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					        Japan

Trish, Jennifer, Adriane, Holly, and
              Heather
            History of Japan
¥ Japanese history can
  be traced as far back
  as 4000 BCE and is
  characterized by
  handmade pottery with
  rope designs.
¥ In 300 BCE the
  introduction of rice
  agriculture begins the
  development of a
  social hierarchy in
  Japan.
Buddhism
    ¥ In the 5th and 6th
      centuries, Buddhism
      and the Chinese
      system of writing were
      imported from China.
    ¥ Japanese emperors
      were leaders in name
      only, the real power
      was held by court
      nobles, regents, and
      shoguns.
   The Western World Discovers
             Japan
¥ In 1542 the first
  Europeans arrived
  in Japan, when
  Portuguese
  explores landed on
  Kyushu. They
  introduced
  Christianity and
  firearms to Japan.
      Japan Closes Its Doors
¥ The shoguns
  severed most of
  Japan’s ties with
  foreign countries
  for 251 years
¥ Only limited trade
  was allowed in
  Nagasaki.
       Perry Reopens Japan
¥ In 1854
  Commodore
  Matthew Perry
  forced Japan to
  reopen its ports to
  Western ships.
           Japan in WWI
¥ Japan entered
  WWI in 1914 and
  fought with the
  allies.
   Japan Bombs Pearl Harbor
¥ On December 7,
  1941, Japanese
  planes bombed the
  United States
  military bases at
  Pearl Harbor,
  Hawaii.
Defeat for Japan
        ¥ Rather than invade
          Japan, the US
          opted to use its
          new atomic bomb
          on the Japanese
          cities of Hiroshima
          and Nagasaki in
          order to end the
          was in the Pacific.
Geography and Climate
             Location
¥ Located in the Pacific Ocean
¥ Off the coast of China
¥ Set in the Sea of Japan
¥ Japan consists of several thousands
  of islands, of which Honshu,
  Hokkaido, Kyushu and Shikoku are
  the four largest.
Relative Location
               Land Area
¥ Japan's area is comparable to California.
¥ Japan's northernmost islands are located
  approximately on same geographical
  latitude as Portland while her southernmost
  islands are about on the same latitude as
  the Bahamas.
¥ Tokyo, Japan is located at 35 40 N and
  139 45 E.
Elevation
           Land Quality
¥ According to experts, about 60% of the
  Japanese landscape is steep mountainous
  regions covered with forest.
¥ Approximately 70% of the total Japanese
  population is concentrated in the plains and
  basins, an area comprising just 24% of the
  habitable land.
¥ People must make good use of available lands.
  There are many terraced fields. Those fields
  are used often for crops and fruits such as
  mandarin orange trees or apples.
              Agriculture
¥ Today the number of farmers is decreasing as
  the population grows.
¥ Only 40 % of the crops currently consumed
  are produced in Japan, and 60 % of the crops
  are imported from other countries. For
  example:
  ¥ 90% of soy beans are imported from China and
    America.
  ¥ Some kinds of vegetables from South America
  ¥ Fruits such as bananas and oranges from South
    Asia, America, and other countries.
  ¥ Rice from other countries
  ¥ Seafood and Meat
            Population
¥ The population of Japan is about
  125,000,000.
¥ Almost the whole population is
  Japanese. More than half of the non-
  Japanese population is Korean.
             Land Problems

¥ High population densities in Japan cause
  many social problems such as a rising land
  costs and land contamination because of a
  concentration of people in a small area.




