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					Name:                                                                     fa3f0b2c-9a3d-47c0-bc9c-e1af346e7989.docDisease
Teacher:                                                                                        Classwork

AP Human Geography, Period ____

Due Date: 10.6.2011
     The cause of the Bubonic Plague is the bacterium, Yersinia Pestis, which is carried by fleas, ticks and human
     lice. The Bubonic Plaque is usually spread through the handling of infected animals such as rats and mice.
     Other animals known to carry the disease include squirrels, rabbits, skunks, prairie dogs, and chipmunks.

     Indicators - Red circular markings in the shape of a ring on arms and neck.


              High fever
              Headache
              Chills
              Aching Limbs
              Vomiting of Blood
              Diarrhea
              Abdominal Pains
              Labored breathing
              Bloody Phlegm
              Swollen Lymph Nodes
              Rapid Heart Rate
              Confusion
              Coma
              Delirium.

     Swellings appear in the neck, armpits and groin. Swellings, which are black in color, expand until they burst
     and death soon follows, thus the name, The Black Death.Estimated time of death. Three to four days after the
     first signs of illness if left untreated.

     Historic Background - First appearing in the Gobi Desert in the 1320s, the disease killed approximately 35
     million people in China alone. The Bubonic Plague followed trade routes across the world and eventually hit
     Europe killing an estimated 50% of the population.

     Contemporary reports of the disease tell of bodies too numerous to bury, family members abandoning each
     other, entire families wiped out in days, and towns losing as much as 75% of their populations. The entire social
     and economic structure of Europe was changed due to the heavy loss of population during outbreaks of the

     In Modern Times

              In January 2008, eighteen people in Madagascar died of the Bubonic Plague in ten days. It is thought
               that rats leaving flooded sewers during the rainy season was the cause of the outbreak.

              Between 1900 and 1910, several Australian cities experience an outbreak of the Bubonic Plague that
               killed approximately 1,000 people.

              In 2009, the growing rat population in Bangladesh has threatened the population with fears of a
Name:                                                                    fa3f0b2c-9a3d-47c0-bc9c-e1af346e7989.docDisease
Teacher:                                                                                       Classwork

AP Human Geography, Period ____

Due Date: 10.6.2011

     There are currently reported in the United States between ten and fifteen cases of plague per year, especially in
     states such as New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Utah, and California. Only one case of imported plague has
     been reported in the past several decades.

     Treatment - As is the case with most disease, early intervention is imperative. Treatments include antibiotic
     treatments for those with the plague and as a preventative for people who have come within close contact to the

     Taken from:
Name:                                                                     fa3f0b2c-9a3d-47c0-bc9c-e1af346e7989.docDisease
Teacher:                                                                                        Classwork

AP Human Geography, Period ____

Due Date: 10.6.2011


     Extract from "The Challenge of Famine", John Osgood Field; Kumarian Press Conneticut, 1993


     Famine may be seen as "the regional failure of food production or distribution systems, leading to sharply
     increased mortality due to starvation and associated disease" (Cox 1981, 5). While other definitions exist as
     well, this one usefully emphasizes regional, not family failure; points to the importance of markets and, by
     implication, of shifting market demand for different foods in addition to their aggregate supply; identifies
     "excess deaths" - deaths that otherwise would not have occurred- as the core feature of famine; and attributes
     those deaths to morbidity as well as to seriously reduced consumption. Indeed, most famine-induced mortality
     tends to occur after the worst of the food crisis is over but while the crisis of infectious disease persists
     (Bongaarts and Cain 1982; Greenough 1976 and 1982; see also the studies cited by Dreze and Sen 1989, 44).

     What this definition does not adequately convey is that famine is the endpoint of a lengthy process in which
     people in increasing numbers lose their access to food. Most famines have long gestation periods, typically
     covering two or more crop seasons. Because the descent into famine is slow, early detection is possible.
     Because it is also typically shrouded in ambiguity, early detection is rarely definitive and seldom produces early
     response. Herein lies a dilemma that continues to plague famine early warning systems.

