Equipment and Layout

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Equipment, Layout and Design

          Nancy Brenowitz, MS, RD
      Planning for Equipment
• Ideal situation: establish menu and recipes,
  then choose appropriate equipment

• More likely that you will enter into an
  established facility and will need to adapt
  menu and recipes to take advantage of the
  equipment there
    Factors Affecting Equipment
•   Menu
•   Number and type of patrons to be served
•   Form in which food will be purchased
•   Style of service
•   Number of labor hours available
•   Skill level of employees
•   Accessibility and cost of utilities
•   Budget for equipment
•   Floor plan and space available
 Materials Used in Equipment
• Wood
  – Lightweight and economical
  – Problematic re: sanitation, often not allowed by
    health department
  – Sometimes used for cabinets and shelving
  – Best to avoid for other uses
 Materials Used in Equipment
• Metal
  – Usually specified in standard measure: gauge
     • Indicates weight per square food
     • Also an indication of durability
     • As gauge number increases, thickness decreases (16
       gauge thicker than 32 gauge)

  – Stainless Steel
     • Most common metal in foodservice systems
     • Formulated to resist oxidation, corrosion, staining
     • Strong, stands up to high temperatures
Materials Used in Equipment
– Stainless Steel
   • Number 302 is most common in foodservice
   • Gauges 8, 10, 12 make good supports, 12 and 14 for
     table tops
   • Various degrees of finishing also possible

– Aluminum
   •   Used for utensils, equipment, carts, etc.
   •   Lightweight
   •   Excellent thermal and electrical conductivity
   •   Hard and durable, although can dent
   •   Can withstand high temperatures
Materials Used in Equipment
– Cast iron
   • Used for supports for equipment
– Iron
   • Pots, pans, griddles, range tops, gas burners
– Steel
   • Ovens, shelving, frames supports
– Galvanized steel and iron
   • Treaded with acid and coated with zinc
   • Used in dish machines, sinks, tables, equipment legs
     and supports
– Copper
   • Used for some utensils, electrical wiring
   • Best thermal and electrical conductivity
  Materials Used in Equipment
• Plastics
  –   Many types used in many products
  –   Molded
  –   Melamines-variety of plastic dishes
  –   Fiberglass
  –   Nylon—cylinders where flatware is washed
  –   Phenolics—customer trays
         Equipment Selection
• Determining need
  –   How essential is equipment?
  –   Improve quality?
  –   Handle/increase quantity?
  –   Save time?
  –   Reduce cost?
  –   Increase safety/sanitation?
  –   Look at alternatives (buying food in other form)
  –   How many menu items will it be used for?
         Equipment Selection
• Cost considerations
  –   Initial price
  –   Installation
  –   Repair, depreciation, insurance
  –   Financing expense
  –   Operating cost
            Equipment Selection
• A/ (B + C + D) = E

•   A= Actual savings in labor
•   B= Cost of equipment installed, less resale value
•   C= Operation and maintenance costs
•   D= Interest on investment
    – If E is 1.0 or more, equipment should pay for itself
            Equipment Selection
• Performance
  – How well does it do what it is supposed to do?

• Sanitation and safety
  –   Must have sharp parts guarded
  –   Made of appropriate nontoxic materials
  –   Easily cleanable
  –   Recommendations of National Sanitation Foundation
      should be followed, look for NSF seal
          Equipment Selection
• Appearance and Design
  – Needs to fit into the overall layout
  – Should be reasonable attractive, especially if visible by
          Purchasing Equipment
• Need to be familiar with the types of equipment
• Can get information from vendors
• May have to write a specification
  –   Common name
  –   What is it used for
  –   Heavy duty or not
  –   Classification—model, size, etc.
  –   Materials
  –   Details on utilities
  –   Seams-no more than 1/32 inch gap
           Purchasing Equipment
  –   Special details—heating, motors, compressors, etc.
  –   Certification requirements
  –   Warranties
  –   Delivery and installation requirements

