL-HDBK-237F             CHG N O T I C E 2                               99T
                                                                                                  9999970 0397055
                                                                         MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                            NOTICE 2
                                                                                   11.1                           TRANSFORMERS
                                                                                                  INDUCTIVE DEVICES,

                        SPECIFICATION                      STY LE
                                                      DESCRIPTION
                        MIL-T-27                      High
                                                       Audio,
                                                       Power
                                                        and
                                                     Pulse
                                                     PowerTF
                        MIL-T-21038                        TP                          Low Power Pulse
                        MIL-T-55631                                                    Intermediate Frequency (IF), RF and Discriminator




                                                           -
                                          Base Failure Rate 3.0
                                                                                                                           Quality Factor            - xn




                                                                              !
                                Transformer               hb (F/1O6 hrs.)

                            Flyback (< 20 Volts)               .O054
                                                                                                    MIL-SPEC
                            Audio (15 -20K HZ)                 .O1 4                                Lower
                            Low Power Pulse                    .o22
                            (Peak Pwr.< 300W,
                               Pwr.
                            Avg.      5W)
                                                                                                                      Environment Factor                    - x,1

                            High Power, High
                            Power Pulse (Peak
                                                                ,049
                                                                                           1        Environment                                         1            XE        1
                            Power 2 300W, Avg.                                                                         GB                                            1.o
                            Pwr. 2 5W)
                                                                                                                       GF                                            6.0
                            RF (10K - 10M HZ)                   .13                                                                                                 12
                                                                                                                       GM
                                       Temperature Factor- nT                                                          NS                                            5.0

                                                                                                                       NU                                           16
                                                                 XT
                                    20                           .93                                                   AIC                                           6.0
                                    30                           1.1




                                                                                                                                                                                   --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                    40                           1.2                                                   AIF                                           8.0
                                    50                           1.4                                                   AUC                                           7.0
                                    60                           1.6
                                    70                           1.8                                                   AUF                                           9.0
                                    80                           1.9
                                    90                           2.2                                                   ARW                                          24
                                    1O0                          2.4                                                   SF                                                .50
                                    110                          2.6
                                    120                          2.8                                                   MF                                           13
                                    130                          3.1
                                    140                          3.3                                                   ML                                           34
                                    150                          3.5                                                   CL                                          61 O
                                    160                          3.8
                                    170                          4.1
                                    180                          4.3
                                    190                          4.6




                                                            See
                              THS = Hot Spot Temperature(“C), Section
                              11.3. This prediction model assumes that the
                              insulation rated temperature is not exceeded
                                                                        for



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                                                                             MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                               NOTICE 2


        11.1                   DEVICES,
                       INDUCTIVE     TRANSFORMERS


                                      Characteristic
                            Transformer
                                            Note
                                Determination

                      Example
               MIL-T-27     Designation
                                                                     G4        576
              TF
               I
          MIL-T-27
                             i
                            Grade
                                            i
                                         Insulation
                                          Family
                                                              O
                                                              ¡        I
                                                                     Case
                                           Class                    Symbol

            Family Type Codes Are:

            Power Transformer and Filter:                  O1 through 09,
           37 through 41
           Audio Transformer: 10 through 21,                      through 53
                                                                   50
            Pulse Transformer: 22 through 36,54


                         Example
               MIL-T-21036    Designation
                     TP             4                  Q           X1 1OOBCOOl

                      I
              MIL-T-21038
                                     I
                                    Grade
                                                       I
                                                   Insulation
                                                      Class




               MIL-T-55631. The Transformers are Designated
               with the following Types, Grades and Classes.

               Type I          -     Intermediate Frequency Transformer
               Type II         -     Radio Frequency Transformer
               Type 111        -     Discriminator Transformer

               Grade 1         -     For Use When immersion and
                                     Moisture Resistance Tests are
                                     Required
               Grade2  -             For Use When Moisture Resistance
                                     Test is Required
               Grade3 -              For Use in Sealed Assemblies

               Class O -             85°C Maximum Operating
                                     Temperature
               Class A -             105°C Maximum Operating
                                     Temperature
               Class B -             125% Maximum Operating
                                     Temperature
               Class C -             > 125°C Maximum Operating
                                     Temperature

                                the
               The class denotes maximum operating
               temperature (temperature rise plus maximum
               ambient temperature).



        11-2                                                                                    Supersedes page 11-2 of Revision F
                                                                                                                  --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




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                                                                             MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                                NOTICE 2


                                                                                                                11.2                   DEVICES,
                                                                                                                               INDUCTIVE                                       COILS

                        SPECIFICATION
                                  DESCRIPTION              STYLE
                        MIL-C-15305                        -                 Variable, Fixed
                                                                            RF     and
                        M IL-C-83446                       -                          and
                                                                                        Fixed
                                                                                  Variable,               RF, Chip
                        MIL-C-39010                        -                            Molded, RF, Est. Rel.


                                                               'P=',        T Q E
                                                                                 n: Failures/106 Hours

                                         Base Failure Rate- &                                                                  Quality Factor - XQ
                                                                                                        Quality                                                          "Q
                                                                                                                   S                                                       .03
                            Fixed
                             Inductor      or Choke                    .O00030
                                                                                                                   R                                                       .1o
                                                                                                                   P                                                       .30

                                        Temperature Factor -                                                       M                                                     1.o
                                                                                                                                                                         1.o
                                 THs(°C)                           "T             1                         MIL-SPEC
                                                                                                            Lower                                                        3.0
                                   20                              .93
                                   30                              1.1
                                   40                              1.2
                                                                                                                          Environment Factor- IC,
                                   50                              1.4                                                                                              1


                                   60                              1.6
                                                                                                        Environment
                                                                                                                                                             1             "E
                                   70                              1.8                                                 GB                                                  1 .o
                                   80                              1.9                                                 GF                                                 6.0
                                   90                              2.2                                                                                                   12
                                                                                                                       GM
                                   1O0                             2.4
                                                                                                                       NS                                                 5.0
                                   110                             2.6
                                   120                             2.8                                                 NI I                                              16
                                   130                             3.1                                                                                                    6.0
                                   140                             3.3                                                                                                    8.0
                                                                                                                       AIF                                                           --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                   150                             3.5
                                                                                                                       AUC                                                7.0
                                   160                             3.8
                                   170                             4.1                                                 *UF                                                9.0
                                   180                             4.3                                                 ARW                                               24
                                   190                             4.6                                                 SF                                                      .50

                                                                                                                       MF                                                13

                                                                                                                       ML                                                34

                                                                                                                       CL                                               61 O
                             THs   = Hot Spot Temperature ("C),
                                     See Section 11.3




                        Supersedes page 11-3 of Revision F                                                                                                                      11-3
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                                                                                       NOTICE 2


       11.3           INDUCTIVE
                              DEVICES,
                                     DETERMINATION                                              OF HOT SPOT
                                                                                                          TEMPERATURE

       Hot Spot temperaturecan be estimated as follows:
                                                                                     THS = TA + 1.1 (AT)

       where:
                            THS =     HotSpotTemperature("C)
                            TA =      InductiveDeviceAmbientOperatingTemperature("C)
                            AT =      AverageTemperatureRiseAboveAmbient("C)

                                                                                                in
       AT can either be determined bythe appropriate "Temperature Rise" Test Method paragraph thedevice base
                                                          or
       specification (e.g., paragraph 4.8.12 for MIL-T-27E), byapproximation using one of the procedures
                                                                                   be
       described below. For space environments a dedicated thermal analysis should performed.
                                               AT Approximation (Non-space Envir Iments)
                                         Information Known                                                                               AT Approximation

                 1.                   Slash
                            MIL-C-39010   SheetNumber
                               MIL-C-39010/1C-3C, 5C, 7C, 9A, 10A, 13,14                                                                AT = 15°C

                                MIL-C-39010/4C, 6C, 8A, 11, 12                                                                          AT = 35°C

                 2.            Loss
                            Power                                                                                                       AT = 125 WL/A
                            Case Radiating Surface Area
                 3.            Loss
                            Power                                                                                                       AT = 11.5 WL/(Wt.).6766
                            Transformer Weight
                 4.           Power
                            Input                                                                                                       AT = 2.1 Wl/(Wt.). 6766
                            Transformer Weight
                            (Assumes 80% Efficiency)


                 WL         =   Power Loss (W)

                 A          =   RadiatingSurfaceArea ofCase (in2).See below forMiL-T-27CaseAreas
                 Wt.        =             Weight
                                Transformer    (Ibs.)
                 W,         =   Input Power (W)
                 NOTE: Methods are listedin preferred order(Le., most to least accurate). MIL-C-39010 are micro-
                 miniature deviceswith surface areas less than in2. Equations 2-4 are applicableto devices with
                                                             1
                                         to
                 surface areas from 3 in2 150 in2. Do not includethe mounting surface when determining radiating
                 surface area.
                                             MIL-T-27 Case Radiatinc Areas (Excludes Mounting Surface)
                    Case              Area (in2)        Case           Area (in2)        Case                                                                        Area (in2)
                     AF                  4               GB               33                                                                                           82 LB
                     AG                  7               GA               43              LA                                                                           98
                     AH                 11               HB               42              MB                                                                           98
                     AJ                 18               HA               53              MA                                                                          115
                     EB                 21               JB               58              NB                                                                          117
                     EA                 23               JA               71              NA                                                                          139
                     FB                 25               KB               72              OA                                                                          146
                     FA                 31               KA               84
       11-4                                                                                  Supersedes pages 11-4 and 11-5 of Revision F
                                           --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




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                                                                              MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                                 NOTICE 2


                                                                                                         12.1             ROTATING DEVICES, MOTORS

                       The following failure-rate model applies to motors with power ratings below one horsepower. This model is applicable to
                       polyphase, capacitor start and run and shaded pole motors. It's application may be extended to other types of fractional
                       horsepower motors utilizing rolling elementgrease packed bearings. The model is dictated by two failure modes, bearing
                       failures and winding failures. Application of the model to D.C. brush motors assumes that brushes are inspected and
                       replaced and are not a failure mode. Typical applications include fans and blowers as well as various other motor
                       applications. The model is based on References 4 and 37, which contain a more comprehensive treatment of motor life
                     , prediction methods. The references should be reviewed when bearing loads exceed 10 percent of rated load, speeds
                       exceed 24,000rpm or motor loads include motor speed of greater than 25 percent.
                                                                              slip

                       The instantaneous failure rates, or hazard rates, experienced by motors are not constant but increase with time. The
                                                                                                                              7
                       failure rate model in this section is an average failure rate for the motor operating over time period ' ". This time period is
                       either the system design life cycle (LC) or the time period the motor must last between complete refurbishment (or
                       replacement). The model assumes that motors are replaced upon failure and that an effective constant failure rate is
                       achieved after a given time due to the fact that the effective "time zero" of replaced motors becomes random after a
                       significant portion of the population is replaced. The average failure rate, A , can be treated as a constant failure rate and
                                                                                                     P
                       added to other part failure rates from this Handbook.