     Moreover, famine entails more than a severe shortage of food and grotesque distortions of normal food prices.
     Famine features a deepening recession in the entire rural economy, one affecting production and exchange,
     employment, and income of farm and nonfarm households alike (Sen 1981; Greenough 1982; Ravallion 1987;
     Desai 1988; Dreze 1990a). Landless laborers, artisans, and traders are among those most vulnerable to famine
     because of shrinking demand for their labor, goods, and services. Pastoralists and fishermen are also vulnerable
     because they rely on the exchange of meat and marine products to obtain the cheaper grain calories they require
     and because, in the dynamic leading to famine, the terms of trade turn sharply against what they sell relative to
     the grain they seek to buy. In the Bengal famine of 1943-44, for example, the price of cloth, fish, milk, haircuts,
     and bamboo umbrellas deteriorated 70-80 percent versus grain (Emailer and Gavian 1987). In Ethiopia, animal
     calories normally cost about twice as much as grain calories, with herdsmen meeting half of their caloric
     requirements through consumption of grain; during the famine of 1972-74, the calorie exchange rate declined as
     much as 84-92 percent against animal products in some areas (Sen 1981, drawing on calculations by Seaman,
     Holt, and Rivers 1978 and Rivers, Holt, Seaman, and Bowden 1976). In Swaziland, cattle lost six to eight times
     their value relative to maize in the little-known famine of 1932, placing herders in acute distress (Packard
     1984). As a rule of thumb, when grain supplies and animal stocks both decline, the exchange rate worsens for
     animals. This double jeopardy underlies Sen's observation that the Ethiopian pastoralist, "hit by drought, was
     decimated by the market mechanism" (Sen 1981, 112; see also Wolde Mariam 1984). By contrast, large
     producers of grain and grain merchants can usually ride out a famine far more successfully than others in the
     afflicted environment.

     Similarly, the definition of famine offered above fails to capture the extent of social disintegration that usually
     accompanies the downward slide into famine conditions. Social reciprocities and supports crumble under
     increasing stress. Hoarding and related pathologies (smuggling, black market profiteering, crime) become
     commonplace. The distress sale of assets (jewelry, animals, land) accelerates. Families divide in search of work
     or succor; wives may even be cast adrift and children sold (Greenough 1982; Vaughan 1987). Out-migration
Name:                                                                    fa3f0b2c-9a3d-47c0-bc9c-e1af346e7989.docDisease
Teacher:                                                                                       Classwork

AP Human Geography, Period ____

Due Date: 10.6.2011
     increases as ever more people abandon their lands, homes, and communities in desperation. Abnormally high
     mortality may be the hallmark of famine, but societal breakdown is its essence.

     Finally, so far as these initial observations are concerned, it is important to note that famine occurs not only
     because a chain of events disposes to a famine outcome but also because nothing, or at least nothing effective, is
     done to break the process. It has been rare for the governments of famine-prone countries to possess the means
     with which to intervene to prevent famine. India over the last century and Botswana more recently are
     exceptions in this regard (McAlpin 1983; Dreze 1990a and 1990b; Holm and Morgan 1985; Hay 1988; Moremi
     1988; Morgan 1988). Elsewhere the record has been quite dismal for the most part, while international
     assistance typically arrives after the worst has already happened. The usual way in which famine-prone areas
     become less famine prone is via economic development. In the long run, that remains the best solution even
     today (see Eicher 1987; Dreze and Sen 1989). However, we now know that intervention is possible and that it
     can work. Preparing for famine so as to prevent it, although not a new idea, is one that we should be thinking
     about and working to realize. The reasons are humanitarian, social, economic, and political. We can both
     protect development and promote it by preparedness planning to "deny famine a future" (Glantz 1987).

     Taken from:
Name:                                                                       fa3f0b2c-9a3d-47c0-bc9c-e1af346e7989.docDisease
Teacher:                                                                                          Classwork

AP Human Geography, Period ____

Due Date: 10.6.2011

     Cholera: Tracking the First Truly Global Disease
     Sharon Guynup
     National Geographic Channel
     June 14, 2004
     A new and terrifying disease struck England in October of 1831 and quickly spread across the kingdom. Over
     the next two years, thousands died from this mysterious illness, so virulent that a person could be in good health
     at dawn and be buried at dusk.

