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					<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation
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Icing                                     Federal Aviation
                                          Administration

  Class 2
   Ground Icing
Conditions & Proper
Deicing Procedures


Presented to: The Saturday Morning Crew
By: Ben McQuillan
Date: November 20th, 2010
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                Preflight
               Inspection
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What to look for…

• An airplane’s lift, control, & Propulsion
  surfaces are designed to operate clean &
  free of any contamination

• Any contamination, particularly the
  consistency of light to medium grit
  sandpaper can increase induced lift as
  much as 40%, and reduce the wing’s lift
  potential as much as 30%

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         Mechanical
          Deicing
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  Removing Frost
• Polishing frost was previously considered
  acceptable
• Now considered to be unsafe, & discouraged by
  the FAA
• Hoar frost can be completely removed by rubbing
  or scraping without returning
• Active frost will return & needs to be addressed
  chemically
• Don’t forget to remove frost on under-surfaces,
  especially on the tail
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Breaking Ice by Hand

• Nearly impossible to remove all
  accumulated ice
• Likely to cause damage to paint or structure
• Does not address areas of accumulation
  which could cause control jamming




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                 Thermal
                  Deicing/
                 Anti Icing
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  Using a Heated Hangar                             (Hot-soaking)

• Arguably the preferred method of deicing
• No messy chemicals
• Properly done, eliminates all ice & moisture from
  the airplane
• Melt all the ice, then wipe dry, then allow to
  evaporate for at least an hour
• Also a way to anti ice for short taxis to the runway
  – No guaranteed “holdover time”
  – Usually works for 5-30 minutes depending on temp &
    duration of exposure to hangar heat, and environmental
    conditions

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                 Chemical
                  Deicing
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Type 1 Fluid

• Used to Deice aircraft
• For use on airplanes whose takeoff rotation
  speeds are 60 Knots IAS or less
• Heated in the truck to 160˚
• Thin, extremely slippery fluid
       – Be very cautious walking around this fluid
• Orange in color



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Type 4 Fluid

• Used for anti icing qualities
• Not to be applied to airplanes whose takeoff
  rotation speeds are less than 100 Knots IAS
• Applied cold
• Thick, jelly-like consistency
• Green in color




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                           Surfaces to Deice
• Wings
  – Leading edges
  – Upper surfaces
• Vertical Stabilizer
  – Leading edge
• Horizontal Stabilizer
  – Leading edges
  – Upper & lower surfaces
• Propeller blades
• Other areas as necessary
  – Windshields, wheels/brakes, areas of large accumulation

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Areas to Avoid

• Pitot tubes
• Static ports
       – Just what you want on an icy IFR day…bad
         instrument indications
• Engine induction intakes
       – Possible engine failure or significant loss of power
• Engine cooling intakes
       – Potential for overheating



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  Where on the Airport to Deice
• Larger airports have designated deice pads marked on
  the airport diagrams
• Some of our smaller ones are slowly becoming EPA
  friendly with designated deice collection areas
• Many northern climate busy airports have well defined
  procedures to follow. See the FBO for details.
• In their absence, coordinate with the deice truck driver
  & ground control for the best position
   – For a simple deice, right on the ramp is fine…ask to
     have it tugged away from the slippery fluid
   – During ground icing conditions, the closer to the end of
     the departure runway the better
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  Working with the Deice Truck
• Before deicing, speak with the deice operator
  about the intended process
• Park pointing into the wind if possible
• Ask about a designated frequency to talk directly
  with the driver/boom operator in the truck
  – Available @ the FBO or painted on deice truck
• Shut the engine(s) down to avoid hazard to the
  deice operator, restart after they’re clear
• Have the radio on to maintain communication
  during your 5-10 minute deice
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Pre Deice Coordination is Key




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Engines Shut Down, working
with the deice operator




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           The all-clear
            to restart
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     The DIY Method (Deice only)
• A garden sprayer & a container of Kilfrost can
  save a lot of money & hassle
• Don’t use just any chemical, there could be
  problems with material compatibility &
  aerodynamic characteristics (shear speed)
• Some sprayers have heating elements
• Do not heat Kilfrost (low flash point)
• A mop is also a good tool for deice fluid
  disbursement
• Be certain you’re comfortable deicing your own
  airplane
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Cleaning Considerations

• Over time, even type 1 deice fluid collects &
  coagulates in the nooks & crannies
• It’s a good idea to have your airplane
  washed after each deicing
• If you deice regularly, or anti ice, ask your
  mechanic to give it a good look for potential
  hazards



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Performance Degradation

• Weight gain is minimal
• But, added drag from even Type 1 fluid can
  increase light airplane takeoff distances as
  much as 20%
• Initial climb will also suffer slightly for a
  minute or two as the fluid shears off
• Type 4 fluid application requires an entirely
  new set of takeoff performance data…no
  kidding

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The Cost of Chemical Deicing

• Very expensive due to the costly chemicals,
  equipment, & environmental
  concerns/disposal requirements
• Expect to pay $200-700 for most light GA
  airplanes
       – $1,000-10,000 for the big iron
• Alternative methods are being perfected
       – Infrared skin heating



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                    Strategic
                     Anti Ice
                    Planning
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                                                   Lift & Control
                                                  Surface Covers




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  Cold-soaking in a Hangar
• Requires 2-3 days of planning
• Works great if operating below -5˚C in dry snow
• Freezing rain, drizzle, mist, or frost will still require
  chemical de/anti icing
• Turn the heat off at least 48 hours prior to
  departure
   – Allows large quantities of fuel to cool to ambient temp
   – Don’t forget to plug in your engine heater
• Open the doors & windows for a half hour to allow
  all of the precious heat out

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     Operating in
     Ground Icing
      Conditions
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  Holdover Time
• The length of time that fluid will keep you safe is
  not a guess
  – Dependent upon deice or anti ice, temp, type of precip, &
    level of precip
• Each year, the FAA releases its “Holdover Tables”
  guide for all of the projected de/anti ice chemical
  availability in the U.S.
• Go to www.faa.gov & Search: Holdover Tables
• Print out & keep in the airplane the tables for the
  operations you take on

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Hold Under Time

• A concern with Type 4 anti ice application
• Too much time can also be a problem if the
  precip stops, or if applied in a hangar
• Thick Type 4 fluid can ooze down to lower
  surfaces & become like a loose rubber
  block
• Chemical dries out & coagulates
• Will not shear at normal airspeeds
• Has caused serious accidents
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                          Initial Application




                  After Sitting Out Too Long


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Coordinating with ATC

• Deicing on the hangar or FBO ramp is no
  problem, just call when you’re ready to taxi
       – Get a clearance & advise intentions prior to
         beginning the deice to give them ample notice to
         plan
• Heading to the deice pad or requesting a
  deice in the run up area is a different story
       – Be clear about where & when you intend to deice to
         ensure the highest level of safety, especially critical
         in ground icing conditions

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Before Takeoff Contamination Check

 • Absolutely critical for the safety of the flight
 • Pre-coordinate for the deice operator to
   perform a tactile check of the surface after
   finishing
 • Better yet, check for yourself
        – Visually inspect all surfaces
        – If unable, get out of the airplane & perform a brief
          walk around to verify the deice condition



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                 Next Week…
                              Icing: Class 3

  In Flight Icing Conditions & Safe Exit
Procedures for Non-Equipped Airplanes


<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation
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