                                                                  [-      +        ]
                                                                              h2 x lo6 Failures/106




                                                                                                                                                                                --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                                                   hl
                                                             1P = AUB         BC~W                                            Hours


                                                           Bearing & Winding Characteristic Life             - a~ and aw
                            TA ?c)              aB (Hr.1            TAaw (HI.)                          ("c)                        aB (Hr.)                        aw    W.)
                              O                   70
                                                3600                  6.48+06                                                         22000
                                                                                                                                      e+05                          1.1
                             10                13000                  3.28+06                  7.0e+04
                                                                                                    80                                 14000
                             20                39000                   1.6e+06                      90                                  91O0                        4.6e+04
                             30                78000                   8.9e+05                     1O0                                  61O0                        3.1 e+04
                             40                80000                      4200
                                                                      5.08+05                      110                                e+04                          2.1
                             50                55000                  2.98+05
                                                                     2900                          120                                                              1.56+04
                             60                35000                       21
                                                                       1.8e+05                     130                                       O0                     1.08+04
                                         7.56+03                    1500                           140




                              aB     =   I
                                         L



                                                 2357
                                              [TA + 273     - 1.831
                              clw    =   10
                              aB     =       Charact
                                         Weibull                          the
                                                           eristic Life for Motor Bearing

                              aw     E                                the
                                         Weibull Characteristic Life for Motor Windings
                              TA     =   Ambient Temperature ("C)

                              NOTE: See page 12-3 for method to calculate and a,,when temperatureis not constant.
                                                                       aB      ,,




                        Supersedes page 12-1 of Revision F
                                          12-1
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                                                  C N
                                      MIL-HDBK-217F HG OTICE                     2                 9999970 01'170b0 257

                                                                    MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                       NOTICE 2


            12.1            ROTATING DEVICES, MOTORS



                             A and B Determination                                                        h, and
                                                                                                              Determination
        I            Motor TvDe      I     A                    1   B       I
            Electrical (General)                                    1.1    1.9
                                                                                                                                                hl      Or   h2
            Sensor                                   .48             .29                         o - .10                                               .13
            Servo                                  2.4              1.7
                                                                                             .11 - -20                                                 .15
            Stepper                                11               5.4
                                                                                             .21 - .30                                                 .23




                                                                                                                                                                   --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                 Example Calculation                                         .31 - .40                                                 .31

              A general purpose electrical motor is operating at                             .41 - .50                                                 .4 1
              50°C in a system witha 10 year design life(87600
              hours) expectancy,                                                             .51 - .60                                                 .51
                  aB        =   55000 Hrs.                                                   .61 - .70                                                 .6 1

                  aW =          2.9e   + 5 Hrs.                                              .71 - .80                                                 .68

                  LC        -
                                87600 Hrs.                                                   .81 - .90                                                 .76
                 "
                                                     =     1.6
                  "B            55000 Hrs.
                                                                                                   z 1.0                                              1 .o
                  LC        -     87600 Hrs.
                                                           .3
                                      + 5 Hrs. =
                 "




                  "W            2.9e                                                 -Cis the system design life cycle hours), or
                                                                                                                     (in
                                                                                     he motor preventive maintenance interval,  if
                 hl         =   1.0         (for   E=      1.6)
                                                                                     notors will be periodically replaced or
                                                                                                Determine hl and
                                                                                     .efurbished.                    separately
                                                                                                                               I    n          I,-.

                                                                                               respective
                                                                                     lased on the                                  ratios.
                                                                                                                                  and

        I        h2


                 A
                            =


                            =
                                .23


                                1.9
                                                                                                                               aB      "W




                 B          =   1.1


        I        %=
                                  1.0
                            [(1.9)(55000)
                                             +




                                                  (1.1)(2.9e + 5)

                 hp         =   10.3 Failures/lO6 Hours




            12-2                                                                            Supersedes page 12-2 of Revision F
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                                                                                                                    MIL-HDBK-217F
                  --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                                                                                                       NOTICE 2


                                                                                                                                                    12.1             ROTATING DEVICES, MOTORS

                                                                                                       aCalculation for Cycled Temperature

                                                                    The following equation can used to calculate a weighted characteristic for both bearings and windings
                                                                                                 be                                      life
                                                                    (e.g., for bearings substituteaB for all a's in equation).

                                                                                                           hl   +    h2    +   h3 +-""-h,
                                                                                                  a= 2 l
                                                                                                   h h
                                                                                                       -+
                                                                                                       a        a
                                                                                                                    -+     h3
                                                                                                                           -+            """_                      h-
                                                                                                                                                                    m
                                                                                                           1         2      "3                                        am

                                                                      where:
                                                                               a    =   either aB or aw

                                                                               hl   =   TimeatTemperature Tl

                                                                               h2   =   Time to Cycle From Temperature Tl to T3

                                                                               h3   =   TimeatTemperatureT3

                                                                               hm   =   TimeatTemperatureTm

                                                                               al =     Bearing (or Winding) Life atTl

                                                                                    =   Bearing (or Winding) Life at T2
                                                                               a2

                                                                                               T1 + T 3                   T3   +
                                                                               NOTE:    T2 =               , T4 =           2




                                                                                                                         Hours (h)

                                                                                                                         Thermal Cycle




                                                                    Supersedes page 12-3 of Notice 1                                                                                                          12-3
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                                                                            MIL-HDBK-217F             CHG N O T I C E 2              H 9999970 0397062 02T
                                                                                                                     MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                                                                        NOTICE 2

        12.2                                                           ROTATING DEVICES,
                                                                                      SYNCHROS                                AND RESOLVERS

                                                                                                                             DESCRIPTION
                                                                                                                             Rotating Synchrosand Resolvers

                                                                                                           %=‘b
                                                                                                                        IC    n x Failures/106Hours
                                                                                                                             S N E

        NOTE: Synchros and resolvers are predominately used in service requiring only slowand infrequent motion.
                                                         so
              Mechanical wearout problems are infrequent that the electrical failure mode dominates, and no
                                                     in
              mechanical mode failure rate is required the model above.


                                                                                                                                                    Number of Brushes Factor- nN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               J



                                                                                                                        ‘
                                                                                                                        b                        Number of Brushes               ICN

                 30                                                             .O083                               .O32                                       12                                                    1.4
                 35                                                             .O088                               .O41
                 40                                                             .O095                               .O52                                           3                                                 2.5
                 45                                                             .o1 o                               .O69
                 50                                                             .o1 1                               ,094                                           4                                                 3.2
                 55                                                             .O1 3              110              .13
                 60                                                             .O14               115              .19
                 65                                                             .O16               120              .29
                 70                                                             .o1 9              125              .45                                        Environment Factor- IC=
                 75                                                             .o22                                .74                                                                                  L


                 80                                                             .O27                               1.3                       Environment                                                          TE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1.o
                     --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                                                                                                                                                            GB
                 \                                                      = .O0535 exp     (
                                                                                     TF+273
                                                                                       334            )   8.5
                                                                                                                                                            GF                                                      2.0
                                                                                                                                                            GM                                                   12
               TF                                                       =        Temperature
                                                                             Frame         (“C)
                                                                                                                                                            NS                                                       O
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7.
               If Frame Temperatureis Unknown Assume                                                                                                                                                             18
               TF = 40 “C + Ambient Temperature                                                                                                             NU
                                                                                                                                                            AIC                                                    4.0

                                                                                                                                                            AIF                                                    6.0

                                                                                                                                                           AUC                                                   16
                                                                                Size Factor nS -                                                                                                                 25
                                                                                                                                                           AUF
                                                                                                 xS                                                                                                              26
          DEVICE                                                             Size 8 or       Size 10-16         Size 18 or                                 ARW
           TYPE                                                              Smaller                                                                       SF                                                            .50
                                                                                                                                                           MF                                                    14
       Synchro                                                                  2               1.5                 1
                                                                                                                                                           ML                                                   36
       Resolver                                                                 3              2.25                 1.5
                                                                                                                                                           CL                                                 680




       12-4                                                                                                                                            Supersedes page 12-4 of Notice 1

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                                              MIL-HDBK-217F C H G N O T I C E 2                                        7 9 9 9 9 7 0 0197063 T b b

                                                                                    MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                                       NOTICE 2

                                                                                    12.3               DEVICES,
                                                                                                ROTATING           TIME
                                                                                                             ELAPSED METERS

                                                                                         DESCRIPTION
                                                                                         Elapsed Time Meters


                                                                               h, = hbynEFailures/l O6 Hours


                                              Base Failure Rate- A.
                                                                 ,+                                                                 Environment Factor - nCE
                            I       Type                              I                                           Environment                                          I    “E


                            I          Driven
                                    Inverter
                                                                      I            2o
                                                                                   30
                                                                                                                                                                             1 .o
                                                                                                                                                                             2.0
                                                                                                                                                                            12
                                    Commutator D.C.
                                                                      I            80
                                                                                                                                                                             7.0
                                                                                                                                                                            18
                                                                                                                                                                             5.0
                                       Temperature Stress Factor - ‘CT
                                                                                                                                                                             8.0
                                                         T
                                    Operating T (OC)/Rated (“c)
                                                                                                                                                                            16
                                      o to    .5                                                                                                                            25
                                                                                                                                                                            26




