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05 - Copland _ Boulanger

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									                 Question

• What American composer studied with Nadia
  Boulanger at the American Conservatory in
  France from 1921-1924?
• Who was once described as “the dean of
  modern American composers?”
• Who managed to capture the essence of
  America in his music?
• Virgil Thomson called him “the President of . .
  . American music.”
• This composer wrote this. . .
Americans in Paris
• American Musical Life
• Greater musical inventiveness of France and
  Russia
• Les Six
   – Darius Milhaud, Francis Poulenc, Arthur Honegger,
     Georges Auric, Louis Durey and Germaine Tailleferre
• Stravinsky, Schoenberg, Hindemith, Bartok,
  Prokofiev, Koussevitzky
• A music school for Americans was
  established in the palace at Fontainebleau
                NADIA BOULANGER
•   Boulanger studied at the Paris
    Conservatory.                             •   Name        Date of Birth Date of Death Other information

•   She first gained a reputation as a        •   Alexander, Josef                b. May 15, 1907 Boston MA            d. Dec 23,
                                                  1990 Seattle WA
    teacher at the Ecole Normale.             •   Allanbrook, Douglas             b. Apr 1, 1920
                                              •   Amlin, Martin
•   From 1920 on, she was on the faculty of   •   Anderson, Ruth                  b. Mar 21, 1928 Kalispell MT

    the American Conservatory at              •
                                              •
                                                  Bassett, Leslie (Raymond)
                                                  Bauer, Marion Eugenie
                                                                                  b. Jan 22, 1923 Hanford CA
                                                                                  b. Aug 15, 1882 Walla Walla WA       d. Aug 9,
    Fontainbleu.                              •
                                                  1955 South Hadley MA
                                                  Bearer, Elaine
                                              •   Bennett, Robert Russell         b. Jun 15, 1894 Kansas City MO       d. Aug
•   Before World War II, she had already          18, 1981 New York NY

    become the teacher of choice for          •
                                              •
                                                  Berger, Arthur (Victor)
                                                  Berlinski, Herman
                                                                                  b. May 15, 1912 New York NY
                                                                                  b. Aug 18, 1910 Leipzig              *no
    aspiring composers.                       •
                                                  longer listed in New Grove
                                                  Blackwood, Easley               b. Apr 21, 1933 Indianapolis IN
                                              •   Blitzstein, Marc [Marcus] (Samuel)                 b. Mar 2, 1905 Philadelphia
•   During World War II, she taught in the        PA            d. Jan 22, 1964 Fort-de-France, Martinique

    United States.                            •   Bowles, Paul
                                                  1999 Tangier, Morocco
                                                                                  b. Dec 30, 1910 Jamaica NY           d. Nov 18,

                                              •   Briggs Sadovnikoff, Mary
•   in 1945 Boulanger became professor at     •   Brunswick, Mark
                                                  26, 1971 London
                                                                                  b. Jan 6, 1902 New York NY           d. May