                                    Rice Field
Volcanoes and Earthquakes
¥ Japan is located in an area where 4
  tectonic plates are connected to each
  other.
¥ The land sits on two plates, the North
  American plate and the Eurasian plate.
¥ This is one of the reasons why Japan
  experiences so many earthquakes.
¥ Also, there are many volcanoes
  throughout the country. Those
  volcanoes are still active and some of
  them frequently erupt .
¥ Large and small
  earthquakes occur
  frequently. As a
  result, many
  buildings in Japan
  are built to have
  greater endurance to
  the destruction of an
  earthquake.
                          Volcanic activity in
                          Sakura Island
¥ A positive side
  effect of the large
  number of
  volcanoes is that
  there are many
  natural hot springs.
                     Mt. Fuji
¥ The most famous
  volcano is Mt. Fuji,
  which is the highest
  point of Japan and
  one of the most
  beautiful mountains in
  the world. It can be
  seen from Tokyo when
  the weather is clear.
¥ It has an elevation of
  12,387 feet.
Mt. Fuji
                     Climate
¥ Spring: When winters nears its end, the cold
  seasonal winds blowing from the continent become
  weaker and more intermittent. At this time, low
  pressure air masses originating in China enter the
  Sea of Japan; these give rise to strong, warm
  southerly winds which travel toward this low-
  pressure zone from the Pacific Ocean.
¥ The first of these winds is called haru ichiban. While
  it announces the warmth of the coming spring, it
  sometimes causes avalanches along with hot and
  dry weather.
               ¥Spring cont.
¥ In early spring, plum
  blossoms appear,
  followed by peach
  blossoms. During the
  last ten days or so of
  March, the cherry
  blossoms so beloved
  by the Japanese
  people begin to bloom.
                   ¥Summer
¥ Before the arrival of real summer-like weather, Japan
  has a damp rainy season know as baiu. From May
  until July, there is a high-pressure mass of cold air
  above the Sea of Okhotsk to the north of Japan,
  while over the Pacific Ocean there develops a high-
  pressure mass of warm, moist air.
¥ Along the line where these cold and warm air
  masses meet, known as the baiu zensen, which
  extends from southern China over the Japanese
  archipelago, causes prolonged periods of continuous
  rainfall.
               ¥Summer cont.
¥ After the middle of July,
  high-pressure air masses
  over the Pacific Ocean
  become predominant and
  the rainy season comes to
  an end as the baiu zensen
  is pushed
  northward. Seasonal winds
  from the Pacific Ocean
  bring warm, moist air to
  Japan, and the country has
  hot summer weather with
  many days when
  temperatures rise to more
  than 30 degrees
  centigrade. (86 degrees F)
                          Fall
¥ From the end of summer through September, Japan
  is often struck by typhoons.
¥ Typhoons originate from large masses of tropical
  low-pressure air in the North Pacific between the
  latitudes of approximately 5 and 20 degrees, and are
  the same phenomenon as hurricanes and cyclones
  in other parts of the world.
¥ When a typhoon begins to take shape, it gradually
  moves north. Every year, during this period, around
  30 typhoons form, of which on the average about 4
  reach Japan, sometimes causing great destruction.
Typhoons
                      Fall cont.
¥ After the middle or latter
  part of October, Japan
  enjoys generally clear
  weather; it is neither hot
  nor cold. The country also
  enjoys especially fine
  weather at the beginning of
  November. Many of the
  trees take on bright autumn
  colors, making this time of
  the year a truly beautiful
  season.
                       Winter
¥ Toward the end of November, cold seasonal winds
  begin blowing over Japan from the continent. These
  northwesterly winds pick up moisture over the Sea of
  Japan and drop much of this moisture in the form of
  rain and snow on the western side of Japan as they
  are impeded in their eastern advance by the ridge of
  mountains that runs through the central part of the
  country.
¥ By contrast, the Pacific side of the country enjoys
  generally clear skies during the winter season. In
  Tokyo, despite the fair skies, winter temperatures
  average around 5 degrees ( 41 degrees F).
Snow in Japan
Shoe boxes in a Japanese school
        entrance way.
             …
         Japanese education
¥ Elementary and junior high schools prepare
  students for the rugged regimen of high school by
  supporting and encouraging a positive
  engagement in work.
¥ Japanese students lead all international tests of
  children’s ability in math and science.
¥ 40-50 percent of high school students plan on
  attending top universities and must take private
  after school preparation classes called juku.
¥ Japanese students test higher than any other
  national group in liking to go to school.
¥ Most schools require a uniform.
¥ High school classes average 43- 45 students per
  one teacher.
.
Matsumoto Castle
¥ -(Matsumotojo) is one
  of the most complete
  and beautiful among
  Japan's original
  castles. It is also a
  good example of a
  "hirajiro", a castle built
  on the plain rather
  than on a hill or
  mountain.
¥ -Matsumotojo's castle
  tower and smaller,
  second turret were
  built from 1592 to
  1614.
Geisha Dancers
       ¥ The word geisha is a Sino-
         Japanese word meaning "a
         skilled person" and referred to
         girls in Japan who were
         professional singers and
         dancers.
       ¥ The true geisha were required
         to undergo a period of
         strenuous training in singing
         and dancing, which
         sometimes began as early as
         at the age of seven.
       ¥ A geisha’s fee was based
         upon the amount of time she
         spent entertaining a guest.
         The time was calculated on
         the basis of the burning
         duration of an incense stick,
         which was variously reported
         to be from twenty-five to thirty
         minutes.
Japanese Marriage
¥There are two types of
Japanese marriages:
the “love” marriage (we
are familiar with in the
West) and arranged
marriages.
¥Arranged marriages
were common in the
past but now are only
around 25- 40 percent.
¥The divorce rate for
arranged marriages is
lower than for “love”
marriages.
Kabuki Actors of Japan's
       ¥ Kabuki is one
           traditional theatrical arts.
         ¥ It began in the16th century
           and is still an important part
           of Japan’s culture today.
         ¥ All female parts are played
           by male impersonators
           known as onnagata.
         ¥ Until kabuki, the people of
           Japan had never seen
           theater of such color,
           glamour, excitement and
           general extraordinariness.
   The Japanese Housewife
-In the 1960s women in Japan typically left the
workplace when they had children and did not
return.
                            The recent trend for
                            Japanese women is
                            the neo- housewife.
                            They are creating
                            businesses and
                            organizations and
                            are separating
                            themselves from the
                            male- centered
                            corporate world.
A Drawing of Fifty Yen Coin
                 Coins
                 One Yen ¥1
                 Five yen coin ¥5
                 Ten yen coin ¥10
                 Fifty yen coin ¥50
                 One hundred yen coin
                 ¥100
                 Five hundred yen coin
                 ¥500