                                                                                                                                                                                       --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                                                                                                                                                                 .50
                                              .a
                                             1 .o                              I    .8

                                                                                   1.0
                                                                                                                                                                            14
                                                                                                                                                                            38
                                                                                                                                                                            NIA




                                Supersedes page 12-5 of Revision F                                                                                                                  12-5
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                                                                                                                                  MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                                                                                     NOTICE 2
                                                                                                                                                                                13.1                 MECHANICAL
                                                                                                                                                                                                 RELAYS,

                 SPECIFICATION                                                                                                                                                       DESCRIPTION
                 MIL-R-5757          MIL-R-83516                                                                                             Relay                             Mechanical
                 MIL-R-6106          MIL-R-83520
                 MIL-R-13718
            MIL-R-83536
                 MIL-R-19648
            MIL-R-83725
                 MIL-R-19523
                          MIL-R-83726
                                   (Except
                                         Class                                                                                          C, Solid
                                                                                                                                             State                Type)
                 MIL-R-39016

                                                                                                                 P
                                                                                                                 '   = 'bxLKC"CYC        X
                                                                                                                                             F7tQ E Failures/106 Hours
                                                                                            Base Failure Rate- A+,                                                             Load Stress Factor - xI

                                                                             TA ("C)                850C1                                                 5                   Resistive
                                                                               25                    .o059                                               .05
                                                                               30                    .O067                .O066                          .1 o                                             1.O6             1.28
                                                                               35                    .O075                .O073                          .20                    2.72                      1.28
                                                                               40                    .O084                .O081                          .30                    9.49                      1.76
                                                                               45                    .O094                .O089                          .40                                              2.72            54.6
                                                                               50                    .o1 o                .O098                          .50                                              4.77
                                                                               55                    .o12                 .o1 1                          .60                                              9.49
                                                                               60                    .O13                 .o12                           .70                     2.1 5                   21.4
                                                                               65                    .O14                 .O13                           .80                     2.72
                                                                               70                    .O1 6                .O14                           .90                     3.55
                                                                               75                    .O1 7                .O15                          1.o0              1      4.77
                                                                                                                                                                                                 a
                                                                               80                    .o1 9                .O17
                                                                               85                    .o21                 .O18
                                                                               90                                         .o19
                                                                               95                                         .o2 1
                                                                              1O0
                                                                              105
                                                                              110
                                                                                                                          .o22
                                                                                                                          .O24
                                                                                                                          .O26
                                                                                                                                                   2.        nL = exp          (3)                   E
                                                                                                                                                                                                              rating Load Current
                                                                                                                                                                                                         HatzResistive Load Current

                                                                              115                                         .O27
                                                                              120                                         .O29                    For single devices which switch different load types,
                                                                                                                                                                                two
                                                                              125                                                                 evaluate nL for each possible stress load type
                                                                                                                                                  combination and use the worse case (largestnL).
                                                                                                      -.19            1           1
                                                                       1.   l,,   .O059 exp
                                                                                              (   8.617 X 10-5   [           -    z)
                                                                                                                                   ]                                                         -
                                                                                                                                                                                Cycling Factor xcYc
                                                                                                      -.17            1           1                            Cycle Rate
                                                                           ,
                                                                       2. l,= .O059exp
                                                                                              (   8.617 X 10-5   [           -     ]
                                                                                                                                  z)                        (Cycles per Hour)
                                                                                                                                                                    MIL-SPEC

                                                                             TA        =          Temperature
                                                                                              Ambient     ("C)                                                      2 1.0
                     --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                                                                                         Contact Form Factor - xc                      Rate                Cycle                                                   xcYc
                                                                                                                                                            Hour)
                                                                                                                                                            per(Commercial
                                                                                                                                                         (Cycles      Quality)
                                                                                  (Applies to Active Conducting Contacts)
                                                                                   Contact Form                   nC                                             > 1000
                                                                                                                                                                                             1
                                                                                     SPST                                  1.o0

                                                                                     SPDT
                                                                                                                           1.50 DPST
                                                                                                                           1.75
                                                                                                                                                          10 10 1000  -                      1            Cycles per Hour

                                                                                                                           2.00 3PST
                                                                                     4PST                                  2.50
                                                                                                                           3.00 DPDT              basic design limitationsof the relay are not valid. Design
                                                                                                                           4.25 3PDT                                                       to
                                                                                                                                                  specifications should be consulted prior evaluation of
                                                                                     4PDT                                  5.50
                                                                                     6PDT                                  8.00                   %YC                                                                                 1
                                                                                             f
                                                                       Supersedes page 13-1 o Revision F                                                                                                                          13-1
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                                                                                                                                      Policy Group at 303-397-2295.
                                  MIL-HDBK-217F CHG NOTICE            2        m 9999970 0397065 839                                                =
                                                                 MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                    NOTICE 2


          13.1              RELAYS, MECHANICAL


                                   Quality Factor - 7C
                                                     c                                                                 -
                                                                                    APlplication and Construction Factor"F
                                                     1
                                                   r
                 Quality                                                    Contact     Application       Construction
                                                    -                        Rating        Type              T De
                                                                                                              V
                 R                                        .1o             Signal       Dry Circuit Armature (Long)




                                                                                                                                                             i
                                                                          Current                    Dry Reed
                 P                                        .3O             (Low mv                    Mercury Wetted
                                                                          and ma)                    Magnetic Latching
                 X                                        .45                                        Balanced Armature
                 U                                        .60                                       Solenoid               1                                       7
                                                                          0-5 Amp      General        (Long)
                                                                                                    Armature               1                                       3
                 M                                       1 .o                          Purpose               Armature
                 L                                       1.5                                  Sensitive                 Armature (Long and
                 MIL-SPEC, Non-Est. Rel.                 1.5
                                                                                                   -
                                                                                              (O 100 mw)                Short)
                                                                                                                        Mercury Wetted
                 Commercial                              2.9                                                            Magnetic Latching
                                                   L
                                                                                                                        Meter
                                                                                                                        Movement                                 1O0
                                                                                                                        Balanced Armature




                                                                                                                                                                       --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                                                                              Polarized
                               Environment Factor- SC,
                                                                                              Vibrating
                 Environment                             "E                                   Reed
                                                                                              High Speed
                             GB                           1 .o                                                          Short)                               I
                             =F                           2.0
                                                                                              Thermal Time
                             GM                          15                                   Delay
                                                                                              Electronic
                                                          8.0                                 Time Delay,
                                                                                              Non-Thermal                                                    r
                                                         27                                   Latching,
                                                                                              Reed          Dry                                                  10
                                                                                              Magnetic Wetted
                                                                                                            Mercury                                               5
                             AIC                          7.0                                               Balanced
                                                                                                            armature                                              5
                                                          9.0             5-20 Amp            High Voltage Vacuum
                                                                                                      20 (Glass)
                             AIF                                                                            Vacuum
                                                                                                          (Ceramic)                                               5
                             AUC                         11                                   Medium            and
                                                                                                                (Long
                                                                                                            Armature                                              3
                                                                                              Power         Short)
                             AUF                         12                                                 Mercury
                                                                                                        Wetted                                                    1
                                                                                                            Magnetic
                                                                                                            Latching                                              2
                             ARW                         46                                                     Latching
                                                                                                            Mechanical                                            3
                                                              .50                                           Armature
                                                                                                            Balanced
                                                                                                            2
                             SF                                                                                         Solenoid                                  2
                             MF                          25               25-600              Contactors                Armature (Short)
                                                                          Amp                 (High                     Mechanical Latching
                             ML                          66                                   Current)                  Balanced Armature
                             CI                          N/A




         13-2                                                                    Supersedes
                                                                              page                                              13-2 of Revision F
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                                                                           Policy Group at 303-397-2295.
                                                                               MIL-HDBK-217F           CHG NOTICE 2                                  7999970 OL970bb 7 7 5
                                                                                                                              MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                                                                                 NOTICE 2


                                                                                                                                    13.2           RELAYS, SOLID STATE AND TIME DELAY

                                                                      SPECIFICATION                                                          DESCRIPTION
                                                                      MIL-R-28750                                                            Relay, Solid State
                                                                      MIL-R-83726                                                            Relay, Time Delay, Hybrid and Solid State



                                                                                                                            of                                              is to
                                                                      The most accurate method for predicting the failure rate solid state (and solid state time delay) relays sum
                                                                                          the
                                                                      the failure rates for individual components which makeup the relay. The individual component failure rates
                                                                      can either be calculated from the models provided the main body of this Handbook (Parts Stress Method) or
                                                                                                                        in
                                                                      from the Parts Count Method shown in Appendix A, depending upon the depth of knowledge the analyst has
                                                                      about the components being used. If insufficient information is available, the following default model can be
                                                                      used:

                                                                                                                   hp    =              Q~c~
                                                                                                                              A ~ ~ c c Failures/106 Hours


                                                                                     Base Failure Rate-                                                                  Environment Factor- xE
                                                                      I
                                                                      Type Relay                        I               hh          I                         Environment

                                                                                                                                                                             GB                                         1.o
                                                                            Solid State                             .O29
                                                                                                                                                                             GF                                        3.0
                                                                            Solid State Time Delay                  .O29
                                                                                                                                                                             GM                                        12
                                                                            Hybrid                                      .O29                                                                                           6.0
                                                                                                                                                                             NS
                                                                                                                                                                             NU                                        17

                                                                                                                                                                             AIC                                       12
                                                                                          Quality Factor- zQ                                                                                                           19
                                                                                                                                                                             AIF
                                                                      I   Quality                              I         "0         I                                        AUC                                       21
                    --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                                                                          MIL-SPEC                                           1.o                                             AUF                                      32

                                                                                                                                                                             ARW                                       23
                                                                          Commercial                                         1.9
                                                                                                                                                                             SF                                             .40

                                                                                                                                                                             MF                                        12

                                                                                                                                                                             ML                                        33

                                                                                                                                                                             CL                                       590




                                                                      Supersedes page 13-3 of Revision F                                                                                                                     13-3

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                                                                                                                                    Policy Group at 303-397-2295.
                                 MIL-HDBK-ZL7F        CHG N O T I C E 2            m 9999770                            Ol1970b7 bDL                             m
                                                                          MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                             NOTICE 2