     Citizens lived in terror, sealing their doors and windows at night against the feared "night air." There was no

     Symptoms began with vomiting, diarrhea, and fever, which violently dehydrated the body: Soon the patients'
     skin turned bluish grey, they began to writhe with muscle spasms, their eyes sank in their sockets, and they
     grew cold as their pulse flickered—and vanished.

     The disease was Asiatic cholera, also known as spasmodic cholera of India, its place of origin. A huge epidemic
     in Bengal in 1917 first drew the attention of European physicians.

     Over the next decades, cholera spread widely over trade routes, becoming the world's first truly global disease,
     infecting people from China to the Middle East and from Europe to the United States.

     A second epidemic struck England in 1848 to 1849, killing between 50,000 and 70,000 in England and Wales.
     A third outbreak in 1854 left over 30,000 people dead in London alone.

     Doctors understood little about this horrible illness, but tried, often in vain, to save their patients with anything
     from laudanum (an opium tincture) and brandy to blood letting.

     "The cholera," said the British Annual Register for 1932, "left medical men as it had found them—confirmed in
     the most opposite opinions, or in total ignorance as to its nature, its cure, and the causes of its origin, if
     endemic—or the mode of transmission, if it were infectious."

     Grim Living Conditions

     It was indeed infectious—and grim, urban living conditions fueled its spread. With the rise of the industrial age,
     lack of work in rural English villages prompted large migrations to cities.

     In the first half of the 19th century, London's population soared to 2.5 million people. The city had become one
     of Europe's trading and manufacturing capitals, producing everything from woolen cloth to weapons. Families
     flocked to urban centers along with their livestock, often living eight or nine to a room beside their animals in
     tenement buildings.

     Much of this waste eventually made its way into streams or directly into the Thames. In England rivers were
     viewed as a waste-disposal system, and the Thames became a reeking brown sewer. This scenario was
Name:                                                                   fa3f0b2c-9a3d-47c0-bc9c-e1af346e7989.docDisease
Teacher:                                                                                      Classwork

AP Human Geography, Period ____

Due Date: 10.6.2011
     pervasive across Europe. "Disease, stench, and filth were rampant in cities throughout Europe at the time,"
     Schladweiler said.

     There was a lot of confusion about the disease, as in the early days of HIV, said Ralph Frerichs, professor of
     epidemiology at University of California, Los Angeles. Most physicians believed the disease was contracted by
     breathing noxious vapors, or miasma. "There was a lot of fear, because people can't stop breathing air," Frerichs

     But one doctor, John Snow, published another theory in 1849: Cholera was transmitted by contaminated food or
     water. He argued that it couldn't be airborne because it didn't affect the lungs. But his theory was ignored,
     attacked by many among the medical profession because he couldn't identify the "poison" in the water.

     It wasn't until the 1854 outbreak that Snow was able to prove his argument. He mapped the location of cholera
     deaths—and found high concentrations in certain areas. For example, about 500 people died in ten days near the
     intersection of Cambridge and Broad Streets—they shared a single water supply.

     He went to city officials with his data. "He was very concerned about transmitting this information to the public
     and the Board of Guardians," Frerichs said. The board, a city-council-like body, was in charge of public health,
     welfare, and sanitation. The pump handle from the water source was removed—and cases in the area dropped to
     almost none.

     At that time two companies supplied the city with water from the Thames, one located upstream, the other,
     downstream. Snow discovered that cholera was rampant among patrons whose water originated downstream—
     contaminated by city sewage.

     The Water Act of 1852 required that water companies filter water. In 1866 Charles Greaves, the engineer from
     the East London Company, admitted that water from open reservoirs and the river had been pumped directly to
     the city without purification—though company officials later denied it. That year 4,500 people died in East
     London in the country's fourth cholera epidemic.