                 Bills
                 One-thousand yen bill
                 ¥1000
                 Two-thousand yen bill
                 ¥2000 (rare)
                 Five-thousand yen bill
                 ¥5000
                 Ten-thousand yen bill
                 ¥10000
                         Kyoto




¥ Kyoto is a city that has a very natural setting which seems to
  enhance the quality of life for its inhabitants.
¥ At the foot of the mountains surrounding Kyoto, magnificent
  structures and gardens created during various periods since
  the 8th century have been well preserved.
Buckwheat           Japanese
noodles that have
been prepared
 .  food
Kyoto- style




                      Sake
                      (Japanese
                      rice wine)
The great variance in Japanese
     geographic regions.
 ¥ Mount Fuji
           Major Religions in Japan


                                 Shinto

                             Buddhism
                                         Nara's Todaiji, Buddhist Temple




Ise Jingu, Shinto’s most sacred shrine
                           Shinto
¥ Means “The Way of the Gods”
¥ No founder or sacred scriptures, it is deeply
  rooted in the Japanese people and their
  traditions.
¥ Shinto gods are called kami, they’re sacred
  spirits that take the form of human things and
  concepts such as wind, rain, mountains, trees,
  river and fertility.

 Some prominent rocks
 are worshipped as kami.
        Concepts of Shinto

¥ There are no absolutes: no absolute
  wrong or right, no one is perfect.
¥ Optimistic faith, humans are thought
  to be inherently good and evil is
  caused by evil spirits.
¥ Shinto rituals keep evil spirits away.
¥ Death is considered impure and is not
  dealt with in the Shinto religion.
                  Shinto Shrines

¥ Shinto shrines are the places of
  worship and are home of the kami.
¥ Most shrines celebrate festivals to
  show the kami the outside world.