                                                                                                                                                                 14.1        SWITCHES




                            Centrifugal
                                         Base Failure Rate- 2

                                Description

                            Dual-In-line Package
                            Limit
                            Liquid Level
                            Microwave
                            (Waveguide)
                            Pressure


                            Pushbutton
                                                    Spec.
                                                    M IL-S-
                                                      NIA
                                                    83504
                                                     8805
                                                    21 277
                                                      N/A

                                                     8932
                                                     9395
                                                     121 1
                                                     8805
                                                                'P='b




                                                                    3.4

                                                                    4.3
                                                                    2.3
                                                                    1.7

                                                                    2.8
                                                                          X X




                                                                     .o0012




                                                                        .1o
                                                                              C
                                                                              L




                                                                Ab (F/106 Hrs.)
                                                                                  IC 7[:
                                                                                     Q     E Failures/106 Hours


                                                                                                    Stress
                                                                                                      S
                                                                                                     0.05
                                                                                                     o. 1
                                                                                                     0.2
                                                                                                     0.3
                                                                                                     0.4
                                                                                                     0.5
                                                                                                     0.6
                                                                                                     0.7
                                                                                                     0.8
                                                                                                     0.9
                                                                                                     1.o
                                                                                                                            Resistive
                                                                                                                              1.o0
                                                                                                                              1 .o2
                                                                                                                              1.O6

                                                                                                                                  1.28
                                                                                                                                  1.48
                                                                                                                                  1.76
                                                                                                                                  2.1 5
                                                                                                                                  2.72
                                                                                                                                  3.55
                                                                                                                                                 -
                                                                                                                                Load Stress Factor
                                                                                                                                                           Load Type
                                                                                                                                                             Inductive
                                                                                                                                                               1.o2
                                                                                                                                                               1.O6
                                                                                                                                                               1.28
                                                                                                                                                               1.76 1.15
                                                                                                                                                               2.72
                                                                                                                                                               4.77
                                                                                                                                                               9.49
                                                                                                                                                             21.4
                                                                                                                                                                         p
                                                    22885
                                                    2431 7                                                                        Operating Load Current
                            Reed                    55433               .o010                                     S=
                                                                                                                                Rated Resistive Load Current
                            Rocker                   3950               .O23
                                                    22885
                            Rotary                   3786               .11                                  XL             =          (S/.8)2
                                                                                                                                      exp                           for Resistive Load
                                                    13623
                                                    15291                                                                   =           (S/.4)2
                                                                                                                                      exp                           for Inductive Load
                                                    15743                                                    xL             =          (S/.2)2
                                                                                                                                      exp                            for Lamp Load
                                                    22604
                                                    2271O
                                                    45885                                         NOTE: When the switch is rated by inductive load,
                                                    82359                                               then use resistive xI .
                            Sensitive                8805               .49
                                                    13484                                                                                       -
                                                                                                                    Contact Configuration Factor' X-                           LØ
                                                    2261 4
                                                                                                                                                           ## of Contacts,
                            Thermal                 12285               .O31
                                                    24286                                            Contact Form                                               NC                  ICC
                            Thumbwheel              2271 O              -18                                 SPST                                               1                     1.o
                            Toggle                   3950               .1o                                 DPST                                               2                     1.3
                                                     5594
                                                     8805                                                   SPDT                                               2                     1.3
                                                     8834                                                    3p5t                                              3                     1.4
                                                     941 9                                                   4p5t                                              4                     1.6
                                                    13735                                                    DPDT                                              4                     1.6
                                                    81551                                                    3PDT                                              6                     1.8
                                                    83731                                                    4PDT                                              8                    2.0
                                                                                                             6PDT                                             12                    2.3

                                                                                                         KC = (NC). 33

                                                                                                      Applies to toggle and pushbutton switches only,
                                                                                                                    xC
                                                                                                      all others use = 1.




                            Supersedes
                               page                14-1 through 14-4 of Revision F                       --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                                                                                                                                                                     14-1
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                                                                                  Policy Group at 303-397-2295.
                                                MIL-HDBK-ZL7F C H G N O T I C E 2                              9 9 9 9 9 7 0 OL970b8 5 4 8

                                                                                 MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                                    NOTICE 2

            14.1              SWITCHES


                                              Quality Factor - xQ                                                     Environment
        I                    Quality                                    1   XQ       1   I               Environment

                 MIL-SPEC                                                   1                                       GB                                                    1 .o

                 Lower                                                      2                                       GF                                                    3.0

                                                                                         I                          GM
                                                                                                                                                                        18

                                                                                         I                          NS
                                                                                                                                                                       29
                                                                                                                                                                          8.0
                                                                                                                    NU
                                                                                                                    AIC                                                 10

                                                                                                                    AIF                                                 18

                                                                                         I                          AUC
                                                                                                                    AUF
                                                                                                                                                                        13
                                                                                                                                                                       22
                                                                                                                    ARW                                                46

                                                                                                                    SF                                                         .50
                                                                                                                    MF                                                 25

                                                                                                                    ML                                                 67

                                                                                         I                          CL
                                                                                                                                                                   1200




            14-2      --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                                                                                                     f
                                                                                  Supersedes page 14-1 through 14-4 o Revision F
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                                                                                                NOTICE 2


                                                                                                                     14.2                           BREAKERS
                                                                                                                                     SWITCHES, CIRCUIT

                        SPECIFICATION                                                 DESCRIPTION
                        MIL-C-13516                                                   Circuit Breakers, Manual and Automatic
                        MIL-C-55629                                                   Circuit Breakers, Magnetic, Unsealed, Trip-Free
                        MI L-C-83383                                                  Circuit Breakers, Remote Control, Thermal, Trip-Free
                        MIL-C-39019                                                   Circuit Breakers, Magnetic,Low Power, Sealed, Trip-Free Service
                        w-c-375                                                       Circuit Breakers, Molded Case, Branch Circuit and Service


                                                                                    ,
                                                                                    h = h b ~ C 7 t U ~Failures/l O6 Hours
                                                                                                        Q~E

                                                         Base Failure Rate-                                                                       Quality Factor- ~n

                                         Description                                   ‘b                                     Quality                                                  nQ

                                    Magnetic                                           .34                             MIL-SPEC                                                        1.o

                                    Thermal                                            .34                    I        Lower
                                                                                                                                                                           I           8*4         I
                                    Thermal-Magnetic                                   .34
                       1                                                        I                I
                                                                                                                                         Environment Factor- 7r
                                                                                                                                                              t
                                                                                                                                                                                  L

                                                                                                                       Environment
                                                     Configuration Factor- nc
                                                                                                                                      GB                                               1 .o
                                    Configuration
                                                                                                                                      GF                                               2.0
                                                                                                                                      GM                                              15
                                    DPST                                                                                                                                               8.0
                                                                                                                                      NS
                                    3PST                                               3.0                                                                                            27
                                                                                                                                      NU
                                    4PST                                               4.0                                                                                             7.0
                                                                                                                                      AIC
                                                                                                                                      AIF                                              9.0
                                                                                                                                      AUC                                             11
                                                                  Use Factor- zu                                                      AUF                                             12
                                              Use                               I                I                                    ARW                                             46
                                                                                                                                                                                           50
                             Not Used as a Power                                      1.o                                             SF
                             On/Off Switch                                                                                            MF                                              25
                                                                                                                                                                                      66

                                                                                I
                             Also Used as a Power                                     2.5                                             ML
                             On/Off Switch                                                                                                                                            NIA
                                                                                                                                      CL




                            Supersedes page 14-5 of Revision F
                              --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                                                                                                                                                                                14-3

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b
                                    MIL-HDBK-217F CHG N O T I C E 2                            9 9 9 9 9 7 0 0377070 17’6
                                                                    MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                       NOTICE 2

                                                                                                             15.1                     GENERAL
                                                                                                                              CONNECTORS,

                                                               L             Failuredl O6
                                                              3 p = hb~TnKnQnE                                       Hours

                       APPLICATION NOTE: The failure rate model is for a mated pair of connectors. It is sometimes desirable to
                                                                        (Le.,                          to
                       assign half of the overall mated pair connector single connector) failure rate the line replaceable unit and
                       half to the chassis (or backplane). An example of when this would be beneficial is for input to maintainability
                       prediction to allow a failure rate weighted repair time to be estimated for both the LRU and chassis. This
                                                                                                     f
                       accounting procedure could be significant if repair times for the two halves o the connector are substantially
                       different. For a single connector divide A,, by two.

                                       Base Failure Rate- h.
                                                           U
                                                                                                                  Temperature Factor- nT
                                              Specification                                              To (“C)                                              nT
                           Description            MIL-C-
                                                                                                         20                                                    .9 1
                       Circular/Cylindrical 501 5     26482       .o01 o
                                            26500 27599                                                  30                                                   1.1
                                            28840 29600                                                  40                                                   1.3
                                            38999 83723                                                  50                                                   1.5
                                            3151 1                                                       60                                                   1.8
                                                                                                         70                                                   2.0
                       Card Edge (PCB)*             21 097        .O40
                                                    55302                                                80                                                   2.3
                                                                                                         90                                                   2.7
                       Hexagonal                    24055         .15                                   1O0                                                   3.0
                                                    24056
                                                                                                        110                                                   3.4
                       Rack and Panel               243 08        .o21                                  120                                                   3.7
                                                    2873 1                                              130                                                   4.1
                                                    28748
                                                    835 15                                              140                                                   4.6
                                                                                                        150                                                   5.0




                                                                                                                                                                         --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                       Rectangular                  21617         .O46
                                                    24308                                               160                                                   5.5
                                                    28748                                               170                                                   6.0
                                                    28804                                               180                                                   6.5
                                                    81 659
                                                    835 1 3                                             190                                                   7.0
                                                    83527                                               200                                                   7.5
                                                    83733                                               210                                                   8.1
                                                    85028
                                                                                                        220                                                   8.6
                       RF Coaxial            3607    15370        .O0041                                230                                                   9.2
                                             3643    25516                                              240                                                   9.8
                                             3650    26637
                                             3655    39012                                              250                                                  1o.
                                                     55235
                                                     8351 7
                       Telephone                    55074         .O075
                       Power                        22992         .O070                    To = Connector Ambient + AT