     Taken from:
Name:                                                                      fa3f0b2c-9a3d-47c0-bc9c-e1af346e7989.docDisease
Teacher:                                                                                         Classwork

AP Human Geography, Period ____

Due Date: 10.6.2011

 What is rubeola?
 Rubeola, also called 10-day measles, red measles, or measles, is a viral illness that results in a viral exanthem.
 Exanthem is another name for a rash or skin eruption. Rubeola has a distinct rash that helps aid in the diagnosis.
 It is spread from one child to another through direct contact with discharge from the nose and throat.
 Sometimes, it is spread through air-borne droplets from an infected child. This is a very contagious disease that usually
 consists of a rash, fever and cough.

 What causes the measles?
 Measles virus, the cause of measles, is classified as a Morbillivirus. It is mostly seen in the winter and spring. Rubeola is
 preventable by proper immunization with the measles vaccine.

 What are the symptoms of the measles?
 It may take between eight to 12 days for a child to develop symptoms of rubeola after being exposed to the disease. It is
 important to know that a child is contagious one to two days before the onset of signs and symptoms and three to five days
 after the rash develops. Therefore, children may be contagious before they even know they have the disease.

 During the early phase of the disease (which lasts between one to four days), symptoms usually resemble those of an upper
 respiratory infection. The following are the common symptoms of rubeola.

 However, each child may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:

          Hacking cough.
          Redness and irritation of the eyes.
          Fever.
          Small red spots with white centers appear on the inside of the cheek
          Rash - deep, red, flat rash that starts on the face and spreads down to the trunk, arms, and legs.

 The most serious complications from rubeola include the following:

          Ear infections.
          Pneumonia.
          Croup.
          Inflammation of the brain.

 How is rubeola diagnosed?
 Rubeola is usually diagnosed based on a complete medical history and physical examination of your child. The lesions of
 rubeola are unique, and usually allow for a diagnosis simply on physical examination.

 * lesions: an area of the skin that is broken or infected
Name:                                                                     fa3f0b2c-9a3d-47c0-bc9c-e1af346e7989.docDisease
Teacher:                                                                                        Classwork

AP Human Geography, Period ____

Due Date: 10.6.2011
 Treatment for rubeola:
 Specific treatment for rubeola will be determined by your physician based on:

          Your child's age, overall health, and medical history.
          Extent of the disease.
          Your child's tolerance for specific medications, procedures or therapies.
          Expectations for the course of the disease.
          Your opinion or preference.

 The goal of treatment for rubeola is to help prevent the disease, or decrease the severity of the symptoms. Since it is a viral
 infection, there is no cure for rubeola. Treatment may include:
          Increased fluid intake.

           Prevention of rubeola:
           Since the use of the rubeola (or measles) vaccine, the incidence of measles has decreased by 99 percent. About 5
           percent of measles are due to vaccine failure. The measles vaccine is usually given in combination with the mumps
           rubella vaccine. It is called the MMR. It is usually given when the child is 12 to 15 months old and then again betw
           4 to 6 years of age.
          Taken from:
    Name:                                                                   fa3f0b2c-9a3d-47c0-bc9c-e1af346e7989.docDisease
    Teacher:                                                                                      Classwork

    AP Human Geography, Period ____

    Due Date: 10.6.2011

     By Katie Tufts

     Published: Wednesday, February 16, 2011
     Updated: Wednesday, February 16, 2011 02:02