• Equipment record
  – Need one for each piece of equipment
  – Serial number, location, where and when purchases
  – Repair history
           Purchasing Equipment
• Cleaning and Maintenance
  –   Regularly scheduled
  –   Check manual
  –   Proper maintenance increases useful life
  –   May be required for warranty
              Major Objectives
•   Avoid unnecessary capital investment
•   Provide effective space utilization
•   Integrate all factors affecting layout
•   Accomplish the flow of work through the facility
•   Develop a flexible arrangement that can be readily
•   Simplify the production process
•   Provide quality control for perishable products
•   Provide for effective/efficient use of labor
•   Ensure safety of workers
Trends Affecting Foodservice Design
 •   Changes in patterns of dining out
 •   Changes in desired menu items
 •   Economic factors
 •   Flexibility of use
 •   Energy conservation
 •   Built-in safety, sanitation and noise
Planning Facility Design and Layout
   –   Determine ultimate function of operation
   –   Volume of production
   –   Type/hours of service
   –   Clientele
   –   Available space
   –   Regulations
   –   Type of food purchased
   –   Menu
• Individual work area
• One person
• Specific type of work/task
                  Work Center
• Where specific tasks are done

•   Receiving
•   Storage
•   Pre-prep
•   Prep
•   Service
•   Dining
•   Dishwashing
•   Storage of leftovers
            Layout Process
• Arrangement of individual pieces of
  equipment into units or work stations

• Arrangement of units into the total facility

• Goal is a smooth flow of food, employees,
  customers from one part of the facility to
             Principles of Flow
• Along straight lines if possible
   – Movement over the shortest distance
• Minimize cross traffic
   – Especially with fast food and service line
   – Minimal amount can be tolerated if result is shorter
     total distance
• Minimize backtracking
• Minimize bypassing
   – Passing one or more pieces of equipment to get to the
     next piece of equipment required
   – Breading and frying not next to each other
   – Mixer and oven far apart
       Layout Configurations
• Straight line arrangement
  – along wall or island
• L-shaped
  – Used when linear space is limited
  – Suitable for separating two major groups of
• U-shaped
  – Ideal for small areas (1-2 employees)
       Layout Configurations
• Parallel back to back
  – Centralized utility lines needed
  – Allows for single canopy or hood for
  – Must allow for cleaning
• Parallel face to face
  – Often has work table between
  – Two separate utility lines
• Others
  – T-shaped, Open Square, Curved or Circular
      Receiving/Storage Areas
• Location of receiving in relation to storage
• Heavy items/bulk items moved as little as
• Central storage with many satellites areas
• Walk in--products at least 8 inches off floor
• Non-food supplies often stored in final
          Main Cooking Area
• Include flow of foods from storage and pre-prep,
  to serving area and dishwashing
• Most frequently used pieces of equipment near
  pick up location
• Heat and moisture producing equipment under
  ventilating hoods
• Steam equipment requires depressed floors and
  curbs, drains
• Some equipment requires are for ventilation or
• Fuel burning equipment must be vented to outside
      Pre-Prep and Cold-Prep
• According to a logical sequence of
  functions performed
• Work table should be near storage area
• Close to main prep area
               Serving Areas
• Table service
  –   Hot food pickup near production
  –   Pantries in dining room, but concealed
  –   Busing into pantries or dish area
  –   Salad bar—easy access for both customers and
• Counter service
  – Straight line or U
  – Utensils, etc. immediately behind counter
              Serving Areas
• Cafeteria
  – Counter close to production
  – Based on traffic pattern
  – Shape dictated by space and counter
  – Salads and desserts at beginning to keep hot
    foods from cooling
  – Anything to speed service is good
  – Cook-to-order items in a separate area
  – Need to prevent theft, especially if items
    weighed at cashier
                Serving Areas
• Patient-Tray Service
  –   Plan space for storage of trays and carts
  –   Prevent crossover of carts to and from tray line
  –   Hot food last on tray line
  –   Distribution of foods on tray line for maximum
         Dishwashing Areas
• Layout should follow sequence of
  operations performed in washing
• Sorting, scraping, pre-wash, soaking,
  loading machine, unloading
• Be sure of adequate unloading space so
  dishes can dry before being removed from
• Good drainage, not heavy traffic
          Space Requirements
•   Main traffic aisles        60-84 inches
•   Aisles between equipment   36-42 inches
•   Space in front of oven     45-48 inches
•   Work heights
    – Sitting                  28-30 inches
    – Standing                 36-41 inches
• Heavy equipment
    – Sealed to wall
    – Or space from wall       18-24 inches
         Space Requirements
• Determining kitchen space often starts with
  determining dining room space
• Kitchen size often 1/3 to ¼ of dining room
• Varies from place to place
• Hospital foodservice kitchen large in
  relation to dining room size b/c only a small
  number of customers served in dining room