                       Triaxial                     491 42        .O036                    AT = Connector Insert Temperature Rise
                                                                                               (See Table)
                            Printed Circuit Board Connector

                        Supersedes page 15-1 through 15-5’ of Revision F                                                                                              15-1

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                                                               NOTICE 2


            15.1            CONNECTORS, GENERAL


                    DefauIlt Insert Temperature Rise                               MatingNnmating Factor                                   - zK
                                          lation
                                                                             MatingNnmating Cycles’
             Amperes            -         ict Gau(L
                                                                               (per 1000 hours)
            PerContact
                2
                             30
                             10
                                            20
                                              2
                                                ~
                                                    16
                                                     1
                                                       --
                                                        12
                                                         O
                                                                                                                                                      IFK

                                                                             O to .O5                                                             1 .o
                3            22        8      5      2         1
                4            37       13      0      4         1             > .O5 to .5                                                          1.5
                5            56       19     13      5         2
                6            79      27      18      8         3             > .5 to 5                                                           2.0
                7                    36     23      10         4             > 5 to 50                                                           3.0
                8                    46     30      13         5
                9                    57     37      16         6
              10                     70     45      19         7
               15                           96      41        15         *One cycle includes both connect and
              20                                    70        26         disconnect.
              25                                   106        39
              30                                              54




                                                                                                                                                            --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
              35                                              72                             Quality Factor - X Q
              40                                       -
                                                       L
                                                             -92
                                                                                       Quality

               AT       = 3.256 (i)’.85         32 Gauge Contacts          MIL-SPEC
               AT       = 2.856 (i)’ .85        30 Gauge Contacts          Lower
               AT       = 2.286 (i)’            28 Gauge Contacts
               AT       = 1.345(i)’             24 Gauge Contacts                            Environment Factor                      - nE
               AT       = 0.989 (i)’            22 Gauge Contacts                Environment                                                      XE
               AT       = 0.640 (i)’ .85        20 Gauge Contacts
                                                                                            GB                                                    1 .o
               AT       = 0.429 (i)’ .85        18 Gauge Contacts
               AT       = 0.274                 16 Gauge Contacts                           GF                                                    1 .o
               AT       = 0.100 (i)’ .85        12 Gauge Contacts                           GM                                                    8.0

               AT =                                                                         NS                                                    5.0
                             Insert Temperature Rise
               i  =          Amperes per Contact                                            NU                                                  13

                                                                                            *IC                                                   3.0
                       Connectors
               RF Coaxial                       AT = 5°C                                    AIF                                                   5.0

               RF Coaxial Connectors                                                        AU c                                                  8.0
               (HighPowerApplications)          AT = 50°C                                                                                       12
                                                                                            AU F
                                                                                            ARW                                                 19

                                                                                            SF                                                        .50

                                                                                            MF                                                 10

                                                                                            ML                                                 27

                                                                                            CL                                               490




           15-2                                              Supersedes page 15-2 through 15-5 of Revision F
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                                                                                                                                              ~~




                                      MIL-HDBK-217F             CHG N O T I C E 2                            9997970 0197072 T77 H

                                                                             MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                                NOTICE 2


                                                                                                                      15.2              CONNECTORS, SOCKETS


                                                                               II: Failures/106 Hours
                                                                           5~ IC
                                                             'P=%           P Q E


                                          Base Failure Rate- Ilt,                                                             Active Pins Factor- x p
                                                        Spec.                                   Number of                                          Number of
                                                                                                 Active                                              Active
                               Description              MIL-S                'b                 Contacts                        ZP                  Contacts          nP
                       Dual-ln-Line Package             83734              .O0064                      1                       1.o                       55           6.9
                                                                                                       2                       1.5                       60           7.4
                       Single-ln-Line Package           83734              .O0064




                                                                                                                                                                               --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                                                                                       3                       1.7                       65           7.9
                                                                           .O0064                      4                       1.9                       70           8.4
                       Chip Carrier                     38533                                                                  2.0
                                                                                                       5                                                 75           8.9
                       Pin Grid Array                    NIA               .O0064                      6                       2.1                       80           9.4
                                                                                                       7                       2.3                       85           9.9
                       Relay                            12883              .O37                        8                       2.4                       90           10
                                                                                                       9                       2.5                       95           11
                       Transistor                       12883              .O051                       10                      2.6                       1O0          12
                                                                                                       11                      2.7                       105          12
                        Electron Tube, CRT              12883              .o1 1                       12                      2.8                       110          13
                                                                                                       13                      2.9                       115          13
                                           Quality Factor- xQ                                          14                      3.0                       120          14
                                                                                                       15                      3.1                       125          14
                                                                                                       16                      3.2                       130          15
                                 Qualit                                                                17                      3.3                       135          16
                                                                                                       18                      3.4                       140          16
                            MIL-SPEC.                                                                  19                      3.5                       145          17
                            Lower                                   1 .o                               20                      3.6                       150          18
                                                                                                       25                      4.1                       155          18
                                                                                                       30                      4.5                       160          19
                                      Environment Factor- x=                                           35                      5.0                       165          20
                                                                                                       40                      5.5                       170          20
                                                                                                       45                      5.9                       175          21
                                                                                                       50                      6.4                       180          22




                                                                                                      q       =      .39
                                                                                                      N        = Number of ActivePins

                                                                                                      An active contactis the conductive element
                                                                                                      which mateswith another elementfor the
                                                                                                      purpose of transferring electrical energy.




                        Supersedes page 15-6 of Revision F                                                                                                              15-3
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                                                                                                                           NOTICE 2


                                                                                       16.1                             WITH   THROUGH
                                                                                               INTERCONNECTION ASSEMBLIES PLATED     HOLES

                                                                                       kp = hb[N1               +          +
                                                                                                           xC       N2
                                                                                                                     (xc         13)
                                                                                                                                        1               Failures/106 Hours

                                                                  APPLICATION NOTE: This model applies to board configurations with leaded devices mounted            into the
                                                                  plated through holes and assumesfailures are predominately defect related. For boards using surface mount
                                                                  technology, use Section 16.2. For a mix of leaded devices mounted    into plated through holes and surface
                                                                  mount devices, usethis model for the leaded devices and use Section for the surface mountcontribution.
                                                                                                                                      16.2

                                                                  A discrete wiring assembly with                                        i
                                                                                                 electroless deposit plated through holess basically a pattern of insulated wires
                                                                  laid down on an adhesive coated substrate. The primary cause of failure for both printed wiring and discrete
                                                                                                                                              barrel
                                                                  wiring assemblies is associated with plated through-hole (PTH) problems (e.g., cracking).
                                                                                 Base Failure Rate hb  -                                                                  Quality Factor- "Q
                                                                                                                                                                           Quality
                                                                      Technology                                      b
                                                                                                                      '    .
                --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                                                                    Printed Wiring Assembly/Printed                 .O00017                     MIL-SPEC or Comparable Institute for                                     1
                                                                    Circuit Boards with PTHs                                                    Interconnecting, and Packaging
                                                                                                                                                Electronic Circuits (!PC) Standards
                                                                    Discrete Wiring with Electroless       .o001 1                              (IPC Level3)
                                                                    Deposited PTH(2 2 Levels of Circuitry)                 -
                                                                                                                                                Lower                                                                    2
                                                                                                   -
                                                                            Number of PTHs Factor N1 and N2
                                                                   Factor                     Quantity

                                                                     N1         Automated Techniques: Quantity of                                                    Environment Factor                    -
                                                                                Wave Infrared (IR) or Vapor Phase
                                                                                Soldered Functional PTHs                                            Environment                                                   "E
                                                                                                                                                                   GB                                             1 .o
                                                                     N2         Quantity of Hand Soldered PTHs
                                                                                                                                                                   GF                                            2.0
                                                                                 Complexity Factor - "C                                                            GM                                            7.0
                                                                     Number of Circuit Planes, P   1
                                                                                                   .o
                                                                                                                    "C
                                                                                                                    1
                                                                                                                                                                   NS                                            5.0
                                                                                s2                                                                                                                               13
                                                                                 3                                  1.3                                            NU
                                                                                 4                                  1.6                                            AIC                                           5.0
                                                                                 5                                  1.8
                                                                                 6                                  2.0                                            AIF                                           8.0
                                                                                 7                                  2.2                                                                                          16
                                                                                 8                                  2.4                                            AUC
                                                                                 9                                  2.6                                            AUF                                          28
                                                                                10                                  2.8
                                                                                                                                                                   *RW                                           19
                                                                                11                                  2.9
                                                                                12                                  3.1                                                                                               .50
                                                                                                                                                                   SF
                                                                                13                                  3.3
                                                                                14                                  3.4                                            MF                                            10
                                                                                15                                  3.6
                                                                                                                                                                   ML                                            27
                                                                                16                                  3.7
                                                                                17                                  3.9                                                                                         500
                                                                                18                                  4.0
                                                                                                                                                                   CL
                                                                      Discrete Wiring w/PTH            I            1

                                                                          "C = .65 P.63                         2SP118


                                                                  Supersedes page 16-1 of Revision F                                                                                                                     16-1
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                            MIL-HDBK-217F            CHG N O T I C E 2         9999970 0377074 841

                                                                 MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                    NOTICE 2


        16.2           INTERCONNECTIONASSEMBLIES,SURFACEMOUNTTECHNOLOGY

                                                                to
       APPLICATION NOTE: The SMT Model was developed assess the life integrityof leadless and leaded
       devices. It provides a relative measure circuit card wearout due to thermal cycling fatigue failure of the
                                                of
       "weakest link SMT device. An analysis should be performed on all circuit board SMT components. The
       component with the largest failure rate value (weakest link) is assessed as the overall board failure rate
       due to SMT. The model assumes the board is completely renewed upon failure of the weakest link and
       the results do not consider solder or lead manufacturing defects. This model is based on thetechniques
       developed in Reference 37.