    the Paris Conservatory.                   •   Carter, Elliott (Cook)          b. Dec 11, 1908 New York NY
                                              •   Chanler, Theodore (Ward)        b. Apr 29, 1902 Newport RI           d. Jul 27,
                                                  1961 Boston MA
                                              •   Chihara, Paul Seiko             b. Jul 9, 1938 Seattle WA
                                              •   Chowning, John MacLeod          b. 1934 Salem NJ
                                              •   Citkowitz, Israel               b. Feb 6, 1909 Skierniewice, Poland d. May 4,
                                                  1974 London
                                              •   Clarke, Henry Leland [Fairbanks, J.]               b. Mar 9, 1907 Dover NH
                                                                d. Mar 30, 1992
                                              •   Cole, (Frances) Ulric           b. Sep 9, 1905 New York NY           d. May
                                                  21, 1992 Bridgeport CT
                                              •   Conte, David                    b. 1955 Denver CO
                         American Students
•   Cooper, Paul                   b. May 19, 1926 Victoria IL    •   Fisk, Charles Brenton            b. Feb 7, 1925 Washington
                 d. Apr 4, 1996 Houston TX                            DC            d. Dec 16, 1983 Boston MA
•   Copland, Aaron                 b. Nov 14, 1900 Brooklyn NY    •   Frackenpohl, Arthur              b. Apr 23, 1924 Irvington NJ
                 d. Dec 2, 1990 North Tarrytown NY                                  *no longer listed in New Grove
•   Crawford, Robert MacArthur     b. Jul 27 1899 Dawson YT       •   Friedhofer, Hugo William         b. May 3(?), 1902 San
                 d. Mar 12 1961 New York NY                           Francisco CA                     d. May 17, 1981 Los Angeles
•   Creshevsky, Noah Ephraim       b. Jan 31, 1945 Rochester NY       CA
•   Cunningham Sumner, Sarah                                      •   Gage, Robert
•   Cushing, Charles (Cook)        b. Dec 8, 1905 Oakland CA      •   Galkin, Elliott W(ashington)     b. Feb 22, 1921 Brooklyn NY
                 d. Apr 14, 1982 Berkeley CA                                        d. May 24, 1990 Baltimore CA         American
                                                                      music critic and conductor
•   Dahl, Ingolf b. Jun 9, 1912 Hamburg               d. Aug 6,
    1970 Frutigen, nr Berne                                       •   George, Lila-Gene
•   Delaney, Robert (Mills)        b. Jul 24, 1903 Baltimore MD   •   Gittleman, Neal
                 d. Sep 21, 1956 Santa Barbara CA                 •   Glanville-Hicks, Peggy [Australian (American citizenship)]
•   Des Marais, Paul (Emile)       b. Jun 23, 1920 Menominee                        b. Dec 29, 1912 Melbourne            d. Jun 25,
    MI                                                                1990 Sydney
•   Dett, R(obert) Nathaniel       b. Oct 11, 1882                •   Glass, Philip b. Jan 31, 1937 Baltimore MD
    Drummondsville ON              d. Oct 2, 1943 Battle Creek    •   Goeb, Roger (John)               b. Oct 9, 1914 Cherokee IA
    MI                                                                              d. Jan 3, 1997 New York NY
•   Diamond, David (Leo)           b. Jul 9, 1915 Rochester NY    •   Goldman, Richard Franko          b. Dec 7, 1910 New York NY
•   di Bonaventura, Mario          b. 1928                                          d. Jan 19, 1980 Baltimore MD
•   Drauglelis, Algis                                             •   Gottlieb, Jay b. 1954
•   Duke, John (Woods)             b. Jul 30, 1899 Cumberland     •   Grantham, Donald                 b. Nov 9, 1947 Duncan OK
    MD           d. Oct 26, 1984 Northampton MA                   •   Grouya, Theodor, J. (Ted)        b. 1914 Bucharest, Romania
•   Effinger, Cecil                b. Jul 22, 1914 Colorado       •   Haieff, Alexei (Vasilievich)     b. Aug 25, 1914
    Springs CO d. Dec 22, 1990 Boulder CO                             Blagoveshchensk                  d. Mar 1, 1994 Rome
•   Elwell, Herbert                b. May 10, 1898 Minneapolis                      American composer of Russian birth
    MN           d. Apr 17, 1974 Cleveland OH                     •   Hailstork, Adolphus Cunningham                     b. Apr 17,
•   Erb, Donald James              b. Jan 17, 1927 Youngstown         1941 Rochester NY
    OH                                                            •   Hammond, Richard                 b. Aug 26, 1896 Kent,
•   Ericourt, Daniel               b. Dec 12, 1903 Jossigny,          England       *no longer listed in New Grove
    Seine-et-Marne                 d. Jun 21, 1998 Greensboro     •   Harris, Roy [LeRoy] (Ellsworth)                    b. Feb 12,
    NC                                                                1898 nr Chandler OK              d. Oct 1, 1979 Santa Monica
•   Ermili, Roger                                                     CA
•   Fine, Irving (Gifford)         b. Dec 3, 1914 Boston MA       •   Howe, Mary b. Apr 4, 1882 Richmond VA              d. Sep 14,
                 d. Aug 23, 1962 Boston MA                            1964 Washington DC
