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					Participles
Two forms of participles
  Present Participle
   verb + “ing”

    e.g. swimming
  Past Participle
   verb + “ed”

    or some irregular forms.
    e.g. interested, gone , eaten etc.
Functions of Present Participles
1. Continuous tense
     These days, the temperature is rising
     steadily.
2. Gerund
     When the girls are free, they usually go
     window shopping.
3. Adjective
     Last night, I watched an exciting movie
     with my kids, the Spider Man 3.
Functions of Present Participles
continues …

 4. Together with verbs of perception, to
    show incomplete actions
      Did you see Daniel dancing?
      (Did you see Daniel dance?)
 5. Joining clauses
      Mary left her desk.
      She whistled cheerfully.
      Whistling cheerfully, Mary left her
      desk.
Identify the functions of the
following participles.
 1. Their work doesn’t have the glamour
      of fashion modelling.
 2.   Keung began modelling in secondary
      school.
 3.   Poses like Kawaii are boring.
 4.   She has to endure mosquito bites
      while posing on the grass.
 5.   This field is very competitive because
      new faces are coming up all the time.
Functions of Past Participles
1. Perfect tense
     Kilo has eaten thirteen Big Mac’s in five
     minutes!
2. Passive voice
     Thirteen Big Mac’s have been eaten by
     Kilo.
     (What function does ‘been’ perform?)
3. Adjective
     The spectators were very impressed.
     The impressed spectators applauded.
     (Is ‘applauded’ a past participle?)
  Identify the functions of the
  following participles.
1. The number of hobbyists has shot up
   substantially as the equipment becomes
   increasingly inexpensive.
2. A neophyte can now charge about $200
   for several hours’ work while experienced
   models may command $2000 an hour.
3. I wasn’t assigned to an agency because I
   didn’t have an impressive portfolio.
4. An obsessed fan threatened to destroy
   everything of hers.
Some adjectives w/o adverbs
difficult
(With a painful leg, Tom walks in difficulty.)
friendly
(He shook my hand in a friendly way.)
likely
          We make adverbial phrases from
lonely    these adjectives (or other parts
silly     of speech) to modify the verb.
ugly

				
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