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Peace at Paris Negotiation Simulation! You are a member of the delegation sent to Paris to negotiate the peace terms for the War. You must end the war, bring peace and stability to Europe, and make your home country happy. What do you do? Treaty of Versailles Established League of Nations (L.o.N.) Article 88– Germany could not make international agreements without L.o.N approval Punished Germany Land given to her neighbors (Rhineland to France) Saar, Memel, and Danzig given to L.o.N. All Colonies taken away Russian land given back to Russia, except for Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania Treaty of Versailles, cont. Germany’s punishment, cont. Armed forces reductions 100,000 man army (smaller than fire dept.) Six battleships No submarines or air force Western Germany (Rhineland) demilitarized Forbidden to unite with Austria Treaty of Versailles, cont. Germany’s Punishment, cont. Clause 231 – The “War Guilt” Clause Reparations 132 billion gold marks over 42 years This is equal to 3,142,857,142 billion marks per year. Question: If you were a German, what would be your reaction to the Treaty of Versailles? Why? Although Germany had the choice to accept or reject the Versailles peace proposals, this political cartoon from the German magazine “Simpliccimus” in June 1919, implies that it was already condemned to death. The principal judges and executioners (from left to right), are Wilson, Clemenceau and Lloyd George. 1. Describe exactly what you see – look at the position and gestures of each character. What do they imply? What can we infer? 2. Who produced this source? 3. When was it produced, and what is the significance of that date? 4. What does the cartoon tell you about German reactions towards the Treaty? 5. How reliable is this source to an historian studying the impact of the Treaty of Versailles on the Germans? 6. What are the limitations of this source for that same historian? Consequences of Treaty of Versailles Spiraling violence Hyperinflation Germany in chaos Growing anger and hostility towards the allies Treaties of Saint Germain Separate treaty with Austria Article 80- Must have approval from L.o.N Austria and Hungary split Reparation payments Reduction of armed forces Land losses to Czechoslovakia Yugoslavia Italy Poland Romania Treaty of Trianon- treaty with Hungary Hungary gave up 2/3 of it’s territory. 41% of the population no longer Hungarian. Broken into territory for Serbia, Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Yugoslavia Allies made all negotiations and decisions against Hungary. Some argue that Hungary suffered the most after the war. Treaty of Neuilly- Treaty w/ Bulgaria Bulgaria lost land to Greece and Turkey War reparations Reduction of armed forces Treaty of Sevres Dismantled the Ottoman Empire Removed most Ottoman lands Only Turkey remained, but occupied by French, British, Greek, and Italian armies Straits controlled by L.o.N. French Mandates: Syria and Lebanon British Mandates: Palestine, Iraq, and Trans-Jordan Independence to Arabia Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire Map Activity: Wrap it up. Use the blank maps to demonstrate where the boundaries were created within each Treaty. Make sure your map is clear and neat. Make sure you color code your map with a key. Include: All 5 treaties The Rhineland, Alsace Lorraine, Saar, and other divided regions The Polish corridor The divisions of the new territories Warm Up Question: Which of the Central Powers was treated most harshly at the Paris Peace Conference? Why? Why did this country get targeted? Other treaties of Noteworthiness: Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Treaty between Germany and Russia in March 1918 (Trotsky was in charge) (9 weeks of negotiations and stalling). Germany was advancing into Russian territory and Russia couldn’t pay enough attention to the war. This treaty allowed Russia to pull out of WWI and ceased fighting between Russia and the Central Powers Russia had to give up land in Finland, Poland, Ukraine, and the Baltic region. This treaty gets thrown out with the Treaty of Versailles and the lands were declared independent. Treaty of Berlin: Treaty between the United States Congress and Central Powers (since the United States refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles.) The Congress waited until Woodrow Wilson was voted out of office and replaced by Herbert Hoover before they would finish the treaty (this was a major insult to Wilson) Treaty was signed in 1921 (2 years after the war ended). The United States declared the war officially over. The US did not have to pay anything for any property controlled by the US (war souvenirs like firearms, etc.) They wanted whatever rewards/benefits were agreed upon in the Treaty of Versailles, Trianon, or Saint Germaine. The Treaty said the US was not bound by the terms of the League of Nations. Question: What message was the cartoonist, Will Dyson, trying to convey? Postwar Crises Spanish Influenza Pandemic 1918-1920 Worst pandemic in history Killed 25 million worldwide Postwar Crises, cont. Polish invasion of Russia Russian Civil War Allies involved Will Lenin honor new boundaries? Treaty of Riga (1921) Western Russia to Poland Postwar Crises, cont. Turkish revolution (1921) Mustapha Kemal (Ataturk) Drove out Greek army Massacre at Smyrna 1.4 million Greek refugees Treaty of Sevres scrapped Treaty of Lausanne (1923) returned European lands recalled foreign troops Established demilitarized zones around straits Question: What lessons might other countries glean from the Treaties of Riga and Lausanne? Postwar Crises, cont. Italy Angry over Paris Conference results “Mutilated Victory” Fascist revolution Benito Mussolini Prime Minister in 1922 Germany Political upheaval Economic chaos Strengthening Nazi Party Question: Why were the Italians upset at the results of the Paris Peace Conference?
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