•   Finney, Ross Lee               b. Dec 23, 1906 Wells MN       •   Husa, Karel b. Aug 7, 1921 Prague
                 d. Feb 4, 1997 Carmel CA                         •   Imbrie, Andrew (Welsh)           b. Apr 6, 1921 New York NY
•   Fischer, Irwin                 b. Jul 5, 1903 Iowa City IA    •   Jones, Quincy (Delight)          b. Mar 14, 1933 Chicago IL
                 d. May 7, 1977 Wilmette IL
                          American Students
•   Kanach, Sharon                  b. 1957                         •   Moore, Dorothy Rudd              b. May 15, 1904 Davidson OK
•   Kerr, Harrison                  b. Oct 13, 1897 Cleveland OH    •   Moore, Douglas S(tuart)          b. Aug 10, 1893 Cutchogue
                 d. Aug 15, 1978 Norman, OK                             NY            d. Jul 25, 1969 Greenport NY
•   Kimball, Ruth                                                   •   Moscatelli, Peter
•   Kozinski, Stefan                                                •   Musgrave, Thea                   b. May 27, 1928 Barnton,
•   Kraft, Leo Abraham              b. Jul 24, 1922 Brooklyn NY         Midlothian
•   Krzywicki, Jan                                                  •   Pasatieri, Thomas                b. Oct 20, 1945 New York NY
•   Kubik, Gail (Thompson)          b. Sep 5, 1914 South            •   Peaslee, Richard Cutts           b. Jun 13, 1930 New York NY
    Coffeyville OK                  d. July 20, 1984 West Covina    •   Perry, Julia Amanda              b. Mar 25, 1924 Lexington KY
    CA                                                                                d. Apr 24, 1979 Akron OH
•   Kuney, Scott                                                    •   Pinkham, Daniel (Rogers)         b. Jun 5, 1923 Lynn MA
•   Labunski, Felix [Labunski, Feliks Roderyk]         b. Dec 23,   •   Piston, Walter (Hamor)           b. Jan 20, 1894 Rockland ME
    1892 Ksawerynow                 d. Apr 28, 1979 Cincinnati OH                     d. Nov 12, 1976 Belmont MA
•   La Montaine, John               b. Oct 13, 1897 Cleveland OH    •   Ptaszynska, Marta                b. Jul 29, 1943 Warsaw
                 d. Mar 17, 1920 Chicago IL                                           Polish composer and percussionist, but as of
•   Lee, Noel    b. Dec 25, 1924 Nanjing                                '98, professor at University of Chicago.
•   Lehrman, Leonard J.             b. Aug 20, 1949 Kansas          •   Robb, John Donald                b. Jun 12, 1892 Minneapolis
                                                                        MN            *no longer listed in New Grove
•   Lessard, John (Ayres)           b. Jul 3, 1920 San Francisco
    CA                                                              •   Robertson, Hugh                  b. 1940
•   Lewis, Robert Hall              b. Apr 22, 1926 Portland OR     •   Rodriguez, Robert Xavier         b. Jun 28, 1946 San Antonio
                 d. Mar 22, 1996 Baltimore MD                           TX
•   Lockwood, Normand               b. Mar 19, 1906 New York NY     •   Rogers, Bernard                  b. Feb 4, 1893 New York
                                                                                      d. May 24, 1968 Rochester NY
•   Lybbert, Donald                 b. Feb 19, 1923 Cresco IA
                 d. Jul 26, 1981 New York NY                        •   Rolin, Etienne                   b. Dec 7, 1952 Berkeley CA
•   Maganini, Quinto                b. Nov 30, 1897 Fairfield, CA   •   Sapp, Allen (Dwight)             b. Dec 10, 1922 Philadelphia
                 d. Mar 10, 1974 Greenwich, CT                          PA            d. Jan 4, 1999 Cincinnati OH
•   Manziarly, Marcelle de          Oct 1/13, 1899 Kharkov          •   Shafer, Robert                   b. 1946
    [now Kharkiv]                   d. May 21, 1989 Ojai CA         •   Shapero, Harold (Samuel)         b.
                 French composer, of mixed Russian and              •   Shapiro, Gerald Mark             b. May 14, 1942 Philadelphia
    American parentage. Divided time between US and France.             PA
•   Mekeel, Joyce                   b. Jul 6, 1931 New Haven CT     •   Shen, Hseuh-Yung                 b. 1952
                 d. Dec 29, 1997 Watertown MA
                                                                    •   Siegmeister, Elie [Swift, L.E.] b. Jan 15, 1909 New York NY
•   Middleton, Robert               b. 1920 Diamond OH                                d. Mar 10, 1991 Manhasset NY
•   Mikhashoff, Yvar Emilian        b. Mar 8, 1941 Troy NY          •   Skrowaczewski, Stanislaw         b. Oct 3, 1923 Lwow [now
                 d. Oct 11, 1993 Buffalo NY                             L'viv]
•   Moevs, Robert (Walter)          b. Dec 2, 1920 La Crosse WI     •   Smith, Larry Alan                b. Oct 4, 1955 Canton OH
•   Montgomery, Merle               b. Mar 8, 1941 Troy NY          •   Smith, Melville                  b. 1898           d. 1962
                 d. Oct 11, 1993 Buffalo NY            *no longer
    listed in New Grove                                             •   Spies, Claudio                   b. Mar 26, 1925 Santiago
                                                                                      American composer of Chilean birth
                           American Students
•   Stringfield, Lamar               b. Oct 10, 1897 Raleigh NC