 Tokyo's Meiji Shrine is dedicated to the spirits of Emperor Meiji.
          History of Shinto

¥ Made Japan’s state religion during the
  Meiji period (1867) after conflict with
  the Buddhist community.
¥ After World War II, Shinto and the
  state were separated.
               Buddhism
¥ Originated in India and was imported to
  Japan during the 6th century.
¥ There are several sects of Buddhism:
  Tendai, Shingon, Jodo, Zen, and Lotus
  Hokke.
       Theories of Buddhism
¥ Based on principle that everyone can
  achieve salvation by believing in the
  Buddha Amida.
¥ One can achieve self-enlightenment
  through meditation and discipline.
¥ One must go through many cycles of birth,
  living, and death. After these cycles, if a
  person releases their attachment to desire
  and the self, they can attain Nirvana - a
  state of liberation and freedom from
  suffering.
Three Trainings of Buddhism

¥ Sila: Virtue, good conduct, and
  morality. Involves equality and the
  Golden Rule: treat others as you
  would have them treat you.
¥ Samadhi: Concentration, meditation,
  mental development.
¥ Prajna: Discernment, insight, wisdom,
  enlightenment.
The Five Precepts of Buddhism


              ¥ Do not kill.
            ¥ Do not steal.
              ¥ Do not lie.
        ¥ Do not misuse sex.
 ¥ Do not consume alcohol or other
 drugs (this includes television and the
                 internet).
            The Eightfold Path
¥ Samma ditthi Right Understanding of the Four Noble Truths
¥ Samma sankappa: Right thinking; following the right path in
  life
¥ Samma vaca: Right speech: no lying, criticism, condemning,
  gossip, harsh language
¥ Samma kammanta Right conduct by following the Five
  Precepts
¥ Samma ajiva: Right livelihood; support yourself without
  harming others
¥ Samma vayama Right Effort: promote good thoughts;
  conquer evil thoughts
¥ Samma sati Right Mindfulness: Become aware of your body,
  mind and feelings
¥ Samma samadhi Right Concentration: Meditate to achieve a
  higher state of consciousness
       Buddhism and Politics

¥ Buddhism was welcomed by ruling nobles and
  gained strong political influence.
¥ Reason that the government moved the capital in
  784 to Nagaoka and again in 794 to Kyoto.
¥ In the 16th century Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi
  Hideyoshi fought the militant Buddhist monasteries
  and practically extinguished activities on the
  political sector.
¥ Attacked again during the Meiji period when
  Shinto became the new state religion.
         Japanese Politics

¥ Current constitution adopted in 1946
  during the occupation of Allied
  powers.
¥ Japanese Parliament is called the diet
  and consists of 500 members in the
  House of Representatives and 252
  members in the House of Councillors.
¥ Parliament is elected by the people.
  Political Structure Continued
¥ The cabinet is headed by the Prime
  Minister who is elected by the diet. The
  cabinet consists of members selected by
  the Prime Minister, usually members of
  the diet.
¥ Highest Court is the Supreme Court.
  Judges are appointed by the cabinet.


                             Diet Building in
                                  Tokyo
          New Constitution
¥ New constitution came into effect in 1947,
  replacing the Meiji constitution of 1889.
¥ The emperor lost all governmental power
  and became only symbolic.
¥ Sovereign power lies with the people.
¥ A complete division of legislature,
  executive, and judiciary branches.
¥ The prohibition of leading war or
  maintaining an army.
             Defense Force
¥ During the occupation of Allied powers (1945-
  1952) the United States encouraged Japan to re-
  establish a defense force for self-defense. They
  argued that this would not contradict the
  constitution.
¥ The National Police Reserve was established in
  1950, which later became the Self Defense Force
  (SDF).
¥ SDF’s purpose is to preserve peace, public order
  and Japan’s independence and safety.
¥ Consists of 250,000 members and is commanded
  by the Prime Minister.
             Emperors

¥ First emperor was enthroned in 660
  BC, Emperor Jimmu, a descendent of
  the Sun Goddess Amaterasu (the
  most important kami).
¥ In 1868 Emperor Meiji became
  leader. Under his new constitution,
  the Emperor held sovereign power,
  political power, and military power.
          Emperors Today
¥ Have only a symbolic function, participates
  at ceremonies and diplomatic meetings.
¥ In 1989, Emperor Akihito became the 125th
  emperor. He married Michiko, who was the
  first empress not from the nobility.




                Imperial Palace

				
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