               h         ~ ~
                       s = Average failure rate over
                                                   the
                                     expected equipment life cycle
                                     due to surface mount device         where:
                                             This rate
                                     wearout. failure                       CR              =         Temperature       rate in
                                                                                                                  cycling
                                     contribution to the system is for                                cycles per calendar hour. Base
                                     theSurfaceMountDeviceon                                                                of
                                                                                                      on a thermal analysis the circuit
                                         board
                                     each exhibiting   the                                            board. Use table default values if
                                     highest absolute value of the                                    other estimates do not exist.
                                     strain range:
                                                                             Nf             =         Average         of
                                                                                                              numberthermal
                                                                                                      cycles to failure



               ECF           =                          number
                                     Effective cumulative          of
                                       Weibull
                                         the
                                         over
                                     failures                            where:
                                     characteristic
                                             life.                          d               =         Distance from center of device to
                                                                                                      the furthest solder joint in mils
                                               -
                   Effective Cumulative Failures ECF                                                  (thousandths of an inch)
                          LC                                                 h                             joint mils
                                                                                                     Solder heightin                for
                                                ECF                                         =
                        aSMT                                                                         leadless devices. Default to h = 8
                                                                                                     for all leaded configurations.
                              0 -.1                        .13
                                 -
                            .11 .20                        .15               as             =         Circuit board        thermal
                                                                                                                   substrate
                            .21 - .30                      .23                                        coefficient of expansion(TCE)
                            .31 - .40                      .31
                            .41 - 50                       .41              AT              =           environment
                                                                                                      Use          temperature
                            .51 - .60                      .51                                        extreme difference
                            .61 - .70                     -61
                            .71 - .80                     .68                WC             =         Package         thermal
                                                                                                               material
                            .81 - .90                     .76                                         coefficient of expansion (TCE)
           I                  >.  9            I         1.o
                                                                            TRISE =                       Temperature due
                                                                                                                       rise                   to power
               LC            =           cycle
                                         life
                                     Design                of the                                         dissipation (Pd)
                                     equipment in which the circuit
                                     board is operating.
                                                                                                 Pd             =         eJCP
               ~ S M T=              TheWeibull characteristic life.                            8JC             =        Thermal resistance "/Watt
                                           is           of
                                     C~SMT a function device and                                 P              =        Power Dissipation (Watts)
                                     substrate material, themanu-
                                     facturing methods,  and    the         nLC =                        configuration
                                                                                                      Lead           factor
                                     application environment used.




       16-2                                                                  --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                                                                                                                        New Page
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                                                                        VIL-HDBK-217F            CHG NOTICE 2                        9 9 9 7 9 7 0 0397075 788


                                                                                                                 MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                                                                    NOTICE 2


                                                                                          16.2    INTERCONNECTIONASSEMBLIES,SURFACEMOUNTTECHNOLOGY

                                                                         CR - Cycling Rate Defat Values                                          as - Default TCE Substrate Values
                                                                                                                                                  -
                                                                         Equipment Type          Number o f                          Substrate Material
                                                                                                 Cycles/Hour
                                                                 Automotive                        1.o                               F R 4 Laminate                                                   18
                                                                 Consumer (television, radio,       .O8                              F R 4 Multilayer Board                                           20
                                                                      recorder)                                                      FR-4 Multilayer Board w/Copper                                   11
                                                                 Computer                           .17                              Clad Invar
                                                                 Telecommunications                 .O042                            Ceramic Multilayer Board                                         7
                                                                 Commercial Aircraft                .25                                                                                               5
                                                                                                                                     Copper Clad Invar
                                                                 Industrial                         .o21
                                                                                                                                     Copper Clad Molybdenum                                           5
              --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                                                                 Military Ground Applications        .O3
                                                                 Military Aircraft (Cargo)           .12                             Carbon-Fiber/Epoxy Composite                                     1
                                                                 Military Aircraft (Fighter)         .5                              Kevlar Fiber                                                     3
                                                                                                                                     Quartz Fiber                                                     1
                                                                            "LC   - Lead Configuration Factor                        Glass Fiber                                                      5
                                                                I       Lead Configuration         I       "LC                       Epoxy/Glass Laminate                                             15
                                                                    Leadless                                 1                       Polyamide/Glass Laminate                                         13
                                                                    J or S Lead                            150                       Polyamide/Kevlar Laminate                                        6
                                                                    Gull Wing                          5,000        1                PolyamidelQuartz Laminate                                        8
                                                                                                                                     Epoxy/Kevlar Laminate                                            7
                                                                             a m - TCE Packaae Values
                                                                                                                                     Alumina (Ceramic)                                                7
                                                                -Material                  I orcc Average
                                                                                                        Value       I                Epoxy Aramid Fiber                                               7
                                                                I   Plastic
                                                                    Ceramic                I           7
                                                                                                       6            I                Polyamide Aramid Fiber
                                                                                                                                     Epoxy-Quartz
                                                                                                                                                                                                      6
                                                                                                                                                                                                      9
                                                                           AT - Use Environment Default                              Fiberglass Teflon Laminates                                      20
                                                                             Temperature Difference                                  Porcelainized Copper Clad Invar                                  7
                                                                      Environment                   AT                               Fiberglass Ceramic Fiber                                         7
                                                                            GB                       7
                                                                             GF                         21                           EXAMPLE: A large plastic        encapsulated
                                                                                                                                     leadless chip carrier is mounted on a epoxy-
                                                                             GM                         26
                                                                                                                                     glass printed     assembly. design
                                                                                                                                                  wiring          The
                                                                             NS                         26                           considerations are: a square package      is 1480
                                                                                                                                     mils on a side, solder height is 5 mils, power
                                                                             NU                         61
                                                                                                                                     dissipationis .5 watts,thermalresistance        is
                                                                             AIC                        31                                       the
                                                                                                                                     20°C/watt, design   life        is 20yearsand
                                                                                                                                     environment is military ground application. The
                                                                             AIF                        31
                                                                                                                                     failure rate developed is the impact of SMTfor a
                                                                             AUC                        57                           single circuit board and accounts for all SMT
                                                                                                        57                           devices on this board. This failure rate is added
                                                                             AUF                                                     to the sum of all of the component failure rates
                                                                             ARW                        31                           on the circuit board.
                                                                             SF                            7
                                                                                                                                                                    ECF
                                                                             MF                        N/A                                    MT            =      -
                                                                                                                                                                    aSMT
                                                                             ML                        N/A
                                                                                                                                                                   Nf
                                                                             CL                        N/A                                   aSMT           =      CR

                                                                    New Page                                                                                                                              16-3
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                                        flIL-HDBK-237F        CHG N O T I C E 2                             m           9999970 039307b b 3 4                                 m
                                                                          MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                             NOTICE 2

                    16.2           INTERCONNECTIONASSEMBLIES, SURFACE MOUNTTECHNOLOGY




                            hFor
                             h:                   = 5 mils

                            For as:             as = 15 (Table - Epoxy
                                                                     Glass)

                            For AT:             AT = 21 (Table - GF)

                            For act:            W C = 7 (Table - Plastic)

                            For TRISE:          TRISE = 8JcP = 20(.5) 10°C
                                                                    =

                            For nLC:            ~ L = 1 (Table - Leadless)
                                                     C

                            For CR:             CR = .O3 cycles/hour
                                                                   (Table             - Military
                                                                                               Ground)




                                   Nf       =   18,893 thermal cycles to failure


                                            =   .O3 cyledhour = 629,767 hours
                                                18,893 cycles




                                   "
                                       LC   -
                                                (20 yrs.) (8760   F)     = .28
                                   %MT             629,767 hrs.


                                   ECF      =   .23 failures (Table - EffectiveCumulativeFailures)

                                                ECF
                                   MT       =   -E 629,767 hours = ,0000004 failuredhour
                                                aSMT
                                                     .23 failures


                                   h    s   ~
                                            =    ~
                                                .4 failures/l O6 hours




                   16-4                                                                                                                                                    New Page
                                                                            --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---



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                                   NIL-HDBK-217F         CHG N O T I C E 2                    9999970 0377077 550

                                                                         MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                            NOTICE 2


                                                                                                                                           17.1             CONNECTIONS


                            APPLICATION NOTE: The failure rate model in this section applies to connections used on all assemblies
                            except those using plated through holes or surface mount technology. Use the Interconnection Assembly
                            Model in Section 16 to account for connections to a circuit board using either plated through hole technology
                            or surface mount technology. The failure rate of the structure which supports the connections and parts, e.g.,
                            non-plated-through hole boards and terminal straps, considered to be zero. Solderless wrap connections are
                                                                                is
                            characterized by solid wire wrapped under tension arounda post, whereas hand soldering with wrapping does
                                                                                                 for
                            not depend on a tension induced connection. The following model is a single connection.