•
                  d. Jan 21, 1959 Asheville NC
    Strouse, Charles Louis           b. Jun 7, 1928 New York NY
                                                                     • Class of 1923
•   Suesse, (Nadine) Dana            b. Dec 3, 1909 Kansas City
    MO            d. Oct 16, 1987 New York NY
•   Swanson, Howard                  b. Aug 18, 1907 Atlanta GA
                  d. Nov 12, 1978 New York NY
•   Talma, Louise                    b. Oct 31, 1906 Arcachon
    France        d. Aug 13, 1996 Saratoga Springs, NY
•   Tcherepnin, Serge Alexandrovich                    b. Feb 2,
    1941 Issy-les-Moulineaux, nr Paris
•   Thomson, Virgil                  b. Nov 25, 1896 Kansas City
    MO            d. Sep 30, 1989 New York NY
•   Tingley, George Peter            b. Jun 19, 1950
•   Toth, Robert
•   Trimble, Lester Albert           b. Aug 29, 1923 Bangor WI
                  d. Dec 31, 1986 New York NY
•   Viens, Michael                   b. 1953
•   Vincent, John                    b. May 17, 1902 Birmingham
    AL            d. Jan 21, 1977 Santa Monica CA
•   Vosgerschian, Luise              b. Nov 9, 1922    d. Mar 13,
    2000 Acton MA
•   Wagner, Joseph Frederick         b. Jan 9, 1900 Springfield MA
                  d. Oct 12, 1974 Los Angeles CA
•   Walker, George Theophilus        b. Jun 27, 1922 Washington
    DC
•   Walters, Harold L.               b. Sep 29, 1918 Gurdon AR
                  d. Oct 27, 1984 Hollywood FL
•   Ward-Steinman, David             b. Nov 6, 1936 Alexandria LA
•   Warren, Elinor Remick            b. Feb 23, 1900 Los Angeles
    CA            d. Apr 27, 1991 Los Angeles CA
•   Washburn, Robert B.              b. Jul 11, 1928 Bouekville NY
                  *no longer listed in New Grove
•   Wilkins, Donald                  b. 1935
•   Woollen, (Father) Russell        b. 1923 Hartford CT
         AARON COPLAND
           1900 - 1990
• parents were Jewish immigrants from Poland
  and Lithuania
• born in Brooklyn
• studied harmony, counterpoint and sonata
  form under Goldmark
• saw Ives’s Concord Sonata at Goldmark’s
  studio but was not allowed to become
  “contaminated” by it
• went to the new American Conservatory at
  Fontainebleau in 1920
• studied with Boulanger until 1924
           AARON COPLAND
             1900 - 1990
• met Roussel, Prokofiev, Milhaud and
  Koussevitzky
• heard the premiere of Ravel’s orchestration of
  Mussorgsky’s Pictures at an Exhibition
• spent his summers in Berlin
• interested in jazz
• 1924 - began as a private teacher
• music began to attract the attention of the
  BSO under K., the MacDowell Colony and the
  Guggenheim Foundation
               AARON COPLAND
                 1900 - 1990
• 1928-1931 - sponsored a series of
  new music concerts with Roger
  Sessions
• helped found the Arrow Music Press,
  the Yaddo Festivals and taught at the
  New School for Social Research
• 1935 & 1944 taught at Harvard
  (Piston)
• first American composer to hold the
  Norton Professor of Poetics at
  Harvard - lectures published as
  Music and Imagination
• 1940 - teacher and advisor at the
  Berkshire Music Center (established
  by Koussevitzky)
• Copland and Koussevitzky
            AARON COPLAND
            Honors and Awards
•   1945 - Pulitzer Prize
•   1945 - New York Music Critics’ Circle Award
•   1950 - “Oscar”
•   1956 - Gold Medal from the National Institute