            1
     The number one killer in America is not motor vehicle accidents, stroke or even cancer. It is heart disease. According to the
     Huffington Post, it is the most likely cause of death for Americans: one in six people die of the cardiovascular killer.
     The American Heart Association says that 2,200 Americans die of cardiovascular disease each day.
     According to, "coronary heart disease is caused by atherosclerosis, the narrowing of the coronary arterie
     due to fatty build ups of plaque. It's likely to produce angina pectoris (chest pain), heart attack or both."
     Though heart disease mostly affects older Americans, prevention starts as early as possible, and students can strengthen the
     heart now, which will save them for years to come.
     The initial step that students should take is to find out their family history with heart disease and see how at risk they are.
     Chances are that if heart disease is in your family you are at a higher risk.
     There are many types of heart disease, but the steps to prevention are the same.
     Risk factors for heart disease are high cholesterol, high blood pressure, as well as being overweight and obese.
     According to the National Heart, Lung and Blood institute, there are preventative steps to keeping your heart healthy.
     Students should start by following a healthy diet, maintaining their weight, doing physical activity regularly, quitting smok
     and managing stress.
     Though these steps sound relatively simple, the life of a student can easily become hectic and healthy habits go out the
     window, so it is important to make good habits early on.
     The first main factor to keeping a healthy heart is to load up on foods that are high in anti-oxidents. This usually means
     colorful fruits and vegetables, according to Health Magazine.
     By incorporating foods like pomegranate, blueberries, tomatoes, spinach and fatty fish into students' diets, they can help to
     keep blood vessels clear and healthy.
     Additionally fruits and vegetables that are high in potassium help to keep blood pressure low.
     Foods to eliminate: high fat and processed foods with preservatives and no redeeming health value. Fat is known to clog bl
     vessels and arteries, so cut it out as early as possible.
     Next, one of the most important habits to establish is a good cardio workout routine.
     Many students don't see the effects of not working out until they are much older and have already developed health problem
     Even if students don't like to or don't have hours to spend at the gym, a short 30 minute workout will benefit the heart. Wal
     or running will work to lower cholesterol and keep the heart pumping strong everyday.
     The last step that can be a terrible risk to the heart is smoking. This is a nasty habit that college students should quit
     immediately to save their health.
     Though heart disease may sound like its decades away, prevention is the best way to live a long and health life.
Name:                                                                            fa3f0b2c-9a3d-47c0-bc9c-e1af346e7989.docDisease
Teacher:                                                                                               Classwork

AP Human Geography, Period ____

Due Date: 10.6.2011

     Bird flu facts

              Bird flu refers to strains of influenza that primarily affect wild and domesticated birds.
              Bird flu is also known as avian flu or avian influenza.
              Although bird flu is contagious and spreads easily among birds, it is uncommon for it to be transmitted to humans.
              In the late 1990s, a new strain of bird flu arose which was unusually severe ("highly pathogenic"), resulting in the
               deaths of hundreds of millions of birds, including poultry.
              Control efforts, including culling infected flocks and vaccinating healthy birds, have limited the spread of highly
               pathogenic bird flu.
              In 2011, a mutated strain of highly pathogenic bird flu appeared, which is concerning because the existing poultry
               vaccines are not very effective against the new strain.
              Human infection with the highly pathogenic strain of bird flu is uncommon, with fewer than 600 cases reported
               since 1997.
              Human infection occurs primarily in people who have close contact with sick poultry in countries where the virus is
               found. There have been isolated cases of human-to-human transmission.
              Human infection with bird flu is fatal in approximately 60% of cases.
              Bird flu from the highly pathogenic strain is not found in the United States at this time.

     What is bird flu?

     Bird flu (avian influenza) is a disease caused by an influenza virus that primarily affects birds. In the late 1990s, a new
     strain of bird flu arose that was remarkable for its ability to cause severe disease and death, especially in domesticated
     birds such as ducks, chickens, or turkeys. As a result, this strain was called highly pathogenic (meaning very severe)
     avian influenza.

     Since the identification of highly pathogenic influenza, infected birds have been found in Asia, Europe, the Middle East,
     and Africa. Careful control measures, including destroying infected flocks and vaccinating healthy birds, have reduced the
     number of cases, but the virus continues to exist in poultry flocks in areas of Asia and Africa. Bird flu from the highly
     pathogenic strain is not found in the United States at this time.

     The virus spreads from bird to bird through infected birds shedding the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and
     droppings. Healthy birds get infected when they come into contact with contaminated secretions or feces from infected
     birds. Contact with contaminated surfaces such as cages might also allow the virus to transfer from bird to bird.
     Symptoms in birds range from mild drops in egg production to failure of multiple major organs and death.

     The first human case of illness from highly pathogenic avian influenza was identified in 1997, and more than 560 cases
     have been identified since then, with deaths worldwide exceeding 300. Human cases of highly pathogenic bird flu have
     been largely confined to Southeast Asia and Africa. However, mutations often occur in the virus, and it is possible that
     some mutations could create a more contagious virus that could cause a regional epidemic or a worldwide pandemic of
     bird flu among humans. Fortunately, the mutations that have occurred to date have not made the virus more contagious,
     although the concern remains.

     Taken from:

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