                                                                 3p = %xE     Failures/l O6 Hours


                                          Base Failure Rate- L
                                                             U
                                                                                                                       Environment Factor- x ,
                                Connection Type               +, (FAO6 hrs)
                               Hand Solder, w/o Wrapping         .O013
                               Hand Solder, w/Wrapping           .O00070
                               Crimp                             .O0026




                                                                                                                                                                          --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                               Weld                              .O00015
                               Solderless Wrap                   .O000068
                               Clip Termination                   .o001 2
                               Reflow Solder                     .O00069
                               Spring Contact                     .17
                               Terminal Block                     .O62




                                              17-1
                            Supersedes page 17-1 of Revision F
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                                                                                                                                MIL-HDBK-217F

                                                                                                                                                                                              18.1                METERS, PANEL

                                                                         SPECIFICATION                                                            DESCRIPTION
                                                                         MIL-M-1 0304                                                             Meter, Electrical Indicating, Panel Type, Ruggedized

                                                                                                             X P % AXF X
                                                                                                                       Q         X    n:E Failures/106 Hours


                                                                                         Ease Failure Rate L     -                                                                  Quality Factor zn         -
                                                                                                                                                          I       Quality                                     I                 "O          I
                                                                     I     All
                                                                                                        I                 .o90
                                                                                                                                              I                   MIL-"10304                                                    1 .o
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            I
                                                                                                                                                                   Lower                                                        3.4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            I
                                                                                         Application Factor      - ..
                                                                     I     Application                  I                XA                   1                                    Environment Factor- x ,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            L


                                                                           Direct Current                                1 .o                                      Environment                                                  -   "E
                                                                                                                                                                          GB                                                         1 .o
                                                                           Alternating Current                           1.7
                                                                     I                                  I                                     I                           GF                                                        4.0

                                                                                                                                                                          GM                                                        25
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    12
                                                                                          Function Factor xc -                                                            NS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    35
                                                                     I     Function                     I            -   *F
                                                                                                                                                                          NU
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    28
                                                                                                                                                                          AIC
                                                                           Ammeter                                       1.o                                                                                                        42
                                                                                                         I                                                                 F
                                                                                                                                                                          Al
                                                                           .Voltmeter                                    1.o                                              AUC                                                       58
                                                                           Other'                                        2.8                                                                                                        73
                                                                                                         I                                                                AUF
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    60
                                                                                                                           ~~             ~


                                                                                                                                                                          ARW
                                                                          ' Meters whose basic meter movement construction                                                SF                                                         1.1
                                                                          is an ammeterwith associated conversion elements.
                                                                                                                                                                          MF                                                        60
                                                                     I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                NIA
                   --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                                                                                                                                                                          ML
                                                                                                                                                                          CL                                                    NIA




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                            .    .          .           . ..
                                                          .
                                                             -
                                                                      .
                                                                     .-
                                                                                  - .
                                                                                                                                   m                                                            m
                                                    ~




                                                                              .     '   MIL-HDBK-237F                      RE                   0
                                                                                                                                          9999970 070863                                   T
                                                                                                                                                                                                         ~~




                                                                                                             MIL-HDBK-217F

                                                                                                                                                                       19.1              QUARTZ CRYSTALS
                                SPECIFICATION                                                                                      DESCRIPTION
                                MIL-C-3098                                                                                         Crystal Units, Quartz

                                                                                                             X
                                                                                                    'P = 'b Q E
                                                                                                                  x Failures/106
                                                                                                                               Hours


                                                               Base Failure                                                                                        Environment Factor zE                      -
                                           Frequency, f(MHz)                                            "b                                        Environment                                                      "E
                                                                                                                                                         GB .                                                       1 .o
                                                  0.5                                                   .o1 1
                                                  1.O                                                   .O13                                              GF                                                       3 .O
                                                  5.0                                                   .o19
                                                 10                                                     .o22                                              GM                                                       10
                                                 15                                                     ,024                                                                                                        6.0
                                                 20                                                     .O26                                              NS
                                                 25                                                     .O27                                                                                                       16
                                                 30                                                     .O28                              r               NU
                                                 35                                                     ,029                                                                                                       12
                                                                                                                                                   .     AIC
                                                 40                                                     .O30           .                                                                                           17
                                                 45                                                     .O31                                             AIF
                                                 50                                                     ,032                                             AUC                                                       22
                                                 55                                                     ,033
                                                 60                                                     .O33                                              AUF                                                     28
                                                 65                                                     .O34                                                                                                      23
                                                 70                                                     .O35               .                             ARW
                                                 75                                                     .O35                                              SF                                                            .50
                                                 80                                                     .O36
                                                 85                                                     .O36                                              MF                                                       13
                                                 90                                                     .O37                                                                                                      32
                                                                                                        .O37                                              ML
                                                 95                  .
                                                100                   .                                 .O37                                                                                                      500
                                                105                                                     ,038                              i               CL

                                                                                                                 _ .
                                           hb =                .013(f)*23




                                                                     Quality Factor zQ      -                                                                                                                                        --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---


                            I        Quality                                                I          Xn                      I
                                     MIL-SPEC

                                     Lower




                                                                                                                                                                                                                              19-1
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                                                                                                               MIL-HDBK-217F




              SPECIFICATION                                                                                                                                              DESCRIPTION
escent,Lamps, MIL-L-6363
              w-L-111                  Miniature,
                           Tungsten-Filament Incandescent, Lamps,

                                                                                          L   h, = X , , ~ C ~ I C ~ K ~
                                                                                                                 Failuredl O6 Hours

                         APPLICATION NOTE: The data used to develop this model included randomly occurring catastrophic failures
                                        to
                         and failures due tungsten filament wearout.
                                                     Base Failure Rate?+,                 -       I
                                                                                                                                                              Environment Factor K,                -
                        I     Voltage,
                              Rated                         V, (Volts)                I                   Ah            I
                                          5
                                          6
                                                                                      I     I          .75
                                                                                                          59

                                         12
                                         14
                                         24                                           I ::: I-        1.8 .



                        l                28
                                         37.5
                                                                                            I         5.4




                                            Utilization Factor nu                         -
                                Utilization (IlluminateHourd
                                Equipment Operate Hours)                                                       leu
                                < 0.10                                                                         0.10

                                0.10 to 0.90                                                                   0.72
                        I       > 0.90                                                            .   I    . 1.0
                                                                                                                         I
                                                     Application Factor K . _
                                                                          A                   -
                              Application                                             I
                              Alternating Current                                                     1 .o
                              Direct Current                                                          3.3




                                                                                                                                                                                                        20-1
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                                                                                               '   MIL-HDBK-217F               RE               9 9 9 9 9 7 0 0070863 3 E


                                                                                                                         MIL-HDBK-217F
                  --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                                                                                                                                      2 1.1        .             FILTERS,
                                                                                                                                                        ELECTRONIC      NON-TUNABLE

                                                                    SPECIFICATION                                                        DESCRIPTION
                                                                    MIL-F-15733                                                          Filters, Radio Frequency Interference
                                                                    MIL-F-18327                                                          Filters, High Pass, Low Pass, Band Pass, Band
                                                                                                                                         Suppression, and Dual Functioning (Non-tunable)


                                                                                           to                                              is to
                                                                    The most accurate way estimate the failure rate for electronic filters sum the failure rates for the individual
                                                                    components which makeup the filter (e.g., IC's, diodes, resistors, etc.) using the appropriate models provided in
                                                                    this Handbook. The Parts Stress models or the Parts Count method            given in Appendix A can be used to
                                                                    determine individual component failure rates. If insufficient information is. available then the following default
                                                                    model canbe used.

                                                                                                                A,, =     XQ   XE FailuresUO6 Hours


                                                                                                          -
                                                                                      Base Failure Rate At,                                                                 Environment Factor - 7 c .
                                                                                                                                                                                                  c
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      I:
                                                                                      TY Pe                              'b                                 Environment.                               I                   "E
                                                                        MIL-F-15733, Ceramic-Ferrite                    ,022
                                                                        Construction (StylesF i 10-16, 22,
                                                                        24, 30-32, 34,35, 38, 41-43, 45,
                                                                        47-50, 61-65, 70, 81-93, 95, 96)
                                                                        MIL-F-15733, Discrete LC                        .12
                                                                        Componentsi (Styles FL 37, 53, 74)
                                                                    ,   MIL-F-18327, Discrete LC                        .12                                                                                                7.0
                                                                        Components (Composition 1)                                                                                                                         9.0
                                                                        MIL-F-18327, Discrete LC and                    .27                                                                                                11
                                                                        CrystalComponents .
                                                                        (Composition 2)                                                                                                                                    13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           11
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                .80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7.0
                                                                                          Quality Factor- Z n                                                                                                              15
                                                                            Quality                                                                                                                                   120
                                                                            MIL-SPEC
                                                                            Lower




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                                                                                                                                                     :

                                                                          MIL-HDBK-217F

                                                                                                                                                         22.1              FUSES

                        SPECIFICATION                                                 DESCRIPTION
                        W-F-1726                                                      Fuse, Cartridge Class H
                        W-F-1814                                                      Fuse, Cartridge, High Interrupting Capacity
                        MIL-F-5372                                                    Fuse, Current Limiter Type, Aircraft
b                       ML-F-23419                                                    Fuse, Instrument Type
                        MIL-F-15160                                                   Fuse, Instrument, Power and Telephone
                                                                                      (Nonindicating), Style F01


                                                                 hp   =   +, Failures/106 Hours
                                                                           ICE


                        APPLICATION NOTE: The reliability modeling of fusespresentsauniqueproblem.’Unlikemostother
                        components, there is very little correlation between the numberof fuse replacements and actual fuse failures.
                        Generally whena fuse opens, or “blows,” something elsein the circuithas created-anoverload conditionand the
                        fuse is simply functioning as designed. This model is based on life test data and represents fuse open and
                        shorting failure modes due primarily to mechanical fatigue and corrosion. short failure mode is most commonly
                                                                                                A
                                                                                                                      failure
                        caused by electrically conductive material shorting the fuse terminals together causing a to open condition
                        when rated current is exceeded.

                                                         -
                                       Base Failure Rate $                                                                           Environment Factor- xE
                                                                                                                                                                  L

                                       TY Pe                 I                                              Environment                                               C
                                                                                                                                                                      xE
                                                                                                                                                                       1.o

                    I
                    I
                            W-F-1726, W-F-1814, MIL-F-
                            5372, MIL-F-23419, ML-F-15160
                                                             I                    I
                                                                                                                      GB
                                                                                                                      GF
                                                                                                                      GM
                                                                                                                                                                      2.0
                                                                                                                                                                      8.0

                                                                                                                      NS                                              5.0

                                                                                                                      NU                                              11

                                                                                                                      AIC                                             9.0

                                                                                                                      AlF                                             12
                                                                                                                      AUC              a
                                                                                                                                                                      15         .