    of Arts and Letters
•   1956 - honorary degree from Princeton
•   1964 - Presidential Medal of Freedom
•   1970 - Commander’s Cross of the Order of
    Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany
•   1970 - Howland Prize of Yale University
                      AARON COPLAND
    Some of his Compositions
•   1920-1921 - Three Moods: Embittered, Wistful,
    Jazzy
•   1925 - The House on the Hill (Women’s U. Glee
    Club)
•   1930 - Piano Variations
•   1933-1936 El salon Mexico led to his permanent
    contract with Boosey & Hawkes as his publisher
•   1936 - his social concerns resulted in his opera for
    children, with a chorus of parents, The Second
    Hurricane
•   1939 - Quiet City
•   1942 - Fanfare for the Common Man; Lincoln
    Portrait
•   1944-1945 - 12 Poems of Emily Dickinson
•   Old American Songs
•   Old American Songs, set 2
•   1947,1934,1948,1926 - 4 Piano Blues
•   1947-1948 - Clarinet Concerto for Benny Goodman
•   1955 - Canticle of Freedom (MIT)
•   1977 - Midsummer Nocturne (his last composition)
               AARON COPLAND
• 8 Film Scores including
    – 1939 - Of Mice and Men
    – 1940 - Our Town
    – 1948 - The Red Pony
• 6 Ballets including
    – 1938 - Billy the Kid comm. by Lincoln Kirstein for Eugene
      Loring
    – 1942 - Rodeo for Agnes de Mille
    – 1943-1944 - Appalachian Spring for Martha Graham
    Fanfare for the Common Man
Commissioned by Eugene Goosens, conductor of the Cincinnati
  Symphony, in August, 1942
    In the summer of 1942, Eugene Goosens asked eighteen American
    composers to contribute patriotic fanfares for performance by the
    Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra during its 1942-43 season. Ten of these
    were written for brass and percussion alone and were selected for
    publication. These works were not only to enrich the present literature for
    brass and percussion, but to pay tribute to all those involved in the action
    of World War II.
    Among those composers participating were Paul Creston, Walter Piston,
    Howard Hanson, Deems Taylor, Virgil Thomson, Bernard Wagenaar and
    Aaron Copland.

•   Aaron Copland took the title of Fanfare from Henry Wallace, Vice-
    President of the United States during Franklin D. Roosevelt’s third term,
    when Wallace dubbed the twentieth century the “century of the common
    man.”
•   “I was all for honoring the common man at income tax time.” - Copland
                AARON COPLAND’S
                Appalachian Spring
•   written in 1943-1944 for Martha Graham
•   scored for fl, cl, bn, pf, 4 vn, 2 va, 2vc, db
•   Premiere in Wash., DC Oct. 30, 1944
•   full orch. suite - 1945
•   Copland: “orchestral know-how consists in
    keeping instruments out of each other’s
    way”
•   never conventional
•   uses irregular rhythms (5/8 and 7/8) but
    never for an entire movement
•   Shaker Tune is unusual in that it is not
    modified and it is the only borrowed tune
    with variations
•   The Shaker Tune Simple Gifts (after
    Copland) was adopted into the repertory of
    schools, churches and by folksingers
•   the music always turns to simplicity
•   Commissioned by Elizabeth Sprague
    Coolidge
•   title is from a poem by Hart Crane
•   Martha Graham and Erick Hawkins

								
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