1. Which of these phases shown at left is the first step in
2. Which phase includes DNA
replication which duplicates chromosomes?
Use the following diagram to answer questions 3 & 4
3. What are the specialized cells that result from meiosis?
4. Compare the outcome of mitosis and meiosis. (include number of cells, amount of genetic material, and
5. Where are sperm produced?
6. Where are eggs produced?
7. Which of the segments shown in the diagrams below could be used to correctly complete the DNA
molecule in the diagram below?
8. Describe the relationship between genes and proteins.
9. List the order of molecular progression to make a protein.
10. What molecule carries coded information from the nucleus?
11. Which of the following correctly shows the shape of a DNA molecule?
12. Name he process by which the order of bases in messenger RNA (mRNA) codes for the order of
amino acids in a protein.
13. Which of these represents the structure of messenger RNA?
14. List the function of DNA, rRNA, tRNA, and mRNA?
15. A strand of DNA has a nucleotide base sequence of TAC-
CGG-AGT. Write a mRNA nucleotide sequence that would be
produced from this strand of DNA?
16. What are the basic building blocks of proteins? T TT Tt
17. According to the table above, codon AGC is the
code for which amino acid? t Tt tt
18. Amino acids are linked together by peptides bonds to
form proteins. In which organelle would this process
19. Define phenotype
20. Pea plants have seeds that are either round or wrinkled. In
this cross, what will be the phenotypic ratio of the offspring?
R = Round seeds r = Wrinkled seeds
21. In pea plants, tall plants are dominant to short plants. If
two heterozygous tall plants are crossed, what percent of
the offspring will probably be short? r
In a species of fly, the allele for red eyes (R) is dominant to the allele for brown eyes (r). Red eye color in
the flies is not sex-linked. Students crossed male and female flies that had red eyes and recorded the eye
color of their offspring. Their data are shown below.
Eye Color Number of Offspring
22. What are the most likely genotypes of the parent flies?
23. Using the data in the table, what is the approximate ratio of red eyed offspring to brown
Questions 24-28. Consider the cells depicted at right. Select the correct letter for each of the following phases:
29. In snapdragons, the combined expression of both alleles for flower color produces a new phenotype
that is pink. This illustrates incomplete dominance. The Punnett square above shows that both the
white and red snapdragons are homozygous. What would be the correct phenotypic product from a
cross between two heterozygous pink snapdragons?
30. External sources, such as radiation or chemicals, can cause mutations in genes or entire
chromosomes. In what type of cell must a mutation occur in order to pass it on to an offspring.
31. What is the diploid chromosome number in a human body cell?
32. How many chromosomes are contained in a human gamete cell?
33. A couple has 5 children, all sons. If the woman gives birth to a sixth child, what is the probability that
the sixth child will be a son?
34.The observed trait that appears in an organism as a result of its genetic makeup is
called the organism’s ______
35. The chances of developing cancer, diabetes, or sickle-cell anemia are higher if a family
member also has the disorder because they are –
36.The genetic disorder trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome) is caused by what genetic
37.A gene that is sex-linked is located on what chromosome?
38. A chart of human chromosomes pairs is called a karyotype.
What information is revealed in the karyotype at right?
39.External sources, such as radiation or chemicals, can cause mutations in
genes or entire chromosomes. For a mutation to pass on to offspring, it
must occur in a ______.
40.A couple has 5 children, all sons. If the woman gives birth to a sixth
child, what is the probability that the sixth child will be a son?
41.The gene for red/green colorblindness in humans is recessive and
primarily affects males. It must be located on which chromosome?
42.In the pedigree above, squares represent males and circles represent females.
Individuals who express a particular trait are represented by shaded figures. Which
of pattern of inheritance best explains the transmission of the trait?
43.What is the probability that a human sperm will carry a Y chromosome?
44.Study human blood type and how different genotypes could result in the same
45.What combinations of sex chromosomes represents a female?
46.Most sex-linked traits are passed from __________ to __________.
47. A _______________ is a group of individuals belonging to the same species that
occupy a given area.
48.The amount of each type of allele present in a population is known as _____________.
49.All of the genotypes in a population is called the __________.
50.A change in allele frequencies in a population is also called ______.
51.In a certain population of deer, there is a genetic basis for the presence of large horns.
Those deer with the largest horns typically win battles with rivals and secure the most
mates. What type of selection would you expect to take place in this situation?
52.In certain population of finch, there are several beak types. The widest beaks are good
for cracking nuts, and the narrowest beaks are best for eating insects. The intermediate
beak forms are not as good at securing either type of food. What type of selection would
you expect to happen in this situation?
53.A change in the heritable genetic code is called a ________.
54.A squirrel population becomes separated by a new housing development. This is an
example of ______.
Read the scenario below and answer the questions that follow.
Rabbits are found in abundance in the wilderness in the far northern region of North
America. The population of rabbits in that area varies in fur color from white to a
variety of shades of light brown to very dark brown. Some of the rabbits appear to
have longer ears than others. Historically, the weather conditions in that part of
the country have consisted of snow for about 5/6 of the year. Over the last 2-3
decades, global warming and resulting climate changes have contributed to longer
periods of warmth. Now the far northern region of North America enjoys a longer
spring and summer season where the area is lush with green grass and flowers. Many
of the larger animals hibernate during the winter months, but a few such as hawks
and coyotes prey on the rabbits year-round. The following graph illustrates the
change in phenotype of the rabbit population over time.
55. Fifty years ago, the most "fit" rabbits in this region of the country have been __.
56. This type of selection is ____ and____.
57. The selection pressure in this scenario is (are) __.
Light Fur - - - Dark Fur
58.The adaptation mechanism in this scenario is (are) __.
59. What kind of cell or cells were used to make Dolly?
60. What does genetic engineering involve?
61. What is the purpose of selective breeding?
62. Describe typical seeds dispersed by animals.
63 The differences in these characteristics of flower species most likely resulted from —
64 In angiosperms, where are the male gametes are found?
Use the diagram below to answer the following questions.
65. This is the structure that becomes the seed.
66. This is the structure on which pollen lands.
67. How do you determine population density?
68. The movement of organisms into a given area from another area is called
69. What is happening in a population as it decreases?
70. What happens to a population as resources in a population become less available?
71. In a logistic growth curve, what happens to a population during the exponential
72. What is biotic or an abiotic resource in the environment that causes population
size to decrease?
73. A disease resulting in the deaths of one third of a dense population of bats in a
cave would be what type of limiting factor?
74. The human population experienced exponential growth after what major event?
75. How can a diagram of a population’s age structure predict how it can grow?