                                                                                                                      AUF                                             18
                                                                                                                      ARW                                             16

                                                                                                                      SF                                                   .9o

                                                                                                                      MF                                              10
                                                                                                                       ML                                             21
                                                                                                                      CL                                          230




                                                                                                                                                                                 22-1
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                                                                                            :   MIL-HDBK-217F          RE              9 9 9 9 9 7 0 0070865 7                               m

                                                                                                                   MIL-HDBK-217F

                                                                                                                                                            23.1               MISCELLANEOUS                       PARTS
                    --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                                                                                                h,-. Failure
                                                                                                 P
                                                                                                                                      (Failures/lO6 Hours)
                                                                                                            Rates for Miscellaneous Parts
                                                                                                     Part Type                                          Failure Rate

                                                                         Vibrators (MIL-V-95)
                                                                             60-cycle                                                                                                  15
                                                                             120-cycle                                                                                                 20
                                                                             400-cycle                                                                                                 40


                                                                         Lamps
                                                                            Neon Lamps                                                                                                    0.20

                                                                         Fiber Optic Cables (Single Fiber Types Only)                                                                     0.1 (Per Fiber Km)


                                                                         Single Fiber Optic Connectors'                                                                                   0.10       -




                                                                         Microwave Elements (Coaxial &Waveguide)
                                                                             Attenuators (Fixed& Variable)                                                             See Resistors, TypeRD

                                                                             Fixed Elements (Directional Couplers, Fixed StubsCavities)
                                                                                                                            &                                          Negligible

                                                                             Variable Elements (Tuned Stubs Cavities)
                                                                                                          &                                                                               0.10

                                                                         Microwave Ferrite Devices
                                                                             Isolators & Circulators (51
                                                                                                       OOW)

                                                                             Isolators & Circulators (>1
                                                                                                       OOW)

                                                                             Phase Shifter (Latching)


                                                                         Dummy Loads
                                                                            < 1oow

                                                                             1oow to I 1ooow                                                                                              0.030       X   ZE

                                                                             > 1ooow

                                                                                                                   in Stripline and Thin
                                                                         -Terminations (Thin or Thick Film Loads Used                                                                     0.030X "E
                                                                          Film Circuits)

                                                                      'Caution: Excessive Mating-Demating Cycles May Seriously Degrade Reliability




                                                                                                                                                                                                                       23-1

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                                                                            I ,NIL-HDBK-217F            RE      m 9999978         e30708bb 9 U

                                                                                                       MIL-HDBK-217F


  23.1              MISCELLANEOUS PARTS



                                                                                         - IC,
                                                                        Environment Factor
                                                                                             L
                                                                                                                                          Environment Factor- nE
                        (Microwave Ferri Devices)                                                                                    (Dummy L .ds)
                      --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                 Environment                    "E                                                                        Environment                                                   "E
                                                 1.o                                                                             GB                                                      1 .o
                                                                                                 2.0                             GF                                                      2.0
                                                                                                 8.0        ,
                                                                                                                                 GM                                                    10
                                                                                                 5.0.                            NS                                                      5.0
                                                                                                 12                              NU                                            '       17
                                                                                                 5.0                             *IC                                                     6.0
                                                                                                 8.0                             AlF                                                     8.0            .

                                                                                                 7.0                             AUC                                                   14
                                                                                                 11                              AUF                                                   22
                                                                                                 17                              ARW                                                   25          -


                                                                                                      .50                        SF                                                         .50
                                                                                                 9.0                             MF                                      -    .        14
                                                                                                 24                              ML                                                    36
                                                                                             450                                 CL                                                  660 .




   23-2

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                                                                              MIL-HDBK-237F         CHG N O T I C E 2            W 9999970 0 3 9 7 0 7 8 4 9 7 W

                                                                                                                MIL-HDBK-217F


                                                                                                         APPENDIX A:                 COUNT
                                                                                                                                 PARTS             PREDICTION
                                                                                                                                         RELIABILITY


                                                                                                                 -
                                                                          Parts Count Reliability Prediction This prediction method is applicable during bid proposal
                                                                     and early design phases when insufficient information is available to use the part stress analysis models
                                                                     shown in the main bodyof this Handbook. The information needed to apply the method is (1) generic part
                                                                     types (including complexity for microcircuits) and quantities, (2) pait quality levels, and (3)equipment
                                                                     environment. The equipment failure rate is obtained by looking up a generic failure rate in one of the
                                                                                                                            then summing it with failure rates obtainedfor other
                                                                     following tables, multiplyingit by a quality factor, and
                                                                     components in the equipment. The general mathematical expression for equipment failure rate with this
                                                                     method is:


                                                                                                                                                                  Equation 1


                                                                     for a given equipment environment where:

                                                                                     hEQUIP =      Totalequipmentfailurerate(Failures/106Hours)

                                                                                               =   Generic failure rate for the th generic part (FailuredlO6 Hours)
                                                                                                                               i
                                                                                     hg

                                                                                     "Q        =   Quality factor for the i th generic pari
                   --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                                                                                     Ni        =         of
                                                                                                   Quantity    i th generic
                                                                                                                         part

                                                                                     n         =        of       generic
                                                                                                   Numberdifferent                     pari categories in the equipment

                                                                         Equation 1 applies if the entire equipment is being used in one environment.       If the equipment
                                                                     comprises several units operating in different environments (such as avionics systems with units in
                                                                     airborne inhabited (Al) and uninhabited (AU) environments), then Equation 1 should be applied to the
                                                                     portions of the equipment in each environment. These "environment-equipment" failure rates should be
                                                                     added to determine total equipment failure rate. Environmental symbols are defined in Section 3.

                                                                        The quality factors be usedwith each part type are shown the applicable hgtables andare not
                                                                                            to                                       with
                                                                     necessarily the same values that are used in the Part Stress Analysis. Microcircuits have an additional
                                                                     multiplying factor, xL, which accounts for the maturity of the manufacturing process. For devices in
                                                                     production two years or more, no modification is needed. For those in production less than two years, h
                                                                                                                                                                             9
                                                                     should be multiplied by the appropriate factor (See page
                                                                                                           5tL                 A-4).

                                                                                                                                                                    is a
                                                                         It should be noted that no generic failure rates are shown for hybrid microcircuits. Each hybridfairly
                                                                     uniquedevice. Sincenone of thesedevices have beenstandardized, their complexitycannot be
                                                                     determined from their name or function. Identically or similarly named hybrids can have a wide range   of
                                                                     complexity that thwarts categorization purposes of this prediction method. If hybrids are anticipated for
                                                                                                           for
                                                                     a design, their use and construction should be thoroughly investigated on an individual basis with
                                                                     application of the prediction modelin Section 5.

                                                                          The failure rates shown in this Appendix were calculated by assigning model default values to the
                                                                     failure rate models of Section 5 through 23. The specific defauR values used for model parameters are
                                                                                                                                                      the
                                                                     shown with theh Tables for microcircuits. Default parameters for all other part classes are summarized  in
                                                                                       9
                                                                     the tables starting on Page A-12. For partswith characteristics which differ significantly from the assumed
                                                                     defaults, or parts used in large quantities, the underlying models in the main body of this Handbook can
                                                                     be used.


                                                                                                                                                                                                           A-1
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                                    flIL-HDBK-217F   CHG N O T I C E 2                         m            9999970 0397079 323                                     m
                                                                     MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                        NOTICE 2


              APPENDIX A:                   COUNT
                                         PARTS
                                                 I   I           I                     l                     I                    1        I


                                (
                                                                       N??
                                                                       "mNIC-

                                                                             -4               "NO


                                                                                              "4s/




                            I




                                                         Oln
                                                          C N
                                                         * O
                                                         99-

                                                         r-mN
                                                         N*m
                                                         999

                                                         mar-
                                l                        N o m
                                                         999

                                                         warm
                                1                        -Nm
                                                         999

                                1
                                      w o
                                      mm-mNln
                                      oormlnr.
                                                         -
                                                         W - N
                                                         O - N
                                      999999             999




                                I




                                I

                                l




                                l




              A- 2                                                                                          Supersedes page A-2 of Notice 1
                                                                                --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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                                                                                                  MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                                                     NOTICE 2
                                                                                                                                   APPENDIX A:                           PARTS COUNT




                                                                r m m o
                                                                 . .
                                                                ?".cy


                                                                ommm
                                                                ommm
                                                                9999
                                                                r-mI-
                                                                *mm-
                                                                000-
                                                                9999

                                                                -mm
                                                                r-mm-
                                                                999"

                                                                b o m
                                                                r-mmz
                                                                999       .
                                                                mom           m   ~     n OUI-
                                                                o w w r       b(DI-N      bmI-N
                                                                999'1         9997       999"

                                                                Lnmm0         mm-m       mplmo
                                                                bmmm          o m w m    m-mm
                                                                9999          9999       9999

                                                                r-mmm
                                                                mwzflc
                                                                9999

                                                                mmwm
                                                                mwwm
                                                                9999

                                                                CIzf-tW
                                                                9999

                                                                wmmm          mom-       I-wmr-
                                                                m**W          mbPI-      Nmom
                                                                9999          9999       9999

                                                                mNmW          m ~ z f m -rmmcu
                                                                r N N O             -
                                                                              r N N m- N m
                                                                9999          9999       9999
                                                                I-mr-
                                                                bmW-
                                                                000-
                                                                9999




                                                                                                                                                 1



                             Supersedes page A-3 of Notice 1
              --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
                                                                                                                                                                                         A-3
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                 APPENDIX A:     PARTS COUNT




                                                       k:
                                                        I
                                                        I
                                                        +
                                                       N


                                                        h


                                                   9
                                                   N




                                               m




                                                                                                                                              --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                            -C




                            I'
                            .-
                            d
               A-4

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                                                                              MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                                NOTICE 2



                                                              9    O
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                               Supersedes page A-5 of Notice 1                                                                                                            A-5
          --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Document provided by IHS.                                                               Document provided by IHS Licensee=Lockheed Martin/4667500100, 05/05/2004
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                            MIL-HDBK-217F C H G N O T I C E 2       m         9 9 9 9 9 7 0 0397083 8 5 4                                m
                                                     MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                       NOTICE 1
                  APPENDIX A:     PARTS COUNT




                                                                                                                                                  --``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---




                 A-6                                                        Supersedes page A-6 of Revision F
Document provided by IHS.                                       Document provided by IHS Licensee=Lockheed Martin/4667500100, 05/05/2004
                                                                10:42:07 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
                                                                Policy Group at 303-397-2295.
                                           MIL-HDBK-ZLi'F                    CHG N O T I C E 2          m        9 9 9 9 9 7 0 O L 9 7 0 8 Y 790

                                                                                               MIL-HDBK-217F
                                                                                                  NOTICE 2
                                                                                                                                       APPENDIX A:                        PAR' 5 